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  • [This talk contains mature language Viewer discretion is advised]

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

  • If we traveled back to the year 800 BC,

    〔本演說內容含有成人用語, 請觀眾自行斟酌〕

  • in Greece, we would see that merchants whose businesses failed

    如果我們回到西元前 800 年,

  • were forced to sit in the marketplace with a basket over their heads.

    在希臘,我們會看到 經商失敗的商人

  • In premodern Italy,

    被迫坐在市場裡, 在頭上放一個籃子。

  • failed business owners, who had outstanding debts,

    在現代化之前的義大利,

  • were taken totally naked to the public square

    欠下大筆債務的失敗業主

  • where they had to bang their butts against a special stone

    會被全裸地帶到公共廣場上,

  • while a crowd jeered at them.

    在廣場上,他們得要 用屁股撞擊一塊特殊的石頭,

  • In the 17th century in France,

    同時旁邊的群眾會嘲笑他們。

  • failed business owners were taken to the center of the market,

    在 17 世紀的法國,

  • where the beginning of their bankruptcy was publicly announced.

    失敗的業主會被帶到市場中央,

  • And in order to avoid immediate imprisonment,

    在那裡會公開宣佈他們的破產。

  • they had to wear a green bonnet

    如果不想要立即被監禁,

  • so that everyone knew they were a failure.

    他們就得戴上綠色的無邊呢帽,

  • Of course, these are extreme examples.

    讓所有人知道他們是失敗者。

  • But it is important to remember

    當然,這些是極端的例子。

  • that when we excessively punish those who fail,

    但,很重要的是要記得,

  • we stifle innovation and business creation,

    當我們過度懲罰失敗的人時,

  • the engines of economic growth in any country.

    我們就扼殺了創新和創業,

  • Time has passed, and today we don't publicly humiliate failed entrepreneurs.

    而在任何國家, 這些都是經濟成長的引擎。

  • And they don't broadcast their failures on social media.

    隨著時間過去,如今我們 不再公開羞辱失敗的創業家。

  • In fact, I think that all of us can relate with the pain of failure.

    他們也不會在社交媒體上 廣播他們的失敗。

  • But we don't share the details of those experiences.

    事實上,我認為我們所有人 都能夠對失敗的痛苦感同身受。

  • And I totally get it, my friends, I have also been there.

    我們都有類似經驗,只是細節不同。

  • I had a business that failed

    我完全能夠理解,我的朋友們, 我也走過這條路。

  • and sharing that story was incredibly hard.

    我也有過失敗的事業,

  • In fact, it required seven years, a good dose of vulnerability

    要分享那個故事是非常困難的事。

  • and the company of my friends.

    事實上,它花了我七年的時間, 歷經脆弱和傷痛,

  • This is my failure story.

    及朋友的陪伴才得以撫慰。

  • When I was in college, studying business, I met a group of indigenous women.

    以下是我的失敗故事。

  • They lived in a poor rural community in the state of Puebla, in central Mexico.

    在大學的時候,我讀商學, 我遇到了一群原住民女子。

  • They made beautiful handmade products.

    她們住在墨西哥中部普埃布拉州 一個貧窮的鄉村社區。

  • And when I met them and I saw their work,

    她們會做很漂亮的手工製品。

  • I decided I wanted to help.

    當我遇到她們且看到她們的作品時,

  • With some friends, I cofounded a social enterprise

    我決定要助她們一臂之力。

  • with the mission to help the women create an income stream

    我和一些朋友共同創辦了 一間社會企業,

  • and improve their quality of life.

    其使命是要協助女性創造收入流,

  • We did everything by the book,

    並改善她們的生活品質。

  • as we had learned in business school.

    我們一切都照章行事,

  • We got investors,

    照我們在商學院學到的來做。

  • we spent a lot of time building the business and training the women.

    我們找到投資者,

  • But soon we realized we were novices.

    我們花了很多時間打造 這個事業並訓練女性。

  • The handmade products were not selling,

    但很快地,我們就發現, 我們只是新手。

  • and the financial plan we had made was totally unrealistic.

    手工製的產品賣不好,

  • In fact, we worked for years without a salary,

    我們所做的財務規劃完全不切實際。

  • hoping that a miracle would happen,

    事實上,我們做了 好多年都沒有領薪水,

  • that magically a great buyer would arrive

    希望奇蹟能發生,

  • and she would make the business profitable.

    會像變魔術一樣, 有位很棒的買家到來,

  • But that miracle never happened.

    且她會讓這個事業獲利。

  • In the end, we had to close the business,

    但那個奇蹟從來沒有發生。

  • and that broke my heart.

    最終,我們得結束這個事業,

  • I started everything to create a positive impact

    那讓我的心都碎了。

  • on the life of the artisans.

    我開始做這一切的目的 是想要創造出正面的影響,

  • And I felt that I have done the opposite.

    改變工匠的生活。

  • I felt so guilty

    而我的感覺卻是我完全反其道而行。

  • that I decided to hide this failure

    我很有罪惡感,

  • from my conversations and my resume for years.

    所以我決定把這次失敗藏起來,

  • I didn't know other failed entrepreneurs,

    多年來不在對談中提到它, 不在履歷中寫到它。

  • and I thought I was the only loser in the world.

    我不認識其他失敗的創業家,

  • One night, seven years later, I was out with some friends

    我以為我是世界上唯一的失敗者。

  • and we were talking about the life of the entrepreneur.

    七年後,有一天晚上, 我和一些朋友一起出去,

  • And of course, the issue of failure came out.

    我們談到了創業家的生活。

  • I decided to confess to my friends the story of my failed business.

    當然,我們談到了 「失敗」這個議題。

  • And they shared similar stories.

    我決定要向我的朋友坦誠 我創業失敗的故事。

  • In that moment, a thought became really clear in my mind:

    而他們也分享了類似的故事。

  • all of my friends were failures.

    在那一刻,我腦中的 一個想法變得十分清楚:

  • (Laughter)

    我所有的朋友都是失敗者。

  • Being more serious, that night I realized

    (笑聲)

  • that A: I wasn't the only loser in the world,

    說真的,那天晚上我了解到,

  • and B: we all have hidden failures.

    第一,我不是世界上唯一的失敗者,

  • Please tell me if that is not true.

    第二,我們都會把失敗藏起來。

  • That night was like an exorcism for me.

    如果不是如此,請告訴我。

  • I realized that sharing your failures makes you stronger, not weaker.

    對我來說,那晚就像是 做了驅魔一樣。

  • And being open to my vulnerability

    我了解到,分享你的失敗 會讓你更強,而非更弱。

  • helped me connect with others in a deeper and more meaningful way

    開放心胸地面對我的脆弱

  • and embrace life lessons I wouldn't have learned previously.

    讓我能夠用一種更深刻、 更有意義的方式和其他人連結,

  • As a consequence of this experience

    並擁抱我以前不可能 學到的人生教訓。

  • of sharing stories of businesses that didn't work,

    結果在分享了這些

  • we decided to create a platform of events

    經歷事業失敗的故事之後,

  • to help others share their failure stories.

    我們決定要創建一個活動平台,

  • And we called it Fuckup Nights.

    來協助其他人分享他們的失敗故事。

  • Years later, we also created a research center

    我們把它叫做「搞砸之夜」。

  • devoted to the story of failure

    幾年後,我們也創辦了 一個研究中心,

  • and its implications on business, people and society

    把心力投注在失敗故事,

  • and as we love cool names, we called it the Failure Institute.

    以及失敗對於事業、人、社會意義上,

  • It has been surprising to see

    因為我們喜歡很酷的名字, 所以我們叫它「失敗會所」。

  • that when an entrepreneur stands on a stage

    很讓人驚訝的是,

  • and shares a story of failure,

    我們看見當創業家站上台

  • she can actually enjoy that experience.

    分享失敗的故事時,

  • It doesn't have to be a moment of shame and embarrassment,

    她其實是很享受那個經驗的。

  • as it used to be in the past.

    在台上的時刻 並不一定要和過去一樣

  • It is an opportunity to share lessons learned

    感到羞恥和不好意思。

  • and build empathy.

    這是一個機會,分享學到的教訓,

  • We have also discovered

    並建立同理心。

  • that when the members of a team share their failures, magic happens.

    我們也發現,

  • Bonds grow stronger and collaboration becomes easier.

    當團隊成員分享自己的失敗經驗時,

  • Through our events and research projects,

    會有神奇的事發生。

  • we have found some interesting facts.

    人與人的連結變得更強, 合作也變容易了。

  • For instance, that men and women react in a different way

    透過我們的活動及研究專案計畫,

  • after the failure of a business.

    我們發現了一些有趣的事。

  • The most common reaction among men

    比如,在事業失敗之後,

  • is to start a new business within one year of failure,

    男性和女性的反應是不同的。

  • but in a different sector,

    男性當中最常見的反應

  • while women decide to look for a job

    是在失敗後的一年內 就再創辦一個新的事業,

  • and postpone the creation of a new business.

    但會換一個行業,

  • Our hypothesis is that this happens

    而女性則會決定去找工作,

  • because women tend to suffer more from the impostor syndrome.

    暫緩創辦新事業的計畫。

  • We feel that we need something else to be a good entrepreneur.

    對於這背後的原因,我們的假設是

  • But I have seen that in many, many cases women have everything that's needed.

    女性比較會受 冒名頂替症候群的影響。

  • We just need to take the step.

    我們覺得自己需要其他東西, 才能夠成為一個好的創業家。

  • And in the case of men,

    但我看過非常非常多案例, 都證明了女性已經有所需的一切。

  • it is more common to see that they feel they have enough knowledge

    我們只需要踏出腳步。

  • and just need to put it in practice in another place with better luck.

    至於男性,

  • Another interesting finding has been

    比較容易看見 他們認為自己有足夠的知識,

  • that there are regional differences on how entrepreneurs cope with failure.

    只需要實際用在另一個 運氣好些的地方即可。

  • For instance, the most common reaction

    還有另一項有趣的發現,

  • after the failure of a business in the American continent

    創業家處理失敗的方式, 有區域性的差異。

  • is to go back to school.

    比如,在美洲大陸上,

  • While in Europe, the most common reaction is to look for a therapist.

    事業失敗之後最常見的反應

  • (Laughter)

    就是回學校求學。

  • We're not sure which is a better reaction after the failure of a business,

    在歐洲,最常見的反應 則是去找治療師。

  • but this is something we will study in the future.

    (笑聲)

  • Another interesting finding has been

    我們不確定在事業失敗之後 產生哪種反應比較好,

  • the profound impact that public policy has on failed entrepreneurs.

    但我們在未來會研究這個議題。

  • For instance, in my country, in Mexico,

    另一項有趣的發現是

  • the regulatory environment is so hard,

    公共政策對於失敗的創業家 有著很深刻的影響。

  • that closing a business can take you a lot of time and a lot of money.

    比如,在我的國家墨西哥,

  • Let's begin with the money.

    監管環境非常嚴格,

  • In the best possible scenario,

    連要結束事業也要 花很多的時間和金錢。

  • meaning you don't have problems with partners,

    咱們先從金錢談起。

  • providers, clients, employees,

    在最好的可能情境中,

  • in the best possible scenario,

    也就是說,你和合作夥伴、供應商、

  • officially closing a business will cost you 2,000 dollars.

    客戶、員工都沒任何糾紛,

  • Which is a lot of money in Mexico.

    在最好的情境中,

  • Someone who earns the minimum wage

    一個事業正式結束營業 要花兩千美元。

  • would have to work for 15 months to save this amount.

    這在墨西哥是很大一筆錢。

  • Now, let's talk about the time.

    收入是最低薪資的人,

  • As you may know, in most of the developing world,

    得要工作十五個月 才能存到這筆錢。

  • the average life expectancy of a business is two years.

    接著,咱們來談談時間。

  • In Mexico, the process of officially closing a business takes two years.

    你們可能知道, 在大部分開發中的國家裡,

  • What happens when the average life expectancy of a business

    企業的平均壽命是兩年。

  • is so similar to the time it will take you to close it if it doesn't work?

    在墨西哥,正式結束 營業的流程就要花兩年。

  • Of course, this discourages business creation

    當企業的平均壽命和經營失敗而倒閉

  • and promotes informal economy.

    所需要的時間這麼接近, 會發生什麼事?

  • In fact, econometric research has proved

    當然,會讓人不敢創業,

  • that if the process of declaring bankruptcy takes less time and less money,

    且促進非正式(地下)經濟。

  • more new firms will enter the market.

    事實上,計量經濟研究已經證明,

  • For this reason, in 2017,

    如果宣告破產所要花的 時間和金錢都能減少,

  • we proposed a series of public policy recommendations

    就會有更多新公司進入市場。

  • for the procedure of officially closing businesses in Mexico.

    基於這個理由,在 2017 年,

  • For a whole year,

    我們提出了一系列公共政策建議,

  • we worked with entrepreneurs from all over the country

    處理墨西哥企業正式結束營運的流程。

  • and with Congress.

    一整年,

  • And the good news is that we managed to help change the law.

    我們接觸到來自全國各地的創業家,

  • Yay!

    以及國會。

  • (Applause)

    好消息是,我們成功協助改變法律。

  • The idea is that when the new regulation comes into force,

    好啊!

  • entrepreneurs will be able to close their businesses in an online procedure

    (掌聲)

  • that is faster and inexpensive.

    我們的想法是,當新規制上路之後,

  • (Sighs)

    創業家能夠透過線上程序 來結束其企業的營運,

  • On the night we invented Fuckup Nights,

    速度更快,成本更低。

  • we never imagined that the movement would grow this big.

    (嘆氣)

  • We are in 80 countries now.

    在我們發明「搞砸之夜」的那晚,

  • In that moment, our only intention

    我們從來沒有想到這項運動 能夠成長到這麼壯大。

  • was to put the topic of failure on the table.

    現在我們進駐了八十個國家。

  • To help our friends see that failure is something we must talk about.

    在那時,我們唯一的意圖,

  • It is not a cause of humiliation, as it used to be in the past,

    就是要把「失敗」 這個主題拿出來談。

  • or a cause of celebration, as some people say.

    要協助我們的朋友了解 我們必須要去談論失敗。

  • In fact, I want to confess something.

    不像過去, 現在失敗不是羞辱的成因,

  • Every time I listen to Silicon Valley types or students

    也不像一些人所說的, 是慶祝的成因。

  • bragging about failing fast and often like it's no big deal, I cringe.

    事實上,我想要坦言一件事。

  • Because I think that there is a dark side on the mantra "fail fast."

    每當我聽到矽谷型的人或是學生

  • Of course, failing fast is a great way to accelerate learning

    把快速地失敗拿來自誇,說得好像 那沒什麼大不了的,我就會畏縮。

  • and avoid wasting time.

    因為我認為「快速地失敗」 這句真言有著它黑暗的一面。

  • But I fear that when we present rapid failure

    當然,快速地失敗是 加速學習的一個好方法,

  • to entrepreneurs as their one and only option,

    可以避免浪費時間。

  • we might be promoting laziness.

    但我擔心當我們讓創業家看到

  • We might be promoting that entrepreneurs give up too easily.

    快速地失敗是他們的唯一選擇,

  • I also fear that the culture of rapid failure

    我們可能是在促進「怠惰」。

  • could be minimizing the devastating consequences

    我們可能會促使創業家太輕言放棄。

  • of the failure of a business.

    我也害怕快速地失敗的文化

  • For instance, when my social enterprise died,

    可能會讓事業失敗的 慘烈後果被最小化。

  • the worst part was that I had to go back to the indigenous community

    比如,當我的社會企業陣亡時,

  • and tell the women that the business had failed

    最糟糕的部分是我得要 回到原住民社區,

  • and it was my fault.

    告訴那些女子,事業失敗了,

  • For some people this could be seen like a great learning opportunity for me,

    而且是我的錯。

  • but the truth is that the closure of this business

    有些人可能會覺得這像是 一個能讓我學習的機會,

  • represented much more than that.

    但事實是,這個事業的倒閉

  • It meant that the women would stop receiving an income

    代表的意義並不只有那些。

  • that they really needed.

    它意味著那些女子不會再得到收入,

  • For this reason, I want to propose something.

    而她們很需要收入。

  • I want to propose that just as we put aside the idea

    出於這個原因,我有個提議。

  • of publicly humiliating failed entrepreneurs,

    我想要提議,就如同我們丟棄了

  • we must put aside the idea that failing fast is always the best.

    公開羞辱失敗創業家的想法一樣,

  • And I want to propose a new mantra:

    我們也必須要丟棄 「最好能快速地失敗」的想法。

  • fail mindfully.

    我還想要提出新的真言:

  • We must remember that businesses are made of people,

    小心地失敗。

  • businesses are not entities that appear and disappear

    我們必須要記住, 事業也是由人所形成的,

  • magically without consequences.

    事業並不是神奇地出現又消失,

  • When a firm dies, some people will lose their jobs.

    且不會造成任何後果的實體。

  • And others will lose their money.

    當一家公司陣亡, 有些人會失去工作。

  • And in the case of social and green enterprises,

    還有些人會失去金錢。

  • the death of this business can have a negative impact

    如果是社會及綠色企業的情況,

  • on the ecosystems or communities they were trying to serve.

    事業陣亡可能會造成負面的衝擊,

  • But what does it mean to fail mindfully?

    影響到它們試圖服務的 生態系統或社區。

  • It means being aware of the impact, of the consequences

    但,小心地失敗是什麼意思?

  • of the failure of that business.

    它的意思是,要知道 那事業如果失敗了,

  • Being aware of the lessons learned.

    會有什麼影響,有什麼後果。

  • And being aware of the responsibility

    要知道學到了什麼教訓。

  • to share those learnings with the world.

    也要知道我們有責任

  • Thank you.

    要把學到的教訓和世界分享。

  • (Applause)

    謝謝。

[This talk contains mature language Viewer discretion is advised]

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 失敗 事業 創業家 企業 墨西哥

【TED】莉蒂西雅加斯卡: 別快速地失敗——要小心地失敗 (Don't fail fast -- fail mindfully | Leticia Gasca)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2018 年 09 月 13 日
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