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  • In the mid-16th century,

    譯者: Cheryl Ma 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • Italians were captivated by a type of male singer

    在 16 世紀中葉

  • whose incredible range contained notes

    意大利人被一種男歌手迷住了

  • previously thought impossible for adult men.

    那種男歌手的音域廣闊,包含的音高

  • However, this gift came at a high price.

    先前是一般成年男性不可能達到的

  • To prevent their voices from breaking,

    但是,這天賦有一個很高的代價

  • these singers had been castrated before puberty,

    要防止他們變聲

  • halting the hormonal processes that would deepen their voices.

    這些歌手在青春期前被閹割

  • Known as castrati, their light, angelic voices were renowned throughout Europe,

    來停止荷爾蒙的變化, 以免他們的聲線變低沉

  • until the cruel procedure that created them was outlawed in the 1800s.

    被稱為「閹伶」,他們輕輕的、 天使般的聲音在整個歐洲很有名

  • Though stunting vocal growth can produce an extraordinary musical range,

    直到這個殘酷的程序, 在 19 世紀被禁止

  • naturally developing voices are already capable of incredible variety.

    雖然阻止聲帶的成長, 可以產生一個非凡廣闊的音域

  • And as we age, our bodies undergo two major changes which explore that range.

    但自然發展的聲音, 已經具有極多的可能性

  • So how exactly does our voice box work, and what causes these shifts in speech?

    隨年紀增長,我們的身體經歷 兩個重大變化,來發展自然的音域

  • The specific sound of a speaking voice is the result of many anatomical variables,

    那究竟我們的喉部是怎樣運作? 是甚麼令聲線變化?

  • but it's mostly determined by the age and health of our vocal cords

    說話的聲音, 是許多解剖學上可以解釋到的結果

  • and the size of our larynxes.

    但主要取決於年齡和聲帶的健康

  • The larynx is a complex system of muscle and cartilage

    和喉部的大小

  • that supports and moves the vocal cords,

    喉部是個複雜的肌肉和軟骨系統

  • or, as they're more accurately known, the vocal folds.

    支撐和移動聲帶

  • Strung between the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages,

    或者更準確的稱呼是「聲帶褶皺」

  • these two muscles form an elastic curtain that opens and shuts across the trachea,

    在甲狀腺和杓狀軟骨之間拉扯

  • the tube that carries air through the throat.

    這兩塊肌肉形成一個彈性窗簾 來打開和關閉氣管

  • The folds are apart when we're breathing,

    那個把空氣帶到整個喉嚨的管道

  • but when we speak, they slam shut.

    當我們呼吸時,聲帶是分開的

  • Our lungs push air against the closed folds,

    但當我們說話時,它們就閉上

  • blowing them open and vibrating the tissue to produce sound.

    我們的肺部向關閉的聲帶推動空氣

  • Unlike the deliberate focus required for playing an external instrument,

    將它們吹開,並振動肌肉組織, 產生聲音

  • we effortlessly change notes as we speak.

    與演奏樂器時需要刻意專注不同

  • By pushing air faster or slower,

    藉由空氣推進的快慢

  • we change the frequency and amplitude of these vibrations,

    我們改變振動的頻率和幅度

  • which respectively translate to the pitch and volume of our voices.

    就形成了我們聲音的音高和聲量

  • Rapid and small vibrations create high-pitched, quiet tones,

    快速和小的振動, 創造高音、安靜的音調

  • while slow, large vibrations produce deep, bellowing rumbles.

    快速和小的振動, 創造高音、安靜的音調

  • Finally, by moving the laryngeal muscles between the cartilages,

    而緩慢、大的振動 產生深沉、咆哮般的隆隆響聲

  • we can stretch and contract those folds

    最後,在軟骨之間移動喉部肌肉

  • to intuitively play our internal instruments.

    我們可以伸展和收縮聲帶

  • This process is the same from your first words to your last,

    來自然地演奏我們與生俱來的樂器

  • but as you age, your larynx ages too.

    我們這說話的過程始終如一

  • During puberty, the first major shift starts,

    但隨著年齡增長,喉部也會老化

  • as your voice begins to deepen.

    青春期時開始第一次重大的轉變

  • This happens when your larynx grows in size,

    你的聲音開始加沉

  • elongating the vocal folds and opening up more room for them to vibrate.

    長大的喉部會延長聲帶

  • These longer folds have slower, larger vibrations,

    開闢更大的振動空間

  • which result in a lower baseline pitch.

    這些較長的聲帶, 振動得較慢,幅度較大

  • This growth is especially dramatic in many males,

    導致較低的底音

  • whose high testosterone levels lead first to voice cracks,

    這種聲帶的增長, 在許多男性中特別明顯

  • and then to deeper, more booming voices,

    其高水平的睾丸激素先導致破聲

  • and laryngeal protrusions called Adam's apples.

    然後是更沉、更響的聲音

  • Another vocal development during puberty

    和喉部突起,叫喉核

  • occurs when the homogenous tissue covering the folds

    另一個在青春期時的聲音發展

  • specializes into three distinct functional layers:

    發生於當覆蓋聲帶的組織

  • a central muscle,

    分成三層,各自負責不同的功能:

  • a layer of stiff collagen wrapped in stretchy elastin fibers,

    中央肌肉

  • and an outer layer of mucus membrane.

    一層堅硬的膠原蛋白, 包裹在富彈性的蛋白纖維中

  • These layers add nuance and depth to the voice,

    和粘膜外層

  • giving it a distinct timbre that sets it apart from its pre-pubescent tones.

    這些分層增加了聲音的層次和深度

  • After puberty, most people's voices remain more or less the same

    賦予它獨特的音色, 有別於青春期前的音調

  • for about 50 years.

    青春期後,大多數人的聲音

  • But we all use our voices differently,

    大約五十年會維持不變

  • and eventually we experience the symptoms associated with aging larynxes,

    但我們都以不同的方式 使用自己的聲音

  • known as presbyphonia.

    最後,我們會體驗到 與喉部老化相關的症狀

  • First, the collagen in our folds stiffens

    稱為 presbyphonia

  • and the surrounding elastin fibers atrophy and decay.

    我們聲帶中的膠原蛋白先硬化

  • This decreased flexibility increases the pitch of older voices.

    周圍富彈性的蛋白纖維萎縮和衰弱

  • But for people who have experienced the hormonal effects of menopause,

    降低靈活性會提高老人的聲線

  • the higher pitch is countered and outweighed by swollen vocal folds.

    但對於經歷過更年期 荷爾蒙變化的人來說

  • The folds' increased mass slows their vibrations, resulting in deeper voices.

    較高的音調,被腫脹的聲帶抵消

  • All these symptoms are further complicated

    聲帶體積的增加減慢振動的速度

  • by having fewer healthy laryngeal nerve endings,

    導致更深沉的聲音

  • which reduces precise muscle control and causes breathy or rough voices.

    所有這些症狀,都會進一步更複雜化

  • Ultimately, these anatomical changes are just a few of the factors

    因喉部健康的神經末梢減少

  • that can affect your voice.

    這減弱了肌肉的控制能力, 並導致氣喘似的,或粗啞的聲音

  • But when kept in good condition,

    最終,這些解剖學上解釋到的變化

  • your voice box is a finely tuned instrument,

    只是影響聲音的其中一些因素

  • capable of operatic arias,

    但若能夠保持良好狀態

  • moody monologues,

    你的喉部是一個精密調節過的樂器

  • and stirring speeches.

    能夠成就歌劇裡的詠嘆調

In the mid-16th century,

譯者: Cheryl Ma 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 聲音 青春期 肌肉 軟骨 增長

【TED-Ed】為什麼聲音會隨著年紀增長而改變? (Why does your voice change as you get older? - Shaylin A. Schundler)

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    Zenn 發佈於 2018 年 08 月 31 日
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