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  • Come with me to Agbogbloshie,

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • a neighborhood in the heart of Accra,

    跟我一起來阿博布羅西,

  • named after a god that lives in the Odaw River.

    它是位在阿克拉中心地帶的街坊,

  • There's a slum, Old Fadama,

    它的名字是住在 奧道河裡的神的名字。

  • built on land reclaimed from the Korle Lagoon,

    有個貧民窟叫做老法達瑪,

  • just before it opens into the Gulf of Guinea.

    建在從科勒潟湖開墾出來的土地上,

  • There's a scrapyard here where people take apart all kinds of things,

    就在快要到幾內亞灣的地方。

  • from mobile phones to computers,

    這裡有個廢料場, 大家在此地拆解各種東西,

  • automobiles to even entire airplanes.

    從手機到電腦,

  • Agbogbloshie's scrapyard is famous

    汽車到甚至整架飛機。

  • because it has become a symbol of the downside of technology:

    阿博布羅西的廢料場很有名,

  • the problem of planned obsolescence.

    因為它已變成了科技的負面象徵:

  • It's seen as a place where devices from around the world end their life,

    過時的報廢規劃。

  • where your data comes to die.

    它被視為是世界各地 廢棄裝置的墳場,

  • These are the images that the media loves to show,

    你的資料來這裡壽終正寢。

  • of young men and boys burning wires and cables

    媒體很愛刊出這些影像,

  • to recover copper and aluminum,

    年輕人和男孩在燒電線和纜線,

  • using Styrofoam and old tires as fuel,

    以回收銅和鋁,

  • seriously hurting themselves and the environment.

    用泡沫塑膠和老輪胎來當燃料,

  • It's a super-toxic process,

    嚴重傷害他們自己的健康 也傷害了環境。

  • producing pollutants that enter the global ecosystem,

    這是個非常毒的過程,

  • build up in fatty tissue

    產生出來的污染物會進到 全球的生態系統,

  • and threaten the top of the food chain.

    累積在脂肪組織中,

  • But this story is incomplete.

    威脅到最上層的食物鏈。

  • There's a lot we can learn from Agbogbloshie,

    但這故事並不完整。

  • where scrap collected from city- and nationwide is brought.

    我們能從阿博布羅西學很多,

  • For so many of us,

    全市及全國各地所收集來的 廢料被帶到這裡來。

  • our devices are black boxes.

    對我們許多人來說,

  • We know what they do,

    我們的裝置就是黑盒子。

  • but not how they work or what's inside.

    我們知道它們能做什麼,

  • In Agbogbloshie, people make it their business

    但不知道它們怎麼運作, 或裡面有什麼。

  • to know exactly what's inside.

    在阿博布羅西,大家把探究出裡面

  • Scrap dealers recover copper, aluminum, steel, glass, plastic

    有什麼變成是他們的事業。

  • and printed circuit boards.

    廢料商人回收銅、 鋁、鋼、玻璃、塑膠,

  • It's called "urban mining."

    以及印刷電路板。

  • It's now more efficient for us to mine materials from our waste.

    這稱為「都市挖礦」。

  • There is 10 times more gold, silver, platinum, palladium

    現今我們從廢棄物當中 挖出材料比較有效率。

  • in one ton of our electronics

    一公噸電子產品中的 金、銀、鉑、鈀含量

  • than in one ton of ore mined from beneath the surface of the earth.

    比一公噸地下挖出的 礦物中的金屬含量

  • In Agbogbloshie,

    要高十倍。

  • weight is a form of currency.

    在阿博布羅西,

  • Devices are dissected to recover materials, parts and components

    重量就是一種貨幣的形式。

  • with incredible attention to detail,

    裝置被拆解,以回收材料、 零件,和元件,

  • down to the aluminum tips of electric plugs.

    非常注意細節,

  • But scrap dealers don't destroy components that are still functional.

    細到連電插頭的 鋁製尖端都不放過。

  • They supply them to repair workshops like this one in Agbogbloshie

    但廢料商人不會毀壞 還能夠用的元件。

  • and the tens of thousands of technicians across the country

    他們會把它們供應給維修工廠, 就像在阿博布羅西的這一間,

  • that refurbish electrical and electronic equipment,

    以及全國各地數萬名技工,

  • and sell them as used products to consumers that may not be able to buy

    他們會將電機 及電子設備重新整修,

  • a new television or a new computer.

    當作二手商品販售給 可能買不起新電視

  • Make no mistake about it, there are young hackers in Agbogbloshie --

    或新電腦的消費者。

  • and I mean that in the very best sense of that word --

    別懷疑,在阿博布羅西 有年輕的駭客——

  • that know not only how to take apart computers

    且我所指的是那字面上 最好意義的駭客——

  • but how to put them back together, how to give them new life.

    他們不僅知道要如何拆解電腦,

  • Agbogbloshie reminds us that making is a cycle.

    也知道如何再組裝回來, 如何給予它們新生命。

  • It extends to remaking and unmaking

    阿博布羅西提醒我們, 「製作」是一個循環。

  • in order to recover the materials that enable us to make something anew.

    它延伸至重製以及恢復原狀,

  • We can learn from Agbogbloshie,

    目的是回收材料,再製出新的東西。

  • where cobblers remake work boots,

    我們能向阿博布羅西學習,

  • where women collect plastic from all over the city,

    在那裡,鞋匠會重製工作靴,

  • sort it by type,

    在那裡,女性會從 城市各處收集塑膠,

  • shred it, wash it

    根據類別來分類,

  • and ultimately sell it back as feedstock to factories

    將之切碎、清洗,

  • to make new clothing,

    最終再當作原料,售回工廠,

  • new plastic buckets

    來製造新衣服、

  • and chairs.

    新塑膠筒,

  • Steel is stockpiled separately,

    和椅子。

  • where the carcasses of cars and microwaves and washing machines

    鋼會被分開存放,

  • become iron rods for new construction;

    在那裡,汽車、微波爐, 以及洗衣機的殘骸

  • where roofing sheets become cookstoves;

    會變成鐵棒,供新的建設用;

  • where shafts from cars become chisels

    屋頂板會變成烹調用爐;

  • that are used to scrap more objects;

    汽車的軸會變成鑿子,

  • where aluminum recovered from the radiators of fridges

    用來拆解更多的物件;

  • and air conditioners

    從冰箱及冷氣的冷卻器

  • are melted down

    所取回的鋁

  • and use sand casting to make ornaments for the building industry,

    會被熔解,

  • for pots which are sold just down the street in the Agbogbloshie market

    用沙模鑄造的方式, 來為建造產業製作裝飾品,

  • with a full array of locally made ovens, stoves and smokers,

    在這條街尾的阿博布羅西 市場中販售的罐子,

  • which are used every day

    還搭配了一大堆當地製作的 烤箱、爐灶,及煙燻爐,

  • to make the majority of palm nut soups,

    這些東西每天都用得到,

  • of tea and sugar breads,

    用來製作城市中大部分的棕櫚仁湯、

  • of grilled tilapia in the city.

    茶及糖麵包、

  • They're made in roadside workshops like this one by welders like Mohammed,

    炙烤非洲鯽魚。

  • who recover materials from the waste stream

    它們都是在路邊的工作坊製作的, 就像這間,由焊工穆罕默德經營,

  • and use them to make all kinds of things,

    他會從廢物流中取回材料,

  • like dumbbells for working out out of old car parts.

    用它們來做出各種東西,

  • But here's what's really cool:

    比如用老舊汽車零件 來做健身用的啞鈴。

  • the welding machines they use look like this,

    但真正很酷的一點是:

  • and they're made by specially coiling copper

    他們所用的焊接機器 看起來是這樣的,

  • around electrical steel recovered from old transformer scrap.

    製作方式是將特製的銅盤繞在

  • There's an entire industry just next to Agbogbloshie

    從變壓器殘骸取出的電磁鋼片上。

  • making locally fabricated welding machines that power local fabrication.

    在阿博布羅西旁邊,有一整個工業,

  • What's really cool as well is that there's a transfer of skills and knowledge

    製造焊接熔接機器 給當地人做焊接用。

  • across generations,

    還有很酷的一點是

  • from masters to apprentices,

    能夠跨世代轉移技巧和知識,

  • but it's done through active learning, through heuristic learning,

    從師父傳給學徒,

  • learning by doing and by making.

    但轉移的方式,是透過主動學習, 透過從錯誤中學習,

  • And this stands in sharp contrast

    從實做中學習。

  • to the experience of many students in school,

    這方式和學校許多學生的經驗,

  • where lecturers lecture,

    成為很強烈的對比,

  • and students write things down and memorize them.

    在學校,會有老師授課,

  • It's boring, but the real problem is

    學生會把老師教的 寫下來、記下來。

  • this somehow preempts their latent or their inherent entrepreneurial power.

    很無聊,但真正的問題是,

  • They know books but not how to make stuff.

    學生潛在或天生的企業家本領 可能就沒得施展。

  • Four years ago, my cofounder Yasmine Abbas and I asked:

    他們會唸書,但不知道怎麼做東西。

  • What would happen if we could couple

    四年前,我的共同創辦人 雅斯明阿巴斯和我問了這個問題:

  • the practical know-how of makers in the informal sector

    我們是不是能夠將

  • with the technical knowledge of students and young professionals

    非正式部門中自造者的 實際技巧與本事

  • in STEAM fields --

    和學生與年輕教授的 STEAM 技術知識

  • science, technology, engineering, arts and mathematics --

    結合在一起——

  • to build a STEAM-powered innovation engine

    STEAM 即科學、科技、 工程、藝術、數學——

  • to drive what we call "Sankofa Innovation," which I'll explain.

    建立以 STEAM 推動的創新引擎,

  • We took forays into the scrapyard

    來帶動我們所謂的 「Sankofa 創新」,我會再解釋。

  • to look for what could be repurposed,

    我們突襲廢料場,

  • like DVD writers that could become laser etchers,

    尋找可能有其他用途的東西,

  • or the power supplies of old servers

    比如 DVD 燒錄器, 可以變成雷射蝕刻機,

  • for a start-up in Kumasi making 3D printers out of e-waste.

    或是老舊伺服器的供電器

  • The key was to bring together young people from different backgrounds

    可以給庫馬西的新興公司 用來與電子廢物製成 3D 印表機。

  • that ordinarily never have anything to do with each other,

    關鍵在於,要將不同背景的 年輕人結合在一起,

  • to have a conversation about how they could collaborate

    因為平常一般情況下 他們是完全沒交集的,

  • and to test and develop new machines and tools

    要讓他們能聚在一起, 談談他們能如何合作,

  • that could allow them to shred and strip copper instead of burning it,

    來測試和開發新的機器與工具,

  • to mold plastic bricks and tiles,

    用來切、剝銅,以取代燒銅,

  • to build new computers out of components recovered from dead electronics,

    來鑄造塑膠磚塊和瓦片,

  • to build a drone.

    用從壞掉的電子產品 所取得的元件來建造新的電腦,

  • And here you can see it flying for the first time in Agbogbloshie.

    建造無人機。

  • (Applause)

    各位可以看見,這是它在 阿博布羅西的第一次飛行。

  • Yasmine and I have collaborated with over 1,500 young people,

    (掌聲)

  • 750 from STEAM fields,

    雅斯明和我已經與 超過 1500 位年輕人合作,

  • and over 750 grassroots makers and scrap dealers

    有 750 位是來自 STEAM 領域的,

  • from Agbogbloshie and beyond.

    還有超過 750 位 草根自造者和廢料商人,

  • They've joined hands together to develop a platform

    來自阿博布羅西及以外的地區。

  • which they call Spacecraft,

    他們聯手開發了一個平台,

  • a hybrid physical and digital space for crafting,

    被他們稱為「太空船」,

  • more of a process than a product,

    它是個混合的物理 及數位空間,供製作使用,

  • an open architecture for making,

    比較像是個過程而非產品,

  • which involves three parts:

    供製作用的開放結構,

  • a makerspace kiosk, which is prefab and modular;

    它包含三部分:

  • tool kits which can be customized based on what makers want to make;

    組合式、模組式的自造者互動機台亭;

  • and a trading app.

    根據使用者的需求而客製的工具包;

  • We built the app specifically with the needs of the scrap dealers

    以及交易應用程式。

  • in mind first,

    首先我們專門針對廢料商人的需求

  • because we realized that it was not enough to arm them with information

    構建了應用程式,

  • and upgraded technology

    因為我們知道

  • if we wanted them to green their recycling processes;

    光是提供資訊和改良的技術 給他們是不夠的,

  • they needed incentives.

    如果我們想要他們 將回收過程環保化的話,

  • Scrap dealers are always looking for new scrap and new buyers

    他們會需要獎勵。

  • and what interests them is finding buyers who will pay more

    廢料商人總是在找 新的廢料以及新的買主,

  • for clean copper than for burnt.

    他們感興趣的是找到那些

  • We realized that in the entire ecosystem,

    願意比買焚燒的銅 花更多錢來買乾淨的銅的買家。

  • everyone was searching for something.

    我們發現,在整個生態系統中,

  • Makers are searching for materials, parts, components, tools, blueprints

    每個人都在尋找某樣東西。

  • to make what it is they want to make.

    自造者在尋找材料、 零件、元件、工具、藍圖,

  • They're also finding a way to let customers and clientele

    來製造他們想要製造的東西。

  • find out that they can repair a blender

    他們也在找方法來讓客戶及委託人

  • or fix an iron

    知道他們可以修復攪拌機,

  • or, as we learned yesterday, to make a french fry machine.

    或修好熨斗,

  • On the flip side, you find that there are end users

    或,我們昨天才知道的, 他們也能製造出薯條機。

  • that are desperately looking for someone that can make them a french fry machine,

    另一方面,有終端使用者

  • and you have scrap dealers who are looking how they can collect this scrap,

    非常迫切地想要找人 幫他們製造薯條機,

  • process it, and turn it back into an input for new making.

    還有廢料商人,他們在想的 是要如何收集這類廢料、

  • We tried to untangle that knot of not knowing

    處理,轉成再製新東西的材料。

  • to allow people to find what they need to make what they want to make.

    我們試著解開那個「不知道」的結,

  • We prototyped the makerspace kiosk in Agbogbloshie,

    讓大家找到他們需要的東西, 來製造他們想要製造的東西。

  • conceived as the opposite of a school:

    我們在阿博布羅西做出了 自造者互動機台亭的原型,

  • a portal into experiential and experimental making

    設計的想法和學校相反:

  • that connects local and global

    它是個通往體驗式 與實驗式製造的入口,

  • and connects making with remaking and unmaking.

    將地方與全球連結,

  • We made a rule that everything had to be made from scratch

    結合製造與重新製造和恢復原狀。

  • using only materials made in Ghana

    我們訂了一條規則, 一切都得要從零開始,

  • or sourced from the scrapyard.

    只能用迦納所產的材料,

  • The structures essentially are simple trusses which bolt together.

    或是來自廢料場的材料。

  • It takes about two hours to assemble one module with semi-skilled labor,

    基本上,這個結構是把 簡單的構架拴在一起。

  • and by developing tooling and jigs and rigs,

    半熟練的勞工,組裝一個模組 大約要兩小時的時間,

  • we were able to actually build these standardized parts

    且藉由工具製造、 鑽模、器械的開發,

  • within this ecosystem of artisanal welders

    我們得以真正在這個 工匠焊工的生態系統中

  • with the precision of one millimeter --

    建造出這些標準化的零件,

  • of course, using made-in-Agbogbloshie welding machines,

    精準度達到一毫米——

  • as well as for the tools,

    當然,用的是阿博布羅西 製造的焊接機器,

  • which can lock, the toolboxes, and stack to make workbenches,

    還有工具,

  • and again, customized based on what you want to make.

    工具箱能上鎖,還能夠 疊起來變成工作台,

  • We've tested the app in Agbogbloshie

    同樣的,也能根據 你想要做什麼來客製化。

  • and are getting ready to open it up to other maker ecosystems.

    我們在阿博布羅西 測試了這個應用程式,

  • In six months, we'll have finished three years of testing

    已經準備好要開放給 其他的自造者生態系統。

  • the makerspace kiosk,

    六個月後,我們 為期三年的自造者互動機台亭

  • which I have to admit, we've subjected to some pretty horrific abuse.

    就會完成測試,

  • But it's for a good cause,

    我得承認,在測試中我們 遇到了一些很可怕的濫用狀況。

  • because based on the results of that testing,

    但這是個很好的事業,

  • we've been able to redesign an upgraded version of this makerspace.

    因為依據測試的結果,

  • If a fab lab is large, expensive, and fixed in place,

    我們重新設計和升級了 這個自造者空間,推出新版本。

  • think of this as the counterpoint:

    如果製造實驗室很大、 很昂貴,又固定不動,

  • something low-cost,

    那可以把這個發明想成對比:

  • which can be locally manufactured,

    它的成本很低,

  • which can be expanded and kitted out incrementally

    可以在當地製造,

  • as makers acquire resources.

    若自造者需要資源,它還可以擴大,

  • You can think of it as a toolshed,

    漸漸增加變得更齊全。

  • where makers can come and check out tools

    你可以把它想成是工具棚,

  • and take them via handcart

    自造者能來這裡看看有什麼工具,

  • to wherever they want in the city to make what it is they want to make.

    再用手推車把工具拿走,

  • And moving into the next phase, we're planning to also add

    拿到城市中任何地方, 去做任何他們想要做的東西。

  • ceiling-mounted CNC bots,

    我們要進入下一個階段了, 我們在計畫要加上

  • which allow makers to cocreate together with robots.

    安裝在屋頂上的 電腦數字控制機器人,

  • Ultimately, this is a kit of parts

    就能讓自造者和機器人 合作共同進行創造。

  • which can be assembled locally within the informal sector

    最終,它是個零件的套裝組,

  • using standardized parts

    可以在當地的 非正式部門內完成組裝,

  • which can be upgraded collectively through an open-source process.

    用的是標準化的零件,

  • In totality, this entire makerspace system

    這些零件可以透過開放原始碼的 處理程序來一起升級。

  • tries to do five things:

    總的來說,這整個自造者空間系統

  • to enable emerging makers to gather the resources they need

    想要做到五件事:

  • and the tools to make what they want to make;

    讓新興的自造者能夠 聚集他們需要的資源以及工具,

  • to learn by doing and from others;

    來製造他們想要製造的東西;

  • to produce more and better products;

    透過實做學習和向他人學習;

  • to be able to trade to generate steady income;

    生產出更多、更好的產品;

  • and ultimately, to amplify not only their reputation as a maker,

    能夠買賣,產生出穩定的收入;

  • but their maker potential.

    最終,要來宣揚自造者的名聲

  • Sankofa is one of the most powerful Adinkra symbols of the Akan peoples

    以及自造者的潛能。

  • in Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire,

    迦納和象牙海岸的阿坎族 所用的阿丁克拉符號中

  • and it can be represented as a bird reaching onto its back to collect an egg,

    其中最強大的一個符號 是 Sankofa,

  • a symbol of power.

    表示圖案是一隻鳥將頭 靠近牠的背以取得一顆蛋,

  • It translates literally from the Twi as "return and get it,"

    這是力量的符號。

  • and what this means is that if an individual or a community or a society

    字面上直譯為「返回去取得它」,

  • wants to have a successful future, they have to draw on the past.

    意思是,如果個人、社區,或社會

  • To acquire and master existing ways of doing,

    想要有成功的未來, 就得要利用過去。

  • access the knowledge of their ancestors.

    要習得並精通現有的做法,

  • And this is very relevant

    取得他們祖先的知識。

  • if we want to think about an inclusive future for Africa today.

    如果我們想要為現在的非洲

  • We have to start from the ground up,

    設想出一個包容的未來, 這點是非常重要的。

  • mining what already works for methods and for models,

    我們得要從頭開始,

  • and to think about how might we be able to connect,

    開採已知可用的方法和模型,

  • in a kind of "both-and," not "either-or" paradigm,

    並思考我們要如何才能

  • the innovation capacity of this growing network

    用「—和—」的範式, 而非「—或—」,

  • of tech hubs and incubators across the continent

    來連結這個不斷成長的創新能力網,

  • and to rethink beyond national boundaries and political boundaries,

    因為這網路連結了整片非洲大陸的 科技中心與育成中心。

  • to think about how we can network innovation in Africa

    還要重新思考,將思考延伸至 國家界線與政治界線之外,

  • with the spirit of Sankofa

    來思考我們要如何 在非洲將創新連結成網路,

  • and the existing capacity of makers at the grassroots.

    用 Sankofa 的精神,

  • If, in the future, someone tells you

    以及草根層級自造者的既有能力。