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  • The best way to explore a new world is to land on it.


  • That's why humans have sent spacecrafts to the Moon, Venus, Mars, Saturn's moon Titan, and more.


  • But there are a few places in the solar system we will never understand as well as we'd like.


  • One of them is Jupiter.


  • Jupiter is made of mostly hydrogen and helium gas, so trying to land on it would be like trying to land on a cloud here on Earth.


  • There's no outer crust to break your fall on Jupiter, just an endless stretch of atmosphere.


  • The big question then is: Could you fall through one end of Jupiter and out the other?


  • Turns out, you wouldn't even make it halfway.


  • First things first, Jupiter's atmosphere has no oxygen, so make sure you bring plenty with you to breathe.


  • The next problem is the scorching temperatures, so pack an air conditioner.


  • Now, you're ready for a journey of epic proportions.


  • For scale, here's how many Earths you could stack from Jupiter's center.


  • As you enter the top of the atmosphere, you're traveling at 110,000 miles per hour under the pull of Jupiter's gravity.


  • But brace yourself.


  • You'll quickly hit the denser atmosphere below, which will hit you like a wall.


  • It won't be enough to stop you, though.


  • After about 3 minutes, you'll reach the cloud tops 155 miles down.

    約莫 3 分鐘後,你將到達其下 155 英里的雲頂。

  • Here, you'll experience the full brunt of Jupiter's rotation.


  • Jupiter is actually the fastest rotating planet in our solar system.


  • One day lasts about 9 and a half Earth hours.

    木星的一天的時間僅等同於地球的 9.5 小時。

  • This creates powerful winds that can whip around the planet at more than 300 miles per hour.

    這會生產出每小時以逾 300 英里的強風繞著木星轉。

  • About 75 miles below the clouds, you reach the limit of human exploration.

    雲層下方約 75 英里處,你就會達到人類探索的極限位置。

  • Galileo probe made it this far when it dove into Jupiter's atmosphere in 1995.

    伽利略號探測器在 1995 年潛入木星大氣層時,達成了這個距離。

  • It only lasted 58 minutes before losing contact and was eventually destroyed by the crushing pressure.

    它在失去通訊前僅維持了 58 分鐘,最終遭到巨大的壓力摧毀。

  • Down here, the pressure is nearly 100 times what it is on Earth's surface, and you won't be able to see anything,

    在這個深度,壓力幾乎是地球表面的 100 倍,而且還看不到任何東西,

  • so you'll have to rely on instruments to explore your surroundings.


  • By 430 miles down, the pressure is 1,150 times higher.

    到了 430 英里深處,壓力便是 1,150 倍。

  • You might be able to survive down here if you were in a spacecraft built like the Trieste submarine, the deepest-diving submarine on Earth.


  • Any deeper and the pressure and the temperature will be too great for the spacecraft to endure.


  • However, let's say that you could find a way to descend even further.


  • You will uncover some of Jupiter's grandest mysteries.


  • But sadly, you'll have no way to tell anyone.


  • Jupiter's deep atmosphere absorbs radio waves, so you'd be shut off from the outside world, unable to communicate.


  • Once you've reached 2,500 miles down, the temperature is 6,100 degrees Fahrenheit.

    一旦你下降到 2,500 英里處,那裡的溫度是華氏 6,100 度(約攝氏 3,371 度)。

  • That's hot enough to melt tungsten, the metal with the highest melting point in the universe.


  • At this point, you will have been falling for at least 12 hours, and you won't even be halfway through.

    在此時,你將已經持續下降 12 小時,但卻連木星的一半都還沒到。

  • At 13,000 miles down, you'll reach Jupiter's innermost layer.

    下降到 13,000 英里時,你將抵達木星的最深層。

  • Here, the pressure is two million times stronger than that of Earth's surface, and the temperature is hotter than the surface of the Sun.


  • These conditions are so extreme that they change the chemistry of hydrogen around you.


  • Hydrogen molecules are forced so close together that their electrons break loose, forming an unusual substance called metallic hydrogen.


  • Metallic hydrogen is highly reflective.


  • So if you tried using lights to see down there, it would be impossible, and it's as dense as a rock.


  • So, as you travel deeper, the buoyancy force from the metallic hydrogen counteracts gravity's downward pull.


  • Eventually, that buoyancy will shoot you back up until gravity pulls you right back down, sort of like a yo-yo.


  • And when those two forces equal, you'll be left free-floating in mid-Jupiter, unable to move up or down, and no way of escape.


  • Suffice it to say, trying to land on Jupiter is a bad idea.


  • We may never see what's beneath those majestic clouds.


  • But we can still study and admire this mysterious planet from afar.


The best way to explore a new world is to land on it.


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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 木星 溫度 大氣 登陸 太空船 壓力

如果人類試圖在木星「登陸」,會發生什麼事? (What Would Happen If Humans Tried To Land On Jupiter)

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    Huahua 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 15 日