Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • In 2001, I was a brand new, shiny doctor, planning to save the world.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: 易帆 余

  • My first job was working for three months on a lung cancer unit.

    2001 年,我是位閃亮的 醫界新星,打算要來拯救世界。

  • Nearly all of my patients were smokers or ex-smokers,

    我的第一份工作是為 一個肺癌單位工作三個月。

  • and most of them had started smoking when they were children

    我的病人幾乎全都是抽菸者 或過去曾是抽菸者,

  • or in their early teens.

    且大部分都從小時候或青少年時期

  • And despite living in a beautiful, wealthy country,

    就開始抽菸了。

  • with access to the most sophisticated medicines,

    儘管住在一個美麗、富裕的國家,

  • nearly every single one of my patients died.

    能夠取得最精密的醫學,

  • Everyone knows tobacco is bad,

    我的病人還是幾乎全都死亡了。

  • but when you see the impact firsthand, day-by-day,

    人人都知道香菸不好,

  • it leaves a very deep impression.

    但當你每天都能 第一手看到抽菸的影響,

  • Ten years later, I'm a radiation oncologist,

    會留下非常深的印象。

  • fully aware of the suffering caused by tobacco.

    十年後,我成了 一位放射線腫瘤學家,

  • I'm sitting at the hospital cafeteria, having my first ever meeting

    我非常清楚知道 香菸所帶來的苦難。

  • with a representative from my superannuation fund.

    我坐在醫院內的咖啡廳, 這是我第一次

  • It was thrilling, I'm sure you can imagine.

    和我的退休基金的代表人會面。

  • (Laughter)

    會面非常扣人心弦, 相信各位都能想像。

  • He tells me I'm in the default option.

    (笑聲)

  • And I said, "Option? Does that mean there are other options?"

    他告訴我,我用的是預設的選項。

  • He looked at me, rolled his eyes, and said,

    我說:「選項?意思是說 還有其他的選項?」

  • "Well, there is this one greenie option

    他看著我,轉動了 他的眼睛,然後說:

  • for people who have a problem with investing in mining, alcohol or tobacco."

    「嗯,是有另一個 比較綠色環保的選項,

  • I said, "Did you just say tobacco?"

    可以給對投資礦業、 菸酒產業有意見的人。」

  • He said, "Yes."

    我說:「你剛說菸業?」

  • I said, "So, are you telling me I'm currently investing in tobacco?"

    他說:「是的。」

  • And he said, "Oh, yes, everyone is."

    我說:「你的意思是說, 我目前正在投資菸業?」

  • When you invest in a company, you own part of that company.

    他說:「喔,是啊, 大家都有投資菸業。」

  • You want that company to grow and succeed and thrive.

    當你投資一家公司時, 就表示你擁有那家公司的一部分。

  • You want that company to attract new customers,

    你會希望那家公司能 成長、成功、茁壯。

  • you want that company to sell more of its products.

    你會希望那家公司能吸引新客戶,

  • And when it comes to tobacco,

    你會希望那家公司 能賣出更多它的產品。

  • I couldn't think of anything that I wanted less.

    至於香菸,

  • Now, I know you can only see one person standing here

    它實在是我最不想要的東西了。

  • on this big red dot, on this enormous stage.

    我知道你們只能看見 在這巨大舞台上

  • But instead, I would like you to imagine

    有個大紅點, 大紅點上站了一個人。

  • that you're looking at seven million people

    但,我希望你們能想像一下,

  • crammed up here beside me today.

    想像你們正在看著七百萬人,

  • Seven million people across the world have died as a result of tobacco

    今天在這裡擠在我旁邊。

  • in the past year alone.

    光是去年,全世界 因為香菸而死的人

  • Just imagine, if a brand new industry were launched today,

    就有七百萬人。

  • and by the end of next June,

    想像一下,如果有一個 全新的產業,今天才誕生,

  • that industry's products had killed seven million people.

    到明年六月時,

  • Would any of us invest in that new, deadly industry?

    那個產業的產品 就殺死了七百萬人。

  • Tobacco is one of the most pressing global issues of our time,

    有任何人會想要投資 這個致命的新產業嗎?

  • and most of us are far more complicit in the problem than we may realize.

    在我們這個時代, 香菸是全球最迫切的議題之一,

  • So, the super fund representative explained to me

    在這個問題上,我們大部分人

  • that tobacco companies would be found

    身為共謀的成份 比我們所知道的還要高。

  • in the international shares portion of my portfolio.

    這位退休基金代表人向我解釋說

  • So I asked him, "Well, which international shares do I have?"

    菸草公司有些資金

  • He got back to me two weeks later with this list:

    來自我的投資組合中的全球股票。

  • my number one holding in international shares

    於是我問他:「嗯, 我有哪些全球股票?」

  • was British American Tobacco.

    他在兩星期後回覆我, 給了我這張清單:

  • Number two, Imperial Tobacco.

    我的全球股票中, 股份排名第一的是

  • Number four, Philip Morris.

    英美菸草(公司)。

  • And number five, the Swedish Match company.

    第二名是帝國菸草(公司)。

  • Four of the top five companies were tobacco companies,

    第四名是菲利普莫里斯國際。

  • my investments, an oncologist.

    第五名是瑞典火柴公司。

  • And then I realized it wasn't just me.

    排名前五的公司中 就有四家是菸草公司,

  • It was all members of my super fund.

    身為腫瘤學家,這是我的投資。

  • And then I realized it wasn't just my super fund, it was all of them.

    接著,我發現 不只是我有這種狀況。

  • And then I realized, it wasn't just superannuation funds,

    這個退休基金的所有成員都一樣。

  • it was banks, insurers and fund managers.

    接著我發現不只是這個退休基金, 所有的退休基金都一樣。

  • And then I realized it wasn't just Australia.

    接著我發現,不只是退休基金,

  • It was the entire global finance sector,

    還有銀行、保險業者, 和基金經理人。

  • completely tangled up with the tobacco industry.

    接著我發現,不只是在澳洲。

  • The industry that makes products that kill seven million people every year.

    全球的金融部門都一樣,

  • So I started discussing the issue with my superannuation fund,

    完全和菸草產業糾纏在一起。

  • and I've been discussing it ever since.

    菸草產業的產品 每年會殺死七百萬人。

  • Finance leaders have many challenging issues to deal with, these days.

    所以我開始和我的退休基金 討論這個議題,

  • So I suggest they adopt a framework

    從那之後我就一直在討論。

  • that clearly articulates why it is reasonable

    現今,金融領導者 有很多困難議題要處理。

  • to take a strong position on tobacco.

    所以我建議他們採用一個架構,

  • I suggest finance leaders ask a suite of three questions

    這架構能清楚明確地表達 為什麼對於香菸

  • of any company in which they might invest our money.

    採取強勢的立場是合理的。

  • Question one:

    我建議金融領導人,在把我們的錢 投資給任何一間公司時,

  • Can the product made by the company be used safely?

    都要問那家公司三個問題。

  • "No" is the answer for tobacco companies.

    問題一:

  • Zero is the only safe number of cigarettes for a human being.

    該公司所製造的產品 是否能被安全地使用?

  • It could not be more black and white.

    如果是菸草公司, 答案就會是「不能」。

  • Question two:

    對人類來說,唯一安全的 香菸數量就是零。

  • Is the problem caused by the company so significant on a global level

    這是最黑白分明的了。

  • that it is subject to a UN treaty or convention?

    問題二:

  • "Yes" is the answer for tobacco.

    該公司所造成的問題, 是否對全球有很大的影響,

  • Indeed there is a UN tobacco treaty

    到了會受到聯合國條約 或公約來限制的程度?

  • that has been ratified by 180 countries.

    如果是菸草公司, 答案就會是「是」。

  • The treaty was created

    聯合國的確有一條香菸條約,

  • because of the catastrophic global impact of tobacco.

    已被 180 個國家正式批准。

  • The current forecast is that the world is on track

    會創立這條條約,

  • for one billion tobacco-related deaths this century.

    就是因為香菸在全球 造成嚴重的衝擊。

  • One billion deaths.

    目前的預測是,若繼續這樣下去,

  • There's only seven billion of us.

    這個世紀全世界就會有 十億人的死亡和香菸有關。

  • Question three relates to the concept of engagement.

    十億人的死亡。

  • Many financial organizations genuinely want to be good corporate citizens.

    全球人口也才只有七十億。

  • They want to use their shareholder power

    問題三和投入參與的概念有關。

  • to sit down with companies, engage with them,

    許多金融組織真的想要 當良好企業公民。

  • and encourage them to do better things.

    他們想要用股東的力量,

  • So the question is:

    和其他公司坐下來談如何合作,

  • Can engagement with the company be an effective lever for change?

    並鼓勵這些公司去做更好的事。

  • "No" is the answer for tobacco companies.

    所以,問題三就是:

  • Engagement with the tobacco industry is futile.

    和該公司合作, 是否能夠有效地造成改變?

  • The only acceptable outcome would be

    如果是菸草公司, 答案就會是「不能」。

  • if tobacco companies ceased their primary business.

    參與菸草公司是對社會無益的。

  • In fact, engagement with the tobacco industry

    唯一能夠接受的成果就是

  • has never led to less human death.

    讓菸草公司停止其主要業務。

  • When we consider that framework, three simple questions,

    事實上,參與菸草產業

  • we can see that is reasonable and defensible

    絕對不可能降低人類死亡率。

  • to take a strong position and exclude investment in the tobacco industry.

    當我們去思考那個架構, 三個簡單的問題,

  • In addition to the UN tobacco treaty,

    我們就能了解到, 採取強勢的立場,

  • there is, in fact, another global treaty that demands that we act on tobacco.

    將菸草公司排除在投資名單之外, 是合理且說得過去的。

  • In 2015, the UN adopted the Sustainable Development Goals.

    除了聯合國的香菸條約,

  • Now, we're talking about tobacco,

    事實上,還有另一條全球條約 要求我們針對香菸採取行動。

  • and I know you're going to jump straight to number three:

    2015 年,聯合國 採用了永續發展目標。

  • good health and well-being.

    我們在談香菸,

  • And indeed, ramping up tobacco control regulation

    我知道你們會直接跳到目標三: 良好的健康環境。

  • is essential if we're going to achieve that goal.

    的確,若我們想要達成那個目標,

  • However, look a bit more deeply,

    增加對香菸的管制是很重要的。

  • and you will find that 13 of the 17 goals cannot be achieved

    然而,再看深入一點,

  • unless there is a major shake-up of the tobacco industry.

    你們會發現,十七項目標中 有十三項都無法達成,

  • Personally, my favorite goal is number 17:

    除非菸草產業有重大的改變。

  • partnerships for the goals.

    我個人最喜歡的目標是第十七項:

  • At present, we have the entire global health sector doing everything it can

    永續發展的合作。

  • to help the tidal wave of patients suffering as a result of tobacco.

    目前,全球的健康部門都在盡全力

  • But that said, in the past year alone, seven million people have died,

    協助處理病人因為香菸 而受苦的浪潮。

  • so clearly, that is not enough.

    雖說如此,但單單在過去一年間, 就有七百萬人死亡,

  • We also have governments aligned on tobacco, 180 of them,

    所以,很顯然,我們做的還不夠。

  • busily trying to implement the provisions of the UN tobacco treaty.

    我們還有政府聯手對付香菸, 共有 180 個政府,

  • But that, too, is not enough.

    它們忙著試圖實行 聯合國香菸條約的條款。

  • If the global finance sector continues to lend money to tobacco companies,

    但,那樣還是不夠。

  • to invest in tobacco companies,

    如果全球的金融部門 繼續借錢給菸草公司,

  • and to strive to profit from tobacco companies,

    繼續投資菸草公司,

  • we are working against each other.

    繼續努力從菸草公司獲益,

  • Now, if we are going to disrupt

    那麼我們就是在彼此對抗。

  • what doctors call "the global tobacco epidemic,"

    如果我們要阻止

  • we need every sector of society to stand side by side

    醫生所謂的「全球香菸大流行」,

  • and be part of the solution.

    那麼我們就需要社會的 每一個部門同心協力,

  • So I call on finance leaders

    成為解決方案的一部分。

  • to implement a framework to deal with sensitive issues.

    所以,我想請求金融的領導人,

  • And I call on them to uphold global conventions.

    實行一個架構, 來處理敏感的議題。

  • But in addition, there are business risks.

    我也想請求他們支持全球公約。

  • Pure financial risks, associated with being invested in the tobacco industry

    但,此外,還有商業風險存在。

  • over the long term,

    單純的財務風險, 和被投資到菸草產業有關的

  • and I ask finance leaders to consider them.

    長期風險,

  • The first risk is that fewer and fewer people will smoke,

    我想請求金融領導人 考量這些風險。

  • as a result of increasing tobacco regulation.

    第一個風險是, 如果加強香菸的管制,

  • When these warnings were put on cigarette packets in Canada,

    抽菸的人就會越來越少。

  • [Tobacco can make you impotent]

    在加拿大,當這些警告文字 被加到香菸包裝上時,

  • the first response of smokers was to give them right back to the salespeople

    【香菸會讓你陽痿】

  • and say, "Could you please just give me the ones that say they'll kill me?"

    抽菸者的第一個反應就是 把香菸直接還給銷售員,

  • (Laughter)

    並說:「你能不能換給我 另一包寫著抽菸會致死的香菸?」

  • Regulation gets noticed, regulation reduces consumption,

    (笑聲)

  • and we have 180 countries committed to more regulation.

    管制會被注意到, 管制會減少消費,

  • Let's talk about litigation and the risk that presents.

    有 180 個國家 都承諾要做更多管制。

  • At present, it's the business model of the tobacco industry

    咱們來談談訴訟及會遇到的風險。

  • that is being challenged.

    當前,菸草產業的商業模式

  • Currently, the tobacco industry externalizes all of the health costs

    正在受到挑戰。

  • associated with tobacco.

    目前,菸草產業將所有 和香菸相關的健康成本

  • Governments pay, communities pay, you pay, I pay.

    都向外丟給其他人。

  • The tobacco industry externalizes all those costs,

    由政府支付、由社區支付、 由你支付、由我支付。

  • with an estimated one trillion US dollars per year.

    菸草產業將所有 這些成本都向外丟,

  • Yet they internalize and privatize the profits.

    估計這些成本的總額 是一年一兆美元。

  • In 2015, in Quebec province,

    但它們卻把利潤佔為私有。

  • the courts determined that the tobacco industry

    2015 年,在魁北克省,

  • was indeed responsible for those health costs,

    法庭判定菸草產業

  • and ordered them to pay 15 billion US dollars.

    確實要為這些健康成本負責,

  • That case is under appeal.

    並下令要它們支付 150 億美元。

  • But it begs the question, why should any of us, in any country,

    那個案件還在上訴中。

  • be paying for the costs of the tobacco industry?

    但它讓人不禁想問, 不論在哪個國家,為什麼我們

  • Let's move on to supply chain and the risk there.

    要支付菸草產業的這些成本?

  • It is not well known

    咱們繼續來談談 供應鏈和那裡的風險。

  • that the tobacco industry significantly relies on child labor.

    並沒有很多人知道

  • In March 2017, the International Labour Organization

    菸草產業非常依賴童工。

  • issued a report which stated:

    2017 年三月,國際勞工組織

  • "In tobacco-growing communities, child labor is rampant."

    提出一份報告,內容寫著:

  • The US Department of Labor

    「在種植菸草的社區中, 童工非常猖獗。」

  • currently lists 16 countries that use children to produce tobacco leaf.

    美國勞工部

  • Scrutiny of supply chains is intensifying,

    目前列出了十六個用童工 來生產菸草葉的國家。

  • and that cannot continue to escape public attention.

    對供應鏈的監督更加嚴密,

  • Finally, there is also reputation risk to consider

    讓那種現象無法不被公眾的注意。

  • for individuals and organizations that continue to maintain an affiliation

    最後,還要考量名聲風險,

  • with the tobacco industry.

    個人和組織若持續維持 和菸草產業聯手,

  • In countless surveys,

    名聲會受影響。

  • the tobacco industry ranks as the world's least reputable industry.

    在無數的調查中,

  • Let's just look at the impact on children.

    將全世界的產業排名, 菸草產業的名聲是最差的。

  • Globally, every single day,

    咱們來看看它對於孩童的影響。

  • it is estimated that 100,000 children start smoking.

    全球,每一天,

  • That's enough children to fit inside the Melbourne Cricket Ground.

    估計有十萬名孩童開始抽菸。

  • And most of those children are from the poorest communities on earth.

    十萬名孩童足以塞滿 整個墨爾本板球場。

  • Here in Australia, the average age that people start smoking

    這些孩童大部分都是來自 世界上最貧窮的社區。

  • is 16 years and two months.

    在澳洲這裡,開始抽菸的平均年齡

  • They look pretty young to me, but the worst thing here

    是十六歲又兩個月。

  • is that while we don't have data from every country on earth,

    就我看來是太早了,但最糟的是,

  • we believe that is the oldest age.

    雖然我們沒有世界上 每個國家的資料,

  • Everywhere else is younger.

    但我們相信,這數字 是各國中最年長的。

  • Now for the good news.

    所有其他國家都更年輕就開始。

  • Things are changing.

    還是有好消息。

  • The finance sector is coming to the party.

    狀況正在改變。

  • After around 2,000 meetings with finance leaders,

    金融部門要來參一腳了。

  • primarily in the cafés of Melbourne and Sydney

    我和金融領導人開了兩千多次會,

  • and London and Paris and New York and all across the globe,

    主要是在墨爾本、 雪黎、倫敦、巴黎、

  • momentum, moving away from investment in the tobacco industry,

    紐約,和全世界的咖啡廳, 開完這些會之後,

  • is starting to snowball.

    不要再投資菸草產業的這股勢力

  • Finance leaders are alarmed when they're presented with the facts,

    開始滾雪球。

  • and overwhelmingly, they want to be part of the solution.

    金融領導人了解了 真相之後開始有警覺,

  • Here, in Australia, we now have

    絕大多數的人 都希望參與解決方案。

  • 10,636,101 superannuation accounts

    在澳洲這裡,我們現在已經有

  • that are tobacco-free.

    10,636,101 個退休帳戶,

  • That one is mine, by the way.

    都沒有投資香菸。

  • (Applause)

    順便一提,我的也是。

  • There is still a lot of work to be done,

    (掌聲)

  • but I've watched the conversation go from "Should we go tobacco-free?"

    還需要做很多的努力,

  • to "Why haven't we done it yet?"

    但我已經看到了對談從 「我們是否不要再投資菸業?」

  • In the past year alone,

    變成「我們為什麼還沒完成?」

  • major tobacco-free moves have been made by leading financial organizations

    光是去年,

  • in eight different countries.

    就有八個國家的 金融組織巨頭開始採取

  • In Australia, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Sweden,

    脫離菸業的行動。

  • Denmark, France, Ireland and the USA.

    這八國為澳洲、 紐西蘭、荷蘭、瑞典、

  • By sovereign wealth funds, fund managers, pension funds,

    丹麥、法國、愛爾蘭,以及美國。

  • banks, insurers and reinsurers.

    參與的包括主權財富基金、 基金經理人、退休基金、

  • Since tobacco-free portfolios began,

    銀行、保險業者,及再保業者。

  • more than six billion dollars has been redirected

    從不投資菸草業的 投資組合開始後,

  • away from investment in the tobacco industry.

    超過六十億美元已經 被轉移到其他地方,

  • The case study is well and truly proven.

    不拿去投資菸草產業了。

  • When making the tobacco-free announcement in March this year,

    個案研究是完善驗證過的。

  • the CEO of AMP Capital said,

    AMP Capital(澳洲壽險集團)的 執行長在今年三月

  • "We are not prepared to deliver investment returns

    宣佈不投資菸草業時,他說:

  • at any cost to society."

    「我們不準備以不惜社會成本的代價

  • And that is the question we need to ask ourselves.

    去追逐投資利潤的回報。」

  • Is there no baseline standard below which we will not sink

    那正是我們得要自問的問題。

  • to make profit?

    有沒有一個基線標準存在, 讓我們不能為了賺取利潤

  • Along the way, I've had a lot of help and incredible support.

    而沉淪到標準之下?

  • Now, if you're trying to do something,

    一路上,我得到了 許多協助和大力支持。

  • I highly recommend that you have a princess on your team.

    如果你試著想要做點什麼,

  • Her Royal Highness, Princess Dina Mired,

    我非常建議要在你的 團隊中納入一位公主。

  • is the global ambassador for this work.

    迪納米雷德公主殿下

  • We also have a lord, a knight, a former premier,

    是這項工作的全球大使。

  • a former federal minister and a stack of CEOs.

    我們也有一位主教、 一位爵士、一位前首相、

  • But the capacity to change things

    一位前聯邦部長, 和一大堆的執行長。