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  • Be sure to subscribe to Langfocus and click the notification button.

    點選LangFocus的訂閱鈕和 通知小鈴鐺以得到最新訊息!

  • Man, why does everyone say kanji are so difficult?

    唉,為什麼每個人都說漢字超難啊?

  • This one looks pretty easy.

    這看起來超簡單的啊。

  • So does this one.

    這個也是。

  • And this one. It's not bad.

    還有這個,這也不賴。

  • And how about the next one?

    那下一個呢?

  • Oh my gosh. What the heck is that?

    我的天,這三X?

  • [♪ Peppy music with saxophone and percussion ♪]

    [音樂時間]

  • Hello everyone, welcome to the Langfocus Channel, and my name is Paul.

    哈囉各位,歡迎來到 LangFocus 頻道, 我叫保羅 (Paul)。

  • Today, we're going to talk about the Japanese writing system.

    今天我們要來談談日語的書寫系統。

  • Well, not the entire writing system.

    呃,不是整個啦

  • Japanese is written with three different scripts:

    日文被分作下列三種書寫形式:

  • hiragana, katakana, and kanji,

    「平假名」(Hiragana)、「片假名」(Katakana), 以及「漢字」(Kanji)。

  • which is the one that we want to focus on today.

    而今天我們要討論的正是「漢字」。

  • Hiragana and katakana were developed in Japan,

    平假名和片假名是在日本發展出來的,

  • but kanji are actually Chinese characters that were adapted to fit the Japanese language.

    但日本的漢字事實上是被套入日語的中國文字。

  • Kanji are logograms.

    漢字是表語文字。

  • A logogram is a character that represents a word or a meaningful part of a word.

    「表語文字」是指一個完整的「字」 可以代表一個「詞」或一部份的「詞」。

  • Kanji are not characters that you read phonetically,

    日本漢字並不是表音的文字,

  • but rather each kanji represents a distinct idea rather than a sound.

    每個漢字都代表著一個特定的概念,而非一個音。

  • For example, this kanji on its own represents the concept of a mountain,

    例如說,這個漢字代表「山」的概念。

  • but just from looking at it, there's no way to know that it's pronounced asyama.”

    但光看這個字, 你沒辦法知道這個字念作 "yama"(音似:呀媽)。

  • You have to remember how the character is pronounced,

    你必須記得這個字怎麼發音,

  • and when you see the character you associate it with the sound.

    然後看到這個字你才聯想到它的發音。

  • But some kanji do also contain a phonetic element,

    不過,有些漢字也包含一些發音元素,

  • which is something we'll look at later.

    那個我們等等再來討論。

  • Japan initially came into contact with Chinese characters during diplomatic missions

    日本一開始在「唐使節」時期以漢字作為 中國漢朝和日本大和王國之間的溝通工具。

  • between the Han dynasty and the Yamato state of Japan,

    日本一開始在「唐使節」時期以漢字作為 中國漢朝和日本大和王國之間的溝通工具。

  • which eventually led to the Japanese adoption and adaptation of kanji.

    漸漸地日本採用並調整漢字。

  • I talk more about this in my video on the Japanese language, which you can find right here.

    我在這部影片裏面講得比較多,可以點進去看看。

  • If we include every kanji that has ever been used in Japanese, there are tens of thousands of them.

    如果我們把每個日語用過的漢字全部納進來的話, 大概有好幾萬個字。

  • But of course, that includes many obscure or archaic kanji

    但當然地,那就包含了很多艱澀或古老漢字,

  • that really aren't worth learning for the average person.

    那些漢字對大部分人來說就沒那麼值得學了。

  • In 1946, the Japanese government aimed to simplify orthography

    1946年,日本政府決定簡化正寫字體,

  • by limiting the number of kanji to a smaller list of 1,850 kanji,

    將漢字的數量降到比較小的1850個字,

  • known as the Tōyō kanji, orcommon usekanji.

    這些又被稱為「當用漢字」或「通用的漢字」。

  • That list has since been updated to include 2,136 basic kanji,

    這個名單至今以更新到了2136個基本漢字,

  • which are referred to as the Jōyō kanji, orregular usekanji.

    這名單就被稱為「常用漢字」。

  • This list determines what kanji students are expected to learn at school

    這個名單決定了在學校裡的學生該學那些漢字,

  • and what kanji are used in official government documents.

    同時也是政府公部門文件所使用的漢字。

  • With this part of the reform,

    這波改良裡面,

  • the Japanese government also simplified some of the more complex kanji,

    日本政府也簡化了一些比較複雜的漢字,

  • so that they could be read more easily.

    讓那些字讀起來更容易。

  • These kanji are calledshinjitai,” which literally meansnew character forms.”

    這些漢字被稱作「新字體」, 字面意思就是指「新的字體」。

  • For example, this kanji, meaningiron.”

    舉例來說,這個漢字,意思是「鐵」。

  • The component on the right was simplified.

    右邊的部件被簡化了。

  • And this kanji, meaningwide.”

    而這個漢字,意思是「廣」。

  • Its inner component was simplified, like this.

    內部的部件被簡化成這樣。

  • You might be aware that such a simplification also occurred

    你或許會發現到這樣的簡化同樣發生在 中國的調整的簡體中文上,

  • in the adoption of Simplified Chinese writing in China,

    你或許會發現到這樣的簡化同樣發生在 中國的調整的簡體中文上,

  • but shinjitai were much more limited in scope

    但是日本的「新字體」簡化的範圍比較小一些,

  • and these changes only affected a limited number of characters in Japanese.

    而這些改變也只影響了有限的漢字數量。

  • Types of Kanji

    漢字的種類

  • Kanji can be divided into several categories ofmoji,” or

    漢字基於字的組成方式 又可被分為一些「文字」的種類,

  • characters,” based on how each character is formed.

    漢字基於字的組成方式 又可被分為一些「文字」的種類,

  • For example, there are Shōkei moji.

    例如說,有「象形文字」。

  • This refers to pictograph kanji,

    即是指「象形漢字」。

  • such as this one, formountain,”

    例如這個代表「山」,

  • or this one, fortree.”

    而這個代表「樹木」。

  • These ones look something like the objects that they represent.

    這種字看起來就像他們所代表的東西。

  • Shiji moji and Kaii moji are ideographs,

    「指事文字」和「會意文字」則是表意文字。

  • characters that represent ideas rather than visually representing an object.

    這種字代表著概念和想法,而非視覺上的表示物品。

  • For example, this kanji, meaningup,”

    例如,這個漢字代表「上」,

  • and this one, meaningrest.”

    而這個,代表「休息」。

  • The difference between these two types of ideographs

    兩種文字之間同在於

  • is that Shiji moji are rather simple,

    指事文字相對比較簡單,

  • whereas Kaii moji are compound ideographs that use multiple components

    而會意文字則是用多個部件組合 創造一個全新意思的表意合字,

  • that combine together to create an overall meaning,

    而會意文字則是用多個部件組合 創造一個全新意思的表意合字,

  • with each of the components also existing as independent kanji.

    而各個部件也是一個獨立的漢字。

  • The component on the left meansperson

    左邊的部件代表「人」,

  • and the component on the right meanstree.”

    而右邊的部件代表「樹木」。

  • A person leaning against the tree isresting.

    一個人靠著樹木就是「休息」。

  • This is a good example of a Kaii moji.

    這是一個會意文字的好範例。

  • Another example is this kanji.

    另一個例子是這個漢字。

  • Let's see if we can figure out what this one means by looking at the components.

    我們來看看我們能否憑著這些部件想出它的意思。

  • I see this character, which I know meansmountain,”

    我看到這個字,我知道是「山」,

  • and I see this one, which meansup,”

    然後我看到這個,意思是「上」,

  • and this one, which meansdown.”

    而這個,意思是「下」。

  • So I'm going to guess that this kanji has something to do with traveling up or down a mountain,

    所以我猜,這個漢字跟上下山有些關係,

  • like, maybe it's “hiking”?

    像是......「爬山」嗎?

  • Now if we look at the actual meaning of this kanji,

    我們現在如果找出這個漢字的真正意思的話,

  • we'll see that it means “a path through the mountains,” or a “mountain pass.”

    我們會看到它的意思是「山道」或是「山間的路」。

  • So I'd say that's pretty close.

    嘛,猜得還不算太遠。

  • This type of kanji, that kind of tells a story, is a Kaii moji,

    這種敘事的漢字就是「會意文字」,

  • but only a small number of kanji tell a comprehensible story like that.

    但只有小部分的漢字能敘述像這樣能夠理解的故事。

  • By far, the largest grouping of kanji is Keisei moji.

    至今最大的漢字類別是「形聲文字」。

  • These are kanji that combine semantic and phonetic elements to make up a new character.

    這些漢字是由語意和聲音元素組成出新的字。

  • The phonetic element is derived from the Chinese pronunciation of the kanji, the on-yomi,

    聲音元素是從中國的發音衍生出來的漢字, 即「音讀」(on-yomi)。

  • which we'll talk about later.

    這個我們待會再講。

  • A good example of Keisei moji isshiwhich meanspoem.”

    形聲文字的一個好範例是「詩」,意思是「詩」。

  • If we look at the left side of the kanji, we see this component,

    若我們看到這個字的左邊,會看到這個部件,

  • which is most often used in characters that have something to do with language or speaking,

    這個部件是最常出現在有關語言說話的字裡,

  • such as this one, meaninglanguage,”

    例如這個,意思是「語言」,

  • and this one, meaningspeaking.”

    而這個,則表示「說話」。

  • If we look at the component on the right side of this kanji,

    再來如果看到這個漢字的右邊部件,

  • we see the kanji fortemple.”

    我們會看到這個字是寺廟的「寺」。

  • This doesn't indicate any semantic connection to temples,

    這並不表示任何跟寺廟有關的意思。

  • but rather it serves as an indicator of how to pronounce this kanji.

    而是做為一個「這個漢字怎麼發音」的表示物。

  • The Chinese pronunciation of this kanji for temple isshiorji,”

    這個漢字在中國的讀音(唐音)裡是「shi」或「ji」,

  • and when you see it as a component within another kanji,

    而當你在其他的漢字裡看到這個部件的時候,

  • it indicates that that kanji is pronounced asshiorji.”

    它就表示了那個漢字要讀作「shi」或「ji」。

  • Radicals

    部首

  • In the characters we looked at in the previous example of Keisei moji,

    我們在上個單元中形聲文字的範例,

  • the component on the left is the radical.

    左邊的部件就是「部首」(Radical)。

  • A radical is the main component of a kanji

    「部首」是一個漢字的主要部件,

  • that generally provides a clue about its root meaning.

    它一般來說提供這個字的根本意義的提示。

  • Some people use the termradicalto refer to any component of a kanji,

    有些人用「部首」這個詞 來表示任何一個漢字裡的部件,

  • like both of these,

    像是這兩個,

  • but to be precise, only this element is the radical,

    但準確來說,只有這個元素是部首,

  • though both can be referred to ascomponents.”

    即使兩個都可以當作「部件」。

  • Every kanji contains one radical.

    每個漢字都含有一個部首。

  • Some radicals also exist as independent kanji,

    有些部首也做為一個獨立的漢字存在,

  • such as this one, meaninggoldormoney.”

    像是這個,意思是「黃金」或「錢」。

  • It appears as a radical with the root meaning ofmetal.”

    作為部首時,它成為有關「金屬」的根本意思。

  • Here we can see it in this kanji, meaningiron,”

    這裡我們看到這個漢字,意思是「鐵」,

  • and in this one, meaningcopper.”

    而這個,意思是「銅」。

  • Other radicals only exist as an inseparable component of a kanjilike this one,

    其他的部首只當作漢字當中一個無法分割的存在。 像是這個,

  • which shows that the kanji has a meaning related tomovement,” like in this kanji meaningroad,”

    這個漢字有相關於「動作」的意思, 像是這個漢字代表「路」。

  • and this one meaningpassorcommunicate.”

    而這個的意思則是「通過」或「通訊」。

  • As for phonetic components, they don't appear in all kanji,

    而音素部件,它們並非在所有漢字中出現,

  • but they appear in many of them, and can be very useful in pronouncing kanji.

    但很部分它們都會出現, 在漢字發音上能夠很有用。

  • One example is this one, which we saw before in the kanji for copper.

    舉一個例子,在我們不久前看到的「銅」裡有這個字。

  • This kanji on its own is pronounced “dō”

    這個漢字本身的發音是「dō」

  • and when you see it as a component in another kanji,

    而當你在其他漢字裡看到它做為一個部件時,

  • it indicates that the pronunciation is “dō” or “tō.”

    就指示了發音是「dō」或「tō」。

  • As you can see, these kanji here have nothing to do with each other semantically,

    如你所見,這些漢字彼此間沒有什麼語意的關聯,

  • and the radicals are different.

    而且部首都不同。

  • They're only related in pronunciation.

    它們只和發音有關係。

  • Another quick example is this kanji, meaningopposition.”

    另一個快速的例子是這個漢字, 意思是「反方」。

  • It's pronouncedhan.”

    發音是「han」。

  • Now look at this kanji, meaningcooked riceormeal.”

    現在看到這個漢字,意思是「熟飯」或是「一餐」。

  • It's also pronouncedhanbased on that phonetic element,

    基於那個語音元素它也讀作「han」,

  • and so is this one, meaningsales,”

    而這個也是,意思是「販賣」,

  • and this one, meaningprintingorpublishing.”

    還有這個,意思是「印製」或「出版」。

  • They're all pronouncedhan.”

    它們都讀作「han」。

  • ... Well, they're sometimes pronouncedhan.”

    ...這個嘛,它們有時候讀作「han」。

  • Sometimes? What do you mean sometimes?

    「有時候」?什麼叫「有時候」?

  • The phonetic elements of kanji are based on the Chinese reading of the kanji,

    這些漢字的語音元素是基於這些漢字的中國讀音,

  • also known as the on-yomi reading.

    又被稱為「音讀音」。

  • Andyomijust meansreading,” by the way.

    順帶一提,「yomi」(読み)的意思就是「讀」。

  • On-yomi and Kun-yomi

    音讀 (On-yomi) 和訓讀 (Kun-yomi)

  • If you remember from my previous video on Japanese,

    如果你記得我在之前介紹日語的影片,

  • there are two basic ways to pronounce kanji:

    漢字有兩個基本的念法:

  • on-yomi, Chinese-derived readings, and kun-yomi, native Japanese readings.

    「音讀」,源於中國音的讀音; 而「訓讀」,是日本本身的讀音。

  • For example, this character has a native kun-reading ofkata,”

    例如,這個字在本地的訓讀念作「kata」,

  • while also having the on-readinghen.”

    同時有音讀「hen」。

  • When used in this word, “hahen,” meaning a “broken piece,”

    當在這個詞「hahen」(意思是「碎片」)用到的時候,

  • the on-yomi is used.

    用的是音讀音。

  • When used in this wordkatamichi,” meaningeach way,”

    當在這個詞「katamichi」 (意思是「各路」)用到的時候,

  • the native kun-yomi is used.

    用的是訓讀音。

  • The real complexity comes with the kanji that have multiple on-readings and multiple kun-readings,

    真正複雜的在於當一個漢字擁有多個音讀音和多個訓讀音的時候,

  • requiring you to choose the correct reading based on the context.

    讓你必須依照內容去選擇正確的讀音。

  • One example is this kanji meaninglifeorbirth.”

    這樣的一個例子是這個漢字, 意思是「生命」或「出生」。

  • It has two on-yomi readings, “seiandshō,”

    它有兩個音讀音:「sei」以及「shō」,

  • so we have this word, “jinsei,” meaninghuman life,”

    我們來看到「jinsei」這個詞, 意思是「人生」,

  • and this word, “chikushō,” which meansbeastordamn it.”

    而這個詞「chikushō」, 意思是「畜生」或「該死」。

  • And it also has numerous kun-yomi readings.

    而它也有好幾個訓讀音。

  • Here are some examples.

    以下是一些例子。

  • There's “ikiru,” meaningto live.”

    「ikiru」,意思是「生存」。

  • There's “umu,” meaningto give birth.”

    「umu」,意思是「生產(小孩)」。

  • There's “ou,” meaningto grow” (archaic.)

    「ou」,意思是「生長」(古語)。

  • There's “haeru,” meaningto groworspring up.”

    「haeru」,意思是「生長」或「出現」。

  • There's “kimeaningpureorraw,”

    「ki」意思是「純潔」或「生的」。

  • and there's “namameaningraworuncooked.”

    還有「nama」,意思是「生的」或是「沒被煮過的」。

  • As you can see, it's not always a simple matter of one kanji being equivalent to one word.

    如你所見,一個漢字所表示的並不是只有單單一個單詞般簡單。

  • The kanji is used to represent the core meaning of the word,

    漢字用於表示單詞的核心含義,

  • but when we use them for native Japanese verbs and adjectives, a string of hiragana is attached to the end,

    但若是用在日本語本土的動詞和形容詞上的話,

  • to represent the inflection of the word.

    就會在後面加上一些平假名, (以及副詞)

  • For example, let's look at the adjective forcold” — “samui.”

    來代表這個詞的詞性變化

  • As you can see, there's a kanji, and the additional hiragana, “i.”

    例如,來看看這個形容詞,代表「冷」──「寒い」(samui)

  • The kanji carries the core meaning of the word, while the inflection, shown in hiragana,

    如你所見,這裡有個漢字,以及一個附加的平假名──「い」(i)

  • shows us that this word is in the non-past positive form for an i-type adjective.

    這個漢字代表著這個詞的核心意義,而平假名則代表它的詞性變化,

  • So we read this assamui,” but when we inflect this word in the negative it becomessamukunai,”

    向我們表示這個詞是「い」形容詞(以い結尾的) 的非過去式原形。

  • where “-kunaireplaces “-i” to indicate the non past negative form.

    所以我們念「寒い」(samui),但當我們要用這個詞表達否定時,將會變成「寒くない」(samukunai)

  • When we look at this word, we know to read it assamukunai,”

    這個「くない」(kunai)會取代「い」(i)來表示非否定的否定形式。

  • with the first two syllables represented by the kanji,

    當我們看到這個字,我們會知道要念作"samukunai"

  • and the others placed after it to show inflection.

    其中漢字代表前兩個音節,

  • Kanji also work this way with verbs,

    而其他在漢字後面加上的字則是會了表示它的詞態變化

  • where the kanji will represent the core meaning of the verb, and the hiragana represent the verb's conjugation.

    漢字也會在動詞上有同樣的變形方式,

  • Why bother using kanji if part of the writing is in hiragana anyway?

    漢字將代表動詞的核心含義,而平假名則代表動詞的 動詞變化/變位(conjugation)。

  • Even though kanji take a lot of effort to learn, they actually make the entire language easier to read.

    為什麼都使用平假名了,卻還是要使用漢字?

  • Let's take a look at an example sentence,

    儘管漢字需要花費更多的心力來學習,但它卻讓整個句子更好讀。

  • first written without kanji and next, written with kanji.

    讓我們來看看這個例句,

  • The sentence means: “I eat Japanese food.” “Boku wa washoku o tabemasu.”

    第一行是沒有寫漢字,而第二行則是加入漢字替代

  • Because Japanese is written without spaces,

    這個句子表示「我吃和食。」

  • without the kanji the words all blend together.

    「僕 (ぼく) は和食(わしょく)お食(た)べます。」

  • And it's sometimes difficult to quickly see where one word ends and where the next word begins,

    因為日文沒有像西方語言的每個詞之間有空格的習慣,

  • or it's difficult to see what part of speech, or where it is.

    所以沒有漢字的話,每個字都會連在一起。

  • Kanji are not really read, but just recognized like symbols, so they allow you

    這會導致有時你看太快會很難確定哪裡是單字的開頭、結尾還有下個單字的開頭。

  • to quickly skim a sentence for meaning.

    或者很難看到哪個詞性的位置,或它在哪裡。

  • But while kanji make Japanese easier to read once you know them,

    漢字並不是真的那來讀的,而是像個符號。

  • they make Japanese much harder to write by hand.

    它們拿來讓你可以快速瞭解它的意思。

  • As you can see, some kanji consist of lots of different lines orstrokes.”

    但當你瞭解漢字,並因它日文更容易讀時,

  • For example, this kanji, meaningmachineoropportunity,” has 16 strokes.

    它們也會讓日文更難以書寫。

  • This one, meaningappraise,” has 23 strokes.

    如你所見,漢字是由許多不同的線條或「筆劃」組成。

  • If we dig back into some historical kanji that are not part of the current Jōyō kanji,

    例如這個漢字,代表著「機器」或「機會」,它有16個筆劃。

  • some of them have quite a high number of strokes.

    而這個則代表「鑑定」,有23個筆劃。

  • This kanji, meaningroughorcrude,” has 33 strokes.

    如果我們更深入研究到歷史漢字,即是不是屬於現在「常用漢字」裡的古代漢字,

  • You can see that this one is actually created through reduplication of the same component three times.

    它們之中有些擁有許多的筆劃。

  • That component is the kanji meaningdeer.”

    比如這個漢字,代表「粗」(中文同音)或「粗糙」,共有33個筆劃。

  • Here's another kanji meaningdragons on the move,”

    你可以看到這一個漢字實際上是重複三個同樣的字來創造的。

  • which has 48 strokes and consists of the kanji fordragonreduplicated three times as components.

    這個重複的字在漢字中代表「鹿」。

  • And this kanji features the same component four times for a total of 64 strokes.

    這裡是另外一個漢字,代表著龍在飛舞。

  • It meansverbose.”

    共擁有48劃,是由三個代表「龍」的漢字重複組成而成的。

  • The biggest freak show of a kanji is

    然後這個漢字則是由四個「龍」所組成的,共64劃。

  • this one, with 84 strokes.

    意思為「囉嗦」。

  • It features this kanji as a component,

    而擁有最多筆劃的漢字是這個,

  • which is itself a reduplication of the kanji forcloud,”

    共擁有84劃。

  • and it also features thedragons on the movekanji as a component.

    而這漢字的其中一個組成部分,

  • I don't think the origins or usage of this kanji are very clear, but it may have been used in personal names.

    則是重複意思為「雲」的漢字,

  • These high stroke kanji are very rare.

    另一部份則是和「龘」,代表「龍在飛舞」的漢字一樣。

  • They're not really used anymore.

    我不大清楚這些漢字的起源及用法,但它們曾被用於個人的姓名當中。

  • But kanji of up to 20 strokes or even a little higher are quite common.

    這些多筆劃的漢字是非常罕見的。

  • Not only do you have to remember the strokes themselves,

    他們(日本人)如今已經很少使用了。

  • but you have to write them in the correct order and the correct direction.

    但是多達20劃甚至稍微多一點的漢字則是很常見的。

  • There are a series of rules that govern stroke order.

    你不只要記住它們的筆劃,

  • The most basic rule is top to bottom and left to right.

    你還要注意書寫筆劃的正確順序及方向。

  • With the kanji forriver,” we can see that you write a stroke from top to bottom,

    這裡有一系列的規則來控制筆劃的順序。

  • then you move to the right and add two more strokes.

    最基本的規則是頂部及左右。

  • But the first stroke seems to go from right to left.

    比如這個代表「河川」的漢字,我們可以看到它的筆順是由頂部開始,

  • That's true, but here the top to bottom rule takes precedence, so this is allowed.

    然後你到右邊再增加兩個筆劃。

  • Next, when vertical and horizontal strokes cross, the horizontal line is usually written first.

    但第一個筆順似乎有點由右往左。

  • We can see this in the kanji for “10.”

    這是真的,但這裡的規則是由上到下為優先,所以這是允許的。

  • Next, vertical strokes that cross through other strokes are written after the strokes they cross through.

    下一個,字中出現垂直和水平相交的筆劃時,通常是由水平線先寫。

  • We can see this in the kanji meaningmiddleorin.”

    我們能在這個代表「十」的漢字中看到例子。

  • Horizontal strokes that cross through other strokes are written last.

    再下一個,穿過其他筆劃的垂直筆劃是先寫穿過的筆劃之後才寫的。

  • We can see this in the kanji formother.”

    我們也可以在這代表「中間」或「裡面」的漢字裡看到例子。