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  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Thank you very much. (Applause)

    十分感謝

  • Thank you. It's a distinct privilege to be here.

    謝謝,十分榮幸能夠來到這裡

  • A few weeks ago, I saw a video on YouTube

    幾個禮拜前,我在Youtube上看了一段影片

  • of Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords

    關於眾議員Gabrielle Giffords

  • at the early stages of her recovery

    在那次恐怖槍擊後

  • from one of those awful bullets.

    的早期復健階段

  • This one entered her left hemisphere, and

    子彈跑進她的左額葉

  • knocked out her Broca's area, the speech center of her brain.

    帶走了她腦袋的布羅卡區,掌控語言的中心

  • And in this session, Gabby's working with a speech therapist,

    在這個療程中,Gabby和她的語言治療師一同努力

  • and she's struggling to produce

    而她十分努力想要擠出

  • some of the most basic words, and you can see her

    一些最基本的單字,你能看見她

  • growing more and more devastated, until she ultimately

    開始變得心力憔悴,直到她崩出眼淚

  • breaks down into sobbing tears, and she starts sobbing

    然後開始啜泣

  • wordlessly into the arms of her therapist.

    無言地倒在治療師懷裡

  • And after a few moments, her therapist tries a new tack,

    過了一會兒,她的治療師採取了一個新方法

  • and they start singing together,

    他們開始一同唱歌

  • and Gabby starts to sing through her tears,

    Gabby在淚眼下開始歌唱

  • and you can hear her clearly able to enunciate

    然後你能聽到她明顯地能夠表現

  • the words to a song that describe the way she feels,

    歌中表達她情緒的單字

  • and she sings, in one descending scale, she sings,

    然後她唱著,在一段下降的旋律中,她唱道

  • "Let it shine, let it shine, let it shine."

    「讓它閃耀,讓它閃耀,讓它閃耀」

  • And it's a very powerful and poignant reminder of how

    這是十分震撼且發人省思的,並提醒我們

  • the beauty of music has the ability to speak

    音樂的美妙能述說文字無法道盡的故事

  • where words fail, in this case literally speak.

    甚至在這個例子中,真正的讓人開口說話

  • Seeing this video of Gabby Giffords reminded me

    看著Gabby Giffords的影片讓我想起

  • of the work of Dr. Gottfried Schlaug,

    Gottfried Schlaug博士的研究

  • one of the preeminent neuroscientists studying music and the brain at Harvard,

    他是哈佛研究音樂與大腦的神經學權威

  • and Schlaug is a proponent of a therapy called

    同時Schlaug也是一項叫做「旋律語調療法」的支持者

  • Melodic Intonation Therapy, which has become very popular in music therapy now.

    這項療法現在在音樂療法之中十分受歡迎

  • Schlaug found that his stroke victims who were aphasic,

    Schlaug 發現他一些因為中風而失語的患者

  • could not form sentences of three- or four-word sentences,

    原本無法組織超過三四個單字的句子

  • but they could still sing the lyrics to a song,

    但卻仍然能唱出歌中的整段歌詞

  • whether it was "Happy Birthday To You"

    不管是「生日快樂歌」

  • or their favorite song by the Eagles or the Rolling Stones.

    或是這些患者的最愛、像是老鷹合唱團、滾石的歌

  • And after 70 hours of intensive singing lessons,

    而在七十個小時密集的歌唱療程後

  • he found that the music was able to literally rewire

    他發現音樂有辦法實質地重新搭接上

  • the brains of his patients and create a homologous

    病人腦中的連結,並在他們的左額葉

  • speech center in their right hemisphere

    創造出對應的語言中心

  • to compensate for the left hemisphere's damage.

    以彌補左額葉的損害

  • When I was 17, I visited Dr. Schlaug's lab, and in one afternoon

    當我十七歲的時候,我在某個下午拜訪了Schlaug博士的實驗室

  • he walked me through some of the leading research

    他帶著我看過了一些大腦和音樂的尖端研究

  • on music and the brain -- how musicians had

    裏頭說著音樂家和一般人相較起來

  • fundamentally different brain structure than non-musicians,

    是如何有著顯著不同的大腦

  • how music, and listening to music,

    音樂和聽音樂是如何

  • could just light up the entire brain, from

    激發整個大腦

  • our prefrontal cortex all the way back to our cerebellum,

    從前額葉皮層一路到我們的小腦

  • how music was becoming a neuropsychiatric modality

    音樂是如何變成一個神經精神的療法

  • to help children with autism, to help people struggling

    去幫助有自閉症的小孩

  • with stress and anxiety and depression,

    或是去幫助與焦慮和憂鬱症抗爭的病人

  • how deeply Parkinsonian patients would find that their tremor

    帕金森重度患者的顫抖以及行動不穩

  • and their gait would steady when they listened to music,

    在聽音樂時為何能夠穩定緩和

  • and how late-stage Alzheimer's patients, whose dementia

    還有晚期阿茲海默症患者,他們的記憶

  • was so far progressed that they could no longer recognize

    已退化至無法認出至親

  • their family, could still pick out a tune by Chopin

    卻仍能夠回憶起小時候學的

  • at the piano that they had learned when they were children.

    蕭邦鋼琴名曲。

  • But I had an ulterior motive of visiting Gottfried Schlaug,

    但是我拜訪Schlaug博士其實有個自私的動機

  • and it was this: that I was at a crossroads in my life,

    也就是,當時我徘迴於人生的十字路口

  • trying to choose between music and medicine.

    試著於醫學與音樂之間做一個抉擇

  • I had just completed my undergraduate, and I was working

    我那時大學剛畢業,並在Dennis Selkoe

  • as a research assistant at the lab of Dennis Selkoe,

    的實驗室做研究助理

  • studying Parkinson's disease at Harvard, and I had fallen

    於哈佛大學研究帕金森氏症

  • in love with neuroscience. I wanted to become a surgeon.

    而我愛上了神經科學,我想要成為外科醫師

  • I wanted to become a doctor like Paul Farmer or Rick Hodes,

    我想要成為像Paul Farmer 或是 Rick Hodes 一般的醫師

  • these kind of fearless men who go into places like Haiti or Ethiopia

    像他們一樣能夠無所畏懼地前往海地或衣索比亞

  • and work with AIDS patients with multidrug-resistant

    並進行愛滋、多重抗藥肺結核、

  • tuberculosis, or with children with disfiguring cancers.

    或是兒童顏面損傷癌症的治療工作

  • I wanted to become that kind of Red Cross doctor,

    我想要成為那種紅十字會的醫師

  • that doctor without borders.

    那穿越國界的醫師

  • On the other hand, I had played the violin my entire life.

    然而,我自幼學習小提琴

  • Music for me was more than a passion. It was obsession.

    我對音樂有得不只是熱情,而是狂熱

  • It was oxygen. I was lucky enough to have studied

    它就像氧氣一樣。我很幸運地能夠於曼哈頓的

  • at the Juilliard School in Manhattan, and to have played

    茱利亞音樂學院習琴,並且於特拉維夫

  • my debut with Zubin Mehta and the Israeli philharmonic orchestra in Tel Aviv,

    與以色列愛樂管弦樂團及祖賓梅塔首次登台演出

  • and it turned out that Gottfried Schlaug

    而湊巧的昰,原來Schlaug博士

  • had studied as an organist at the Vienna Conservatory,

    曾經於維也納音樂學院主修管風琴

  • but had given up his love for music to pursue a career

    但最後放棄音樂以追求醫學志業

  • in medicine. And that afternoon, I had to ask him,

    而那天下午,我非得問他

  • "How was it for you making that decision?"

    "你做了這個決定之後有何感想?"

  • And he said that there were still times when he wished

    他說,有時他仍然希望

  • he could go back and play the organ the way he used to,

    他能夠回到像從前彈奏管風琴的時光

  • and that for me, medical school could wait,

    而對於我來說,醫學院能夠以後再說

  • but that the violin simply would not.

    但是小提琴卻沒有辦法

  • And after two more years of studying music, I decided

    於是,我繼續進修小提琴演奏兩年過後,我決定

  • to shoot for the impossible before taking the MCAT

    在回頭考MCAT申請醫學院

  • and applying to medical school like a good Indian son

    當個有出息的印度兒子

  • to become the next Dr. Gupta. (Laughter)

    成為下一個Gupta醫師之前 (笑聲)

  • And I decided to shoot for the impossible and I took

    我決定給自己一個近乎不可能的機會

  • an audition for the esteemed Los Angeles Philharmonic.

    並參加聲名遠播的洛杉磯愛樂的甄試

  • It was my first audition, and after three days of playing

    那是我第一個正式甄試,而經過了

  • behind a screen in a trial week, I was offered the position.

    連續三天於屏風後演奏,我被錄取了

  • And it was a dream. It was a wild dream to perform

    那有如美夢成真。我最瘋狂的夢想就是能夠

  • in an orchestra, to perform in the iconic Walt Disney Concert Hall

    在樂團中演奏,於經典的迪士尼交響廳表演

  • in an orchestra conducted now by the famous Gustavo Dudamel,

    並於樂團中由現今名聲響亮的Gustavo Dudamel指揮

  • but much more importantly to me to be surrounded

    但對我而言更加重要的是

  • by musicians and mentors that became my new family,

    樂團的音樂家和老師,他們成為我的家人

  • my new musical home.

    我的音樂家庭

  • But a year later, I met another musician who had also

    一年後,我認識了另一位音樂家

  • studied at Juilliard, one who profoundly helped me

    他同樣從茱莉亞畢業,並且深切地幫助我

  • find my voice and shaped my identity as a musician.

    發掘以及塑造我身為音樂家的風格及身分

  • Nathaniel Ayers was a double bassist at Juilliard, but

    Nathaniel Ayers 在茱莉亞時修習低音大提琴

  • he suffered a series of psychotic episodes in his early 20s,

    然而他二十幾歲時不幸精神病發

  • was treated with thorazine at Bellevue,

    並在Bellevue醫院接受氯丙嗨(精神分裂藥名)治療

  • and ended up living homeless on the streets of Skid Row

    三十年後,他落的無家可歸

  • in downtown Los Angeles 30 years later.

    流連於洛杉磯市中心的貧民窟(Skid Row)

  • Nathaniel's story has become a beacon for homelessness

    Nathaniel的故事已經成為美國各地

  • and mental health advocacy throughout the United States,

    心理健康宣導以及街友輔導的代表故事

  • as told through the book and the movie "The Soloist,"

    並被寫成書和拍成電影《心靈獨奏》

  • but I became his friend, and I became his violin teacher,

    但是我成為他的朋友,他的小提琴老師

  • and I told him that wherever he had his violin,

    我告訴他,無論在哪裡,只要他帶著他的小提琴

  • and wherever I had mine, I would play a lesson with him.

    我也帶著我的琴,我就會陪他演奏上課

  • And on the many times I saw Nathaniel on Skid Row,

    在我多次於Skid Row陪Nathaniel演奏時

  • I witnessed how music was able to bring him back

    我親眼目睹音樂如何能夠將他從黑暗之中舉起

  • from his very darkest moments, from what seemed to me

    我親眼目睹音樂如何能夠將他從黑暗之中舉起

  • in my untrained eye to be

    如何幫助他從,在我這外行人眼中看來是精神分裂的邊緣,得到緩和

  • the beginnings of a schizophrenic episode.

    如何幫助他從,在我這外行人眼中看來是精神分裂的邊緣,得到緩和

  • Playing for Nathaniel, the music took on a deeper meaning,

    當我為Nathaniel演奏時,音樂有了更深刻的意義

  • because now it was about communication,

    因為音樂成為我們溝通的方式

  • a communication where words failed, a communication

    當言語表達無法傳達時

  • of a message that went deeper than words, that registered

    音樂的主旨有辦法比言語更深刻的

  • at a fundamentally primal level in Nathaniel's psyche,

    於Nathaniel的精神最原始之處激起回應

  • yet came as a true musical offering from me.

    並來自我忠實的音樂奉獻

  • I found myself growing outraged that someone

    我開始為Nathaniel的遭遇感到憤慨

  • like Nathaniel could have ever been homeless on Skid Row

    一個像他如此有才華的人,只因為他的精神病況

  • because of his mental illness, yet how many tens of thousands

    而淪落街頭,然而僅在Skid Row

  • of others there were out there on Skid Row alone

    就有上萬的人,擁有同樣悲慘的故事

  • who had stories as tragic as his, but were never going to have a book or a movie

    但卻沒有人幫他們寫成書、拍成電影

  • made about them that got them off the streets?

    讓他們能夠脫離無家可歸的困境?

  • And at the very core of this crisis of mine, I felt somehow

    而在我心靈交戰的核心

  • the life of music had chosen me, where somehow,

    我感到是音樂這條路選擇了我

  • perhaps possibly in a very naive sense, I felt what Skid Row

    而我有點幼稚地以為

  • really needed was somebody like Paul Farmer

    Skid Row這種地方需要的是像Paul Farmer醫師的人

  • and not another classical musician playing on Bunker Hill.

    而不是又一個在Bunker Hill演奏的古典音樂家(Bunker Hill是迪士尼音樂廳所在地)

  • But in the end, it was Nathaniel who showed me

    但最後,還是Nathaniel使我了解

  • that if I was truly passionate about change,

    如果我真正有熱情改變現況

  • if I wanted to make a difference, I already had the perfect instrument to do it,

    如果我想要有所影響,我其實早就擁有最適合的工具

  • that music was the bridge that connected my world and his.

    音樂就是連接我們倆的世界的橋梁

  • There's a beautiful quote

    德國浪漫樂派作曲家羅伯‧舒曼

  • by the Romantic German composer Robert Schumann,

    有一句美麗的名言

  • who said, "To send light into the darkness of men's hearts,

    他說:「將光明送入人內心暗處

  • such is the duty of the artist."

    這就是藝術家的職責」

  • And this is a particularly poignant quote

    他這句話特別發人省思

  • because Schumann himself suffered from schizophrenia

    因為舒曼本身受精神分裂症所擾

  • and died in asylum.

    並於精神病院過世

  • And inspired by what I learned from Nathaniel,

    我由Nathaniel身上所學到的種種受到啟發

  • I started an organization on Skid Row of musicians

    並於Skid Row組織了一個音樂家團體

  • called Street Symphony, bringing the light of music

    叫做街頭交響樂(Street Symphony),致力於

  • into the very darkest places, performing

    將音樂之光芒帶進最黑暗的地方

  • for the homeless and mentally ill at shelters and clinics

    為Skid Row的庇護所和醫療站服務的街友

  • on Skid Row, performing for combat veterans

    以及精神病患演奏,為受創傷後壓力症候群所苦的榮民

  • with post-traumatic stress disorder, and for the incarcerated

    受監禁的罪犯、以及被稱為喪心病症的人們演奏。

  • and those labeled as criminally insane.

    受監禁的罪犯、以及被稱為喪心病症的人們演奏。

  • After one of our events at the Patton State Hospital

    有一次,我們於San Bernadino的Patton State醫院

  • in San Bernardino, a woman walked up to us

    演奏結束,有一位女士走上前來

  • and she had tears streaming down her face,

    她淚流滿面

  • and she had a palsy, she was shaking,

    並些許的顫抖著

  • and she had this gorgeous smile, and she said

    並有個美麗的微笑,她說

  • that she had never heard classical music before,

    她從來沒有聽過古典音樂

  • she didn't think she was going to like it, she had never

    她本來覺得她不會喜歡,她沒聽過小提琴

  • heard a violin before, but that hearing this music was like hearing the sunshine,

    但是她聽到這音樂就像是聽到陽光一般

  • and that nobody ever came to visit them, and that for the first time in six years,

    而以前根本就不會有人探訪他們,她說

  • when she heard us play, she stopped shaking without medication.

    在這六年來第一次,她在聽我們演奏時,不需藥物,就停止顫抖

  • Suddenly, what we're finding with these concerts,

    忽然間,我們發現這些表演

  • away from the stage, away from the footlights, out

    離開了舞台,遠離聚光燈

  • of the tuxedo tails, the musicians become the conduit

    褪去了燕尾服,音樂家成為

  • for delivering the tremendous therapeutic benefits

    傳達身心療癒的媒介

  • of music on the brain to an audience that would never

    透過音樂進入大腦,慰藉一群

  • have access to this room,

    永遠無法進入表演廳的觀眾

  • would never have access to the kind of music that we make.

    永遠無法接近我們所創作的這種音樂

  • Just as medicine serves to heal more

    就如同醫藥的目標不只是治療

  • than the building blocks of the body alone,

    建構軀體的一塊塊積木

  • the power and beauty of music transcends the "E"

    音樂的力與美遠超越我們所愛的TED縮寫中的"E"(entertainment 娛樂)

  • in the middle of our beloved acronym.

    音樂的力與美遠超越我們所愛的TED縮寫中的"E"(entertainment 娛樂)

  • Music transcends the aesthetic beauty alone.

    音樂超越純粹的美學價值

  • The synchrony of emotions that we experience when we

    那種種參差的情感,可啟發於

  • hear an opera by Wagner, or a symphony by Brahms,

    韋格納的歌劇,或是布拉姆斯的交響樂

  • or chamber music by Beethoven, compels us to remember

    或是貝多芬的室內樂,那情感促使我們憶起

  • our shared, common humanity, the deeply communal

    我們共同的人性,那於最深處聯繫的意識

  • connected consciousness, the empathic consciousness

    也就是同理心意識

  • that neuropsychiatrist Iain McGilchrist says is hard-wired

    神經心理學家Iain McGilchrist曾說這意識

  • into our brain's right hemisphere.

    於大腦右葉有具體的通路

  • And for those living in the most dehumanizing conditions

    而對於那些生活在最抹滅人性的狀態中

  • of mental illness within homelessness

    受精神疾病所苦、流落街頭

  • and incarceration, the music and the beauty of music

    或是遭受監禁,音樂的美及力量

  • offers a chance for them to transcend the world around them,

    足以讓他們有機會超脫四周的世界

  • to remember that they still have the capacity to experience

    並認清他們仍有能力去體驗美麗的事物

  • something beautiful and that humanity has not forgotten them.

    而世界的人們並沒有忘記他們的存在

  • And the spark of that beauty, the spark of that humanity

    那美感觸發的火花,那閃耀的人性

  • transforms into hope,

    將蛻變成希望

  • and we know, whether we choose the path of music

    而我們都知道,無論我們選擇的是音樂

  • or of medicine, that's the very first thing we must instill

    或是醫學之路,希望永遠是最需要灌輸的

  • within our communities, within our audiences,

    無論是在我們的社區之中,或是觀眾之間

  • if we want to inspire healing from within.

    希望是由內心療癒的第一步

  • I'd like to end with a quote by John Keats,

    我想要以英國浪漫派詩人,

  • the Romantic English poet,

    濟慈,曾說的一句話做作結

  • a very famous quote that I'm sure all of you know.

    這句名言你們多數人大概聽過

  • Keats himself had also given up a career in medicine

    濟慈本人也曾放棄醫學職業

  • to pursue poetry, but he died when he was a year older than me.

    以專心作詩。他過世時只比我大一歲

  • And Keats said, "Beauty is truth, and truth beauty.

    濟慈寫道: 「美及是真,真理及是美。那就是

  • That is all ye know on Earth, and all ye need to know."

    所有你在這世上所知,和你所須知的一切。」

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

(Music)

(音樂)

字幕與單字
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B1 中級 中文 TED 演奏 小提琴 音樂家 醫師 精神

【TED】Robert Gupta: 音樂及醫療之間 (Robert Gupta: Between music and medicine)

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 03 月 10 日
影片單字