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  • Neil: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute

    Neil: 哈囉,歡迎來到六分鐘英語

  • English. I'm Neil.

    我是 Neil

  • Catherine: Hello. And I'm Catherine.

    Catherine: 哈囉。而我是 Catherine

  • Neil: Now, Catherine, how do you feel

    Neil: 現在,Catherine,你對於頭足綱

  • about cephalopods?

    的感覺是什麼?

  • Catherine: Er ... cephalopods?

    Catherine: 呃 ... 頭足綱?

  • Neil: Yeah. You do know what

    Neil: 是啊。你知道什麼是

  • cephalopods are, don't you?

    頭足綱,對吧?

  • Catherine: Yes, of course I do. It's a new

    Catherine: 是的,我當然知道。這是一款

  • kind of ipod, isn't it?

    類似新的 iPod 的東西,對不?

  • Neil: Not exactly, no. A cephalopod is a

    Neil: 不全然是,不對。頭足綱是一種

  • kind of sea creature, like a squid or

    海洋生物,像是烏賊或者

  • octopus.

    章魚。

  • Catherine: Oh, cephalopods, yes, of

    Catherine: 喔,頭足綱,對啦,當然

  • course. I know what a cephalopod is.

    我知道什麼是頭足綱啦

  • Neil: Of course you do. Well, today's

    Neil: 你當然知道囉。 好的,今天的

  • programme is all about one of these

    節目是關於一種

  • squishy creatures,

    濕濕軟軟的生物

  • the octopus, which apparently is a pretty

    也就是章魚,他們是非常

  • clever animal. To start, here's today's quiz

    聰明的動物。一開始,我們要來出今天的

  • question. What is the correct plural form

    小問答。章魚的正確複數用法

  • of octopus? Is it:

    是什麼?是:

  • a) octopuses, b) octopodes or c) octopi?

    a) octopuses b) octopodes or c) octopi?

  • What do you think, Catherine?

    你覺得呢,Catherine?

  • Catherine: OK. I think this is a trick

    Catherine: OK. 我想這是

  • question. I think people think that it's

    陷阱題。我覺得人們會想說是

  • 'octopi', but it's actually,

    ''octopi'',但其實有一個

  • there's a technical term for it, which is the

    技術性詞彙來描述,正確的

  • correct term and that's 'octopodes'.

    詞彙是 octopodes

  • But some people think, like children and

    但是有一些人會以為像小孩和物品一樣,

  • stuff, they just put the plural 's' on so they

    就只要在字尾加上 s 就好

  • say 'octopuses'.

    所以他們會說 octopuses

  • So I'm going for answer b) octopodes.

    所以我會回答 b) octopodes

  • Neil: Wow! Listen out for the answer at

    Neil: 哇!節目的最後

  • the end of the programme, just to see

    就會公布答案,看看

  • how right or wrong you are.

    你的答案正不正確

  • Now, apparently the octopus is a

    現在,章魚是公認

  • remarkably intelligent creature.

    相當聰明的生物

  • They have the ability to solve some

    它們有能力去解決

  • complex problems and in one famous

    複雜的問題,並且在一個相當知名的

  • case one was even

    事件:甚至

  • able to predict the result of World Cup

    能夠預測世界盃的對戰

  • football matches.

    結果

  • Catherine: Oh yes, that was Paul the

    Catherine: 喔對,那是在說章魚保羅

  • octopus. I don't think he was really

    我不覺得它是真的

  • psychic though. It was just a

    靈媒,就只是

  • publicity stunt by the zoo that had him,

    動物園一種公開的特技安排

  • as a way to promote their zoo.

    來推銷他們的動物園罷了

  • Neil: It may have been a publicity stunt,

    Neil: 這也許是一種公開的特技安排

  • but he was actually quite accurate. In fact,

    但是保羅還真的是蠻準的喔。事實上

  • he correctly predicted the result of 12

    它正確地預測了 14 場中的

  • matches out of 14 - that's 86%. Not bad, eh?

    12場比賽 - 那是百分之 86 的準確率耶。不差吧,耶?

  • Catherine: That's amazing. I didn't know

    Catherine: 真是太驚人了。我不知道

  • he was that good. Anyway, Neil, tell us

    它有這麼厲害。無論如何,Neil,多告訴我們

  • some more about the octopus.

    一些關於章魚的事

  • Neil: Well, I'll leave that to

    Neil: 這個嘛,我會把這個留給

  • Peter Godfrey-Smith, philosopher of

    Peter Godfrey-Smith,科學哲學家

  • science and author of Other Minds: The

    和《其他心智:章

  • Octopus, the Sea, and the Deep Origins of

    魚、大海,和意識的深層起源》

  • Consciousness. He is quite a fan

    他是我們八隻腳的朋友的

  • of our eight-tentacled friends. On the BBC

    粉絲。在 BBC

  • Radio 4 programme Start the Week he

    Radio 4 節目 Start the Week 上面他

  • said that

    提到

  • humans and the octopus have a common

    人類和章魚有共同的

  • ancestor. This is a term in science which

    祖先。這在科學當中

  • means a creature

    表示一種生物

  • from which both species evolved. Like a

    演化後分之成了兩種生物。像是

  • very distant relative. How long ago does

    非常遙遠的親戚。這個所謂的祖先

  • he say this common ancestor lived?

    究竟是活在多久以前?

  • Peter Godfrey-Smith: We got the octopus

    Peter Godfrey-Smith: 我們把章魚

  • as a very special evolutionary product. It's

    視為一種演化非常特異的生物。他是在演化上

  • an animal that's removed from us by a lot

    距離我們相當

  • of evolutionary distance. The common

    遙遠的動物

  • ancestor that we share with an octopus

    我們人類和章魚的共同祖先

  • lived about 600 million years ago or

    生活在大約距今 6 億年前

  • actually even a bit

    或者更久遠之前

  • longer than that. But it has a large

    但它擁有

  • nervous system in a range comparable to

    已可與脊椎動物比擬的

  • vertebrates.

    巨大神經系統

  • Catherine: So our common ancestor lived

    Catherine: 所以我們的共同祖先生活在距今

  • about 600 million years ago - or maybe a

    約六億年前 - 甚至

  • little bit longer than that.

    遠比那更早之前

  • Neil: And he says that the octopus has a

    Neil: 並且他說它擁有可以跟

  • nervous system that is comparable to

    脊椎動物相比的巨大神經系統

  • vertebrates. Comparable means similar

    comparable 的意思相近於

  • to, like, and vertebrates is the term for the

    like,而脊椎動物

  • group of animals that

    代表一群

  • have a spine or backbone. We humans

    擁有脊椎或是背骨的動物。我們人類

  • are examples of vertebrates.

    就是脊椎動物的一個例子

  • Catherine: So what Godfrey-Smith is

    Catherine: 所以 Godfrey-Smith

  • saying is that the squishy octopus has a

    意思是濕濕黏黏的章魚它的巨大

  • nervous system which has some

    神經系統跟我們人類的

  • similarities to our own in that it's quite

    有些類似,以章魚體型來說

  • large.

    相當巨大

  • Neil: And a large nervous system is a sign

    Neil: 而巨大的神經系統是具有智力

  • of intelligence. He goes on to talk a bit

    的可能跡象。他繼續說一些

  • more about how we might be able to

    關於我們如何與

  • relate to the octopus. He talks about the

    章魚能扯上關係。他談到章魚身體

  • protean nature of its body.

    的變化多端

  • Protean is an adjective which means

    Protean是一個形容詞,代表

  • adaptable or changeable, and the

    能適應或能改變的,而章魚

  • octopus's body is certainly that. Why

    的身體絕對是那樣的。為什麼

  • might that be a problem for us?

    那對我們是個問題?

  • Peter Godfrey-Smith: The sensory world

    Peter Godfrey-Smith: 章魚的感官世界

  • of an octopus has, in some way it's

    在某些狀況是

  • recognisable. They're very visual animals,

    可以辨別的。它們是非常視覺的動物,

  • they're very taste-oriented animals and

    它們是味覺導向的動物,而且

  • those things make sense to us.

    那些事情也對我們是有意義的

  • But the absence of hard parts, the

    但是缺少了堅硬的部分,

  • protean nature of the body and the sort

    可隨環境而改變的身體和某種

  • of extent of the sensitivity makes it a hard

    高度敏銳度讓我們對它

  • thing to think about.

    難以捉摸

  • Catherine: This is interesting, isn't it?

    Catherine: 這真是有趣,不是嗎?

  • So the octopus uses its senses of vision

    所以章魚使用它的視覺

  • and taste, like we do,

    和嗅覺,像我們一樣

  • and this is something we can recognise,

    而這是我們能夠辨識出來的

  • but what is tricky for us is

    但弔詭的是

  • that its form is so completely different

    它與我們的形態又是那麼

  • from ours. The octopus isn't a vertebrate

    的不同。章魚不是脊椎動物

  • so it can change its

    所以它的形體

  • form and its shape very easily.

    和形狀能夠輕易地改變

  • Neil: Yes, we're not used to thinking of

    Neil: 是的,我們不習慣把

  • soft squishy things having intelligence.

    軟軟、濕濕黏黏的生物和有智慧這件事連結在一起

  • And speaking of intelligence, we've been

    說到智慧,我們

  • very careful not to use the plural of

    非常小心避免使用

  • octopus so as not to

    octopus的複數,以防

  • give away the answer to today's question

    透露出今天問題的答案

  • which was: what's the correct plural form?

    也就是:正確的複數形是甚麼?

  • a) octopuses, b) octopodes or c) octopi

    a) octopuses, b) octopodes or c) octopi

  • Catherine, you said...

    Catherine,你之前回答...

  • Catherine: Well, I said that some people

    Catherine: 嗯,我說某些人

  • think it's 'octopuses', a lot of people think

    會說是"octopuses",許多人會覺得是

  • it's 'octopi', but the actual answer is

    octopi,但正確的答案是

  • 'octopodes'.

    octopodes

  • Neil: And you're completely right.

    Neil: 你完全正確

  • Congratulations!

    恭喜!

  • Catherine: Thank you. So let's review

    Catherine: 謝謝你。我們回顧

  • today's vocabulary. Cephalopod is the

    今天的字彙。cephalopod是指一群

  • name of the group of

    與章魚

  • animals to which the octopus belongs.

    同類的動物的名稱

  • Neil: A publicity stunt is something a

    Neil: 公開的特技是指公司

  • company might do to grab your attention

    為了吸引你的注意力

  • and promote its products.

    和宣傳它的產品所做的事情

  • Like claiming an octopus can

    像是宣稱一隻章魚能夠

  • predict the winner of football matches.

    預測世足賽勝隊一樣

  • Catherine: A common ancestor is a

    Catherine: 一個共同祖先是指

  • distant relative from which two different

    一個演化成兩個不同物種的

  • species evolved.

    共同來源

  • Neil: Comparable to means 'similar to' and

    Neil: comparable 表示與...相似和

  • vertebrates are animals that have a spine.

    脊椎動物是有背骨的動物的總稱

  • Catherine: And then finally we had

    Catherine: 而最後我們學到

  • protean, this adjective means 'adaptable

    protean,這個形容詞代表「能適應的」

  • and changeable'.

    和「能改變的」

  • Neil: Time now for us to say goodbye but

    Neil: 該說再見了但是

  • remember you can find us on Instagram,

    記得你可以在 Instagram上、

  • Facebook, Twitter,

    臉書、推特

  • YouTube as well as our website,

    YouTube 和我們的官網

  • bbclearningenglish.com.

    bbclearningenglish.com

  • So be sure to check us on one, several or

    再次見面之前

  • all of those before joining us again.

    請務必透過上述一個、數個或者全部的管道來收看我們,

  • Goodbye.

    再見

  • Catherine: Bye!

    Catherine: 掰!

Neil: Hello and welcome to 6 Minute

Neil: 哈囉,歡迎來到六分鐘英語

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 章魚 動物 生物 祖先 正確 演化

【BBC 英語】六分鐘學會章魚多有智慧! (Learn how intelligent the octopus is in 6 minutes!)

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    Evangeline 發佈於 2018 年 08 月 03 日
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