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  • This episode is supported by The Great Courses Plus.

    這集影片是由 The Great Courses Plus 贊助播出。

  • Hi, I'm Thomas Frank, this is Crash Course Study Skills, and with this video in particular, I want you to promise me you're not going to click over to another tab to look at cats.

    嗨!我是 Thomas Frank ,這裡是學習技巧速成班,這集比較特別,我希望你和我保證你不會切去其它影片看貓貓。

  • In exchange I'll pretend that's not exactly what you did during the last four videos.

    相對的我也會假設你前四集都沒有這麼做。

  • In all seriousness though, I do want you to ask yourself: when's the last time you were able to sit down and intensely pay attention to one task for a long time?

    講認真的,我希望你問問你自己:上次你長時間坐著認真地做一件事情是什麼時候?

  • If you're anything like me, this has become harder and harder to do as we've added more distractions to our lives.

    如果你和我哪怕有一點像,這已經越來越難了,因為我們生活中有太多事情可以分心了。

  • Tweets, snaps, messages, browser tabs, cookies that must be clickedthey're in endless supply, while your brain's ability to resist them is, sadly, not.

    像是這些必點的推特、提醒列、訊息、搜尋列、 cookie-源源不絕的出現,而你的大腦很遺憾地,無法抗拒它們的誘惑。

  • So that's why today we're turning our attention to attention itself.

    所以這就是為什麼我們今天要把我們的注意力放在注意力本身上。

  • Cue the intro.

    請上前導動畫。

  • [Theme Music]

    [主題音樂]

  • Before we get into any specific tips, let's first answer the question of what attention really is.

    在我們開始談今天的重點前,我們先來想想何謂注意力。

  • Put simply, attention is the process of focusing your cognitive resources on one particular stimulus or source of information while ignoring all others in the environment.

    簡單來說,注意力是一個把認知資源集中在一個特定的刺激物或來源上,忽略其他環境中的要素。

  • Understanding this definition is important because there are two main forms of attention.

    了解這個定義很重要,因為有兩種注意力。

  • The first is top-down, or voluntary attention, which is based on "task demands" like needing to read a page in a textbook or solve a math problem.

    第一種是由上而下的,或說自主注意力,基於「任務需求」像是需要讀一頁課文或解一題數學。

  • On the other side of the coin you've got bottom-up, or stimulus-driven, attention.

    另一方面,你也有由下而上的,或說刺激物引發的注意力。

  • Just like it sounds, this is automatically focused attention due to stimuli in the environmentSQUIRREL.

    像是聲音,這是因環境刺激物而自然產生的注意力-松鼠!

  • When you use your top-down attention to focus on something, your brain activates inhibitory mechanisms to block out competing stimuli.

    當你使用你由上而下的注意力專注在某件事上時,你的腦主動的阻隔機制會阻擋其它競爭的刺激物。

  • It can't do this forever, though; these mechanisms eventually tire just like the muscles in our body, and this leads to something called Directed Attention Fatigue.

    然而這個狀態無法永遠維持,就像我們身上的肌肉一樣,這個機制最終會疲勞,導致所謂的直接性注意力疲勞。

  • This is part of what causes you to become more and more distracted and less able to focus on your work as time goes by.

    這是隨著時間經過,你會變得越來越容易分心,而無法專注在你工作上的部分原因。

  • Now, the strength of your inhibitory mechanisms, and hence your ability to focus on one task intensely, is variable.

    現在可以說你隔絕機制的強度,也就是你能好好專注在工作上的能力,是會變動的。

  • It depends on lots of different factors, including: Your environment.

    這和很多因素有關,包括:你的環境。

  • Your personal tendency to seek novelty when faced with a boring or difficult task.

    在執行既無聊又困難的任務時,你追求新奇事物的傾向。

  • Your interest in the task itself.

    你對任務本身的興趣。

  • Your brain's current state, which is dependent on the amount of fuel or food you've got, rest, exercise, anxiety, and a lot of different factors.

    你大腦目前的狀態,這會受你補充的能源或著說食物、休息、運動、焦慮還有很多不同的因子影響。

  • How long you've already been focusing your attention.

    你已經維持專注多久了。

  • With that in mind, let's look at several different things that you can do to strengthen your attention muscle and also give it as much ammunition as it can get to focus well on whatever task you need to finish.

    考慮以上幾點,我們來看一些可以強化你注意力肌肉的方法,也盡量提供一些支持輔助,使你能好好專注在任何你需要完成的任務上。

  • The first thing you need to do is stop multi-tasking.

    第一件你需要做的,就是停止多工處理。

  • Many people try to deny it, but your brain can't actually do two things at once.

    很多人不承認,但你的腦沒辦法真的同時做兩件事。

  • Think of your brain like a single-core processor in a computer.

    把你的腦想成電腦裡的單核處理器。

  • These types of processors don't truly do multiple things at oncethey just create the illusion of multi-tasking by rapidly switching from one task to another.

    這類型的處理器無法真的一次多工處理-只是經由快速地在任務間切換造成一種多工的幻覺。

  • So while you may think you're simultaneously watching this video and looking at pictures of catswhich I did ask you very nicely not to doyour computer is actually just jumping back and forth between each.

    所以你可以想像你在看這個影片時同時在看貓貓圖-也就是我已經千萬拜託你不要做的事-你的電腦實際上是在不同工作之間跳進跳出。

  • But your brain is not good at doing this, which is why when you switch your attention from one task to another, you incur a cognitive switching penalty.

    但你的腦並不擅長這麼做,這也是為什麼在你把注意力從原本的工作轉移到其他任務時會有認知轉換困難。

  • Not only do you lose the raw amount of time it takes to switch from one task to another, but you also lose the amount of time it takes for your brain to properly refocus its attention and get back into the flow of things.

    不僅僅是因為在轉移注意力時會耗費一些時間,還會損失一些時間讓你的腦重新維持專注及找回工作進度的思緒。

  • And this can take quite a while, both because our brains simply take time to truly focus on a task in the first place, but also because switching from one task to another creates attention residue.

    這個可以耗上好一會兒,因為讓我們的腦真正專心在一件事上本來就要花上不少時間,又因為從一件事情轉移注意力到另一件事情上會產生注意力殘留。

  • As the author Cal Newport explains in his book Deep Work: "...when you switch from some Task A to another Task B, your attention doesn't immediately follow— a residue of your attention remains stuck thinking about the original task."

    就像 Cal Newport 在他的著作 Deep Work 深度工作力中寫的:「... 當你從任務 A 轉移到任務 B ,你的注意力並沒有立刻跟上-會有殘留的注意力仍然在思索原來的任務。」

  • This also happens when you switch from the task you're supposed to be focusing on over to a distraction, and then go back to the task after a few minutes.

    這也發生在你從原本該專注的工作中分神到其它事情上,然後過幾分鐘又回到你原來的工作時。

  • As you try to get back into the flow of your work, you'll be contending with the attention residue from that mashup of the Space Jam and Cowboy Bebop theme songs you just listened to on YouTube.

    當你試著回到你的工作思路,你需要和你剛剛殘留在 YouTube 上怪物奇兵和星際牛仔主題混編曲的注意力競爭。

  • So, when you sit down and decide to work, choose one task and make it your only focus.

    所以當你坐下決定要工作時,選好一個任務且只專注在這件事上。

  • You don't have to sit there and work on it until people mistake you for a hat rack, but do spend at least 20 or 30 minutes on it before switching to something else.

    你並不需要坐在那邊工作直到別人錯把你當成帽架為止,但是在去做其它事情前,請確保你已專心處理這件事至少二十或三十分鐘。

  • Secondly, tailor your environment for better focus.

    第二,把你的環境調整到適合專心。

  • Let's go to the Thought Bubble.

    我們來看看 Thought Bubble。

  • Start by finding a spot, either in your room or somewhere else, that you use ONLY for studying.

    可以從找個地點開始,也許是你的房間或是其它地方,是「專門」用來學習的。

  • By doing this, you're establishing a spot for yourself that has just one context, and context is powerful.

    這麼一來,你就替你自己建立了一個有固定環境背景的學習點,這個環境背景非常地強大。

  • When your location, the people you're around, and all the other pieces of your environment point to a single activity, you'll be much more likely to do it.

    當你的地點、周圍的人或其它環境中的片段因子都指向同一個活動目的,你就更可能去執行。

  • When you're in the gym, your brain knows you're there to work out.

    當你在健身房,你的腦知道你是要在那健身。

  • And even if you don't do it, it won't be because you're sitting there trying to decide between doing a set of pull-ups anddoing your laundry.

    而即使你不這麼做,也不會是因為你坐在那邊考慮要做伏地挺身還是洗衣服。

  • A lot of great artists understand this, and they deliberately find or create spaces that are only for work.

    很多偉大的藝術家了解這點,所以也會刻意尋找或創造一個空間是專門用來工作的。

  • Some choose to work in cafes, like Nicholson's Cafe in Edinburgh, where J.K. Rowling wrote much of her first book, and some create isolated work spaces in their own homes, like the author Steven Pressfield.

    有些選擇在咖啡廳工作,像是在愛丁堡的 Nicholson's Cafe 裡 J.K. 羅琳就完成了她第一本書的許多章節,也有些人會在家中創造獨立的工作間,像是 Steven Pressfield。

  • Those examples highlight another important point, actuallythere is no formula for a perfect study spot.

    這些例子凸顯了另一個重點,事實上-沒有一個公式可以導出的完美工作點。

  • It would seem like a silent, totally isolated desk in the basement of a library would put the least amount of strain on those inhibitory mechanisms, but as J.K. Rowling can attest, some people actually work better in a noisy coffee shop.

    雖然在一個圖書館地下室裡安靜獨立的書桌,看起來最沒有那些妨礙機制的拉力,但就像 J.K. 羅琳可以證明的,有些人就是在吵雜的咖啡廳裡會工作得更好。

  • So you might need to experiment a bit before you find the context that works best for you.

    所以你在尋找最適合的工作環境前,也許需要做點實驗。

  • In general, though, the fewer things that are competing for your attention, the better.

    即使如此,一般來說越少東西會和你競爭專注力會越好。

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble.

    謝啦! Thought Bubble。

  • Once you've chosen your spot, prepare it for your current task by putting away anything non-essential.

    一旦你選好了你的工作點,就整備打理環境,把和你當前任務不相干的任何東西移開。

  • This includes removing books and supplies that are unrelated, closing any tabs or programs you don't need, and putting away your phone.

    這包括移除不相關的書籍和補充資料,關掉所有不需要的分頁和程式,還有拿開你的手機。

  • When you're doing this, it can also be helpful to break your current task down into smaller chunks in order to decide what's essential to have out.

    當你這麼做,經由決定什麼是需移除的,也可以幫助你將當前的任務分成比較小的細項。

  • The act of writing a research paper is a good example here.

    在這裡,撰寫一篇研究論文是很好的例子。

  • If you just think, "I have to write a paper," and then prep your study space for that task, then you'll have the internet open the whole time so you can do research.

    如果你只想著:「我必需寫一篇論文」,然後替這個任務整備你的學習空間,那麼你會隨時上著網如此你才能做搜尋研究。

  • But in reality, you can break that task down into several phasesbrainstorming, researching, drafting, and editing.

    但事實上,你可以把這個任務拆解成不同的階段-腦力激盪、搜尋研究、擬草案和編輯。

  • And once you do that, you'll realize you only need the internet for that research phase.

    一旦你這麼做,你將發現你只需要在搜尋研究階段上網。

  • During all the other ones, you can close it and cut its potential for being a distraction.

    在其它階段,你可以把網路關掉,去除它讓你分心的可能性。

  • All those cats are still gonna be there later, I promise.

    我和你保證那些貓咪等等還是會在那邊的啦!

  • Also, anticipate potential distractions that might come up and try to get ahead of them.

    也要先預想可能會讓你分心的東西,然後先一步處理。

  • Maybe put your phone on do not disturb so no one can text you, or tell your friends you're studying and ask them not to bother you for a while.

    也許可以把你的手機切到勿擾模式,這樣就沒人可以傳訊息給你了,或是和你朋友說你在用功,請他們暫時不要打擾你一會兒。

  • Anything you can do to mitigate future distractions will help you to stay focused and finish your work faster.

    任何你做的預防分心的措施,都會幫助你維持專注和更快完成你的工作。

  • Once your study environment is established, the next area you should look to improve is your actual ability to focus.

    一旦你的學習環境建立,接下來要試著改善的就是你實際的專注力。

  • As we talked about before, your attention is like a muscle; it's something you can train over time to get stronger.

    就像我之前說的,你的注意力就像是肌肉,你可經由一段時間的訓練可使它更強大。

  • One of the best ways to do this is by learning to resist cravings for novelty.

    其中一個最好的方法,就是學習抗拒對新奇事物的渴望。

  • These are the sudden urges you get to check Snapchat or watch video of a corgi jumping into a lake while you're working on your English homework.

    像是你在做英文作業時,就很想要檢查 Snapchat 的訊息,或是看柯基跳湖影片的衝動。

  • You get these cravings because, by default, your brain doesn't like boredom or hard work.

    你會有這些渴望因為你的腦預設就討厭無聊的東西或困難的功課。

  • But the strength of these cravings is set by how often you give into them.

    但你越常妥協,這些渴望就越強大。

  • Our actions create habits and expectations in our brains, and these become hard-wired patterns of behavior.

    我們的行動造就了我們的習慣和腦中的預想,這些就成為我們根深蒂固的行為徵象。

  • And this means that every time you give into that craving for a distraction, you're ingraining that decision as a habit.

    這也代表每次你順從了你的渴望而分心,你就讓這個決定深植最終變成習慣。

  • Luckily, you can also train the opposite behavior.

    幸運地是,你也可以往反方向作訓練。

  • By acknowledging a craving for novelty, and then deliberately ignoring it and getting back to work, you start to build a tolerance for boredom and wean yourself off of that need for constant stimulation.

    經由確認對新奇渴望的存在,再刻意地忽視它及回到工作崗位,你就開始建立對無聊事物的耐受度,以及斷絕你對持續刺激的依賴。

  • As you do this, your ability to focus on your work strengthens.

    只要你這麼做,你對專注在工作上的能力就變得更強大。

  • You're building that attention muscle.

    你在建構注意力的肌肉。

  • Now, doing this is easier said than doneespecially at first.

    現在我要說的是,說的比做的簡單-特別是在一開始。

  • However, there are tools you can use to give your brain some extra firepower in the early stages.

    然而有一些工具你可以利用,在開始階段就為你的腦增加一些額外的助力。

  • Apps like Cold Turkey and StayFocusd can block distracting websites entirely, while a tool like Forest encourages you to ignore your phone by letting you grow virtual trees.

    例如一些應用程式像是 Cold Turkey 和 StayFocusd ,可以完全阻隔讓人分心的網頁,還有像是 Forest 會鼓勵你無視你的手機,作為獎勵會讓你種一棵真正的樹。

  • And when you don't need a tool like the internet for your work, disconnecting it eliminates its potential for distraction entirely.

    而當你的工作不需要網路時,直接斷線可以完全消除讓你分心的可能性。

  • Of course, even with training, your brain's ability to focus still diminishes over time.

    當然,即是經過訓練,你的腦維持專注的能力還是會隨著時間下降。

  • Unlike computers, which are built to run all the time as long as they've got a steady supply of resources, our brains operate on a cycle of work and rest.

    不像電腦,只要有穩定的能源就可以持續運作的,我們的腦需依靠工作與休息的循環來運轉。

  • Your circadian rhythm, which governs your sleep and wake cycle, is the best examplebut it also applies on the smaller scale as well.

    例如你掌管著睡眠和醒覺循環的生理時鐘就是個好例子-但是也可應用在較小的層級。

  • After a certain amount of work, you need to take a break.

    在經過一定量的工作後,你就需要休息一下。

  • Now the amount of time will vary from person to person, but a good guideline to use is 25-30 minutes.

    要休息多久因人而異,但二十五到三十分鐘是個很好的參考標準。

  • Once you've spent that long on a task, if you feel your attention waning, take a break for a few minutes.

    一旦你已經花了很長時間在工作,且你發現你的專注力在衰退,就花幾分鐘休息一下。

  • Stand up, stretch, walk around a bitmaybe get some water.

    站起來、伸展、走一走-或許去拿杯水。

  • During these short breaks, it's important not to switch to another task or get involved in something distracting, as you don't want to create that attention residue that makes it harder to get back into your work.

    在這些短短的休息時間,重要的是不要再轉移注意力到另一件工作上,或分心去做其它事情,因為你不會想又產生注意力殘留,讓你難以回到原本工作。

  • After a few work sessions with these short breaks in between, you can then take a longer break to recharge.

    經過幾段的工作穿插著這些喘息片段,你可以休息久一點來充電。

  • And during these longer breaks, it's fine to switch to something easier or do something fun for a little whileas long as you're planning in advance when these breaks will happen.

    在比較長的休息時間,可以去做些比較簡單的或有趣的活動只要-你有先預先排定這些休息時段。

  • That way, you're deliberately choosing when to work and when to indulge in distractions, rather than letting your mind be ruled by cravings for novelty.

    這樣一來,你是有意的安排何時工作及何時可放縱地分神,而不是讓你的意識被對好奇的渴望所約束。

  • Now, as time goes on, you'll probably find that you can go longer and longer before needing a break.

    隨著時間過去,你應該會發現你能夠工作的時間越來越久,才需要休息一下。

  • This is a good sign that you're building those attention muscles.

    這是一個好象徵,代表你正在建構那些注意力肌肉。

  • But realize that you'll always have a limited amount of focused energy you can expend in a day.

    但要知道,你在一天中的專注能量總是有上限的。

  • Eventually, you've got to call it quits and go relax for a bit.

    最終,你還是要停下來放鬆一會兒。

  • And relaxation isn't the only thing your brain needs.

    而你的腦需要的也不只是放鬆。

  • To keep being able to focus and improve long-term, you need to take care of your brain's biological needs as well.

    為了維持專注能力和改善長期效能,你也需要照顧你腦袋的生理需求。

  • We often think of the brain as this non physical, ethereal realm that isn't bound by the same limitations of our bodies.

    我們常常想像我們的腦是虛無飄渺的,不被我們身體的規則所束縛限制。

  • You know, "mind over matter" and all that stuff.

    你知道的,就是「心靈勝於物質」之類的。

  • But your brain is still part of your body, which means that it needs plenty of sleep, nutrients, and exercise to work at peak efficiency.

    但是你的腦依然是身體的一部分,代表它也需要睡眠、營養還有運動以維持最高效率。

  • So if you're still struggling to focus, look at your health habits.

    所以如果你還在為專心而奮鬥,檢查一下你的健康習慣。

  • Make sure you're getting at least 7 hours of sleep per night, eat healthy, and try to exercise once a day, even if it's just a short walk.

    確保你每晚至少睡七小時,飲食健康還有試著每天運動一次,即使只是走一小段路。

  • These things all take time, butto quote Deep Work once again: High Quality Work = (Time Spent) x (Intensity of Focus).

    這些事都要花時間-再引用一次 Deep Work 深度工作力的內容:高品質的工作 = (時間花費) x (專注力的強度)。

  • Taking care of your brain will allow you to focus more intensely when you do decide to work.

    照顧好你的腦會讓你在決定要工作時專注力更強。

  • Of course, making that decision to start working isn't always easy, which is why next week we'll be tackling what is probably the biggest problem students struggle with, which is procrastination.

    當然,決定開始工作並不總是那麼容易,也是為什麼下個禮拜我們要來對付學生們最大的問題 - 拖延。

  • I'll see you then.

    那就再見了。

  • This episode is brought to you by The Great Courses Plus, an on-demand subscription service where you can get unlimited access to over 7,000 different video lectures about any topic that interests you, including science, literature, history, math, even cooking or photography.

    這集影片是由 The Great Courses Plus 贊助撥出,The Great Courses Plus 是一個需求訂閱服務,你可以在那無限次地閱覽你有興趣的各式主題課程,影片數量超過七千部,包含科學、文學、歷史、數學,甚至烹飪或攝影。

  • The classes are taught by award winning professorsfrom the Ivy League and other top schools around the world.

    課程是由獲獎的教授 – 來自常春藤聯盟和其它全世界頂尖學校 – 所授課。

  • If you're looking to improve your study skills further, you might like this lecture from Professor Monisha Pasupathi, called Cognitive Constraints on Learning, which expands on how attention affects your learning experiences.

    如果你正在找方法進一步加強你的學習技巧,你也許會喜歡這門 Monisha Pasupathi 教授的課,叫做學習的認知束縛,會進一步談到注意力是如何影像你的學習經驗的。

  • Right now, The Great Courses Plus is offering Crash Course viewers a free one-month trial.

    現在, The Great Courses Plus 提供速成班影片觀看者一個月免費試用。

  • Go to thegreatcoursesplus.com/studyskills, or click on the link in the video description below, to start your free trial today.

    前往 thegreatcoursesplus.com/studyskills 或是點擊下方影片敘述連結,今天就開始免費試用吧。

  • Crash Course Study Skills is filmed in the Dr. Cheryl C. Kinney Crash Course Studio in Missoula, MT, and it's made with the help of all of these nice people.

    學習技巧速成班是由 Cheryl C 博士和蒙大拿州米蘇拉市的 Kinney 速成班工作室以及這幾位大好人的協助所拍攝而成。

  • If you'd like to keep Crash Course free for everyone, forever, you can support the series over at Patreon, a crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love.

    如果你願意幫助速成班系列影片永久免費提供大家學習,你可以到 Patreon 平台上贊助,它是是一個募資平台,讓你可以支持你喜歡的內容。

  • Thank you so much for your support.

    非常感謝你的支持。

This episode is supported by The Great Courses Plus.

這集影片是由 The Great Courses Plus 贊助播出。

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 CrashCourse 注意力 工作 速成班 任務 專注

讀書技巧速成班:專注與專心 (Focus & Concentration: Crash Course Study Skills #5)

影片單字