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  • Top 10 Ways China Is Ruining Its Own Environment

    造成中國環境危機的前十大原因

  • 10.

    第十

  • Poor Air Quality Is Creating A Tremendous Death Toll

    低劣的空氣品質造成高人口死亡

  • The air pollution problem often keeps many people indoors, and forces them to wear masks

    空氣污染讓居民時常待在屋內,也迫使他們戴上口罩來隔絕有毒空氣

  • to keep out toxic fumes even on days where total avoidance of the outside isn't advised.

    就連不得不外出的日子也得戴上口罩

  • This problem is giving China a black eye on the national stage.

    這個問題讓中國在國際舞台上黯然失色

  • Even after the Beijing Olympics, when the problem became more obvious, the true extent

    即使過了北京奧運,這項問題看似浮出台面

  • of pollution was swept under the rug.

    但對比真正污染的程度仍是冰山一角

  • China has never offered journalists free reign to poke around, and has long denied any major

    中國從未給記者自由報導的權力,也時常否認

  • problems caused by the air pollution.

    任何造成空氣污染的主因

  • However, a joint study involving the Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning and the

    然而,中國環境規劃研究院和世界衛生組織的一項聯合研究

  • World Health Organization found that somewhere between 350,000 to 500,000 Chinese people

    發現介於 350,000 到 500,000 的中國人

  • areprematurelydying from lung cancer due to pollution.

    因為空氣污染而「過早」死於肺癌

  • Unfortunately, there are people who try to hand wave these numbers away.

    不幸的是,有人試圖將這些數據掩蓋

  • China's government has tried to keep journalists from even talking about the issue, and they've

    中國政府嘗試要記者避免談論這項議題

  • done their best to keep the numbers out of international reports whenever possible.

    也盡可能地保持國際上所報導的數字

  • While some would suggest that all the smoking in China is the main cause, the study makes

    雖然有些人認為在中國吸煙是造成肺癌的主因,但研究明確顯示

  • it clear that the number of people dying from lung cancer have continued to rise even as

    即使抽煙人口早已下降,因肺癌造成的死亡人口

  • the number of smokers has declined.

    依然持續上升

  • 9.

    第九

  • They Are Burning Petcoke As Fuel

    中國以燃燒石油做為燃料

  • The United States likes to feel that they're a much cleaner country than China, and that

    美國認為他們比中國更注重空氣衛生

  • they're doing more to deal with the crisis of pollution and renewable energy.

    所以他們想在空氣污染與再生能源危機多盡份心力

  • However, the situation is more complicated than it seems.

    然而,情況比想像中複雜很多

  • The United States and other countries are happy to buy products made using Chinese industry

    美國與其他國家樂於購買中國工廠製的商品

  • while claiming to take the high road themselves.

    並聲稱自己抉擇是正確的

  • The United States has put its foot down on certain fuels such as petroleum coke (petcoke).

    美國也已經放棄了某些燃料,像是石油焦

  • This fossil fuel is a byproduct of the oil refining process and is much, much dirtier

    這種化石燃料是煉油過程所產生的副產品,也比燃煤

  • than burning actual coal.

    更加、更加地骯髒

  • While America don't use the fuel, the US exports it to China so America can make some

    雖然美國不使用燃料,但他們將這些燃料副產品出口到中國

  • money off this byproduct instead of just letting the dangerous pollutantgo to waste.”

    從中獲取利潤,而不是就讓這些危險的污染源就此「浪費掉」

  • Every year, the amount of petcoke exported to China grows, because it's an incredibly

    每一年,中國進口石油焦的數量增長,因為這種燃料十分便宜

  • cheap fuel and China is dealing with the industrial demands of much of the modern world.

    再加上中國是在現金時代處理大部分工業需求的國家

  • While it's cheap, it is hardly sustainable.

    雖然這類燃料便宜,卻無法持久

  • With carbon emissions already out of control, using a fossil fuel that's dirtier than

    隨著碳排放量早已失控的情況,使用比煤炭更容易造成污染的

  • coal is going to make an environmental crisis approach even faster.

    化石燃料助長了環境危機發生

  • Of course, the rest of the world is partly to blame for selling the stuff in the first

    當然,其他部分國家首先將這樣的情況歸咎於

  • place.

    出售這些東西

  • Sometimes it's better to think about protecting the world from catastrophe than it is about squeezing

    有時候我們最好先保衛世界免於釀成災難,而不是想著從我們已經浪費的資源裡

  • every last cent of profit out of your waste.

    擠出一些僅剩的利潤

  • 8.

    第八

  • Record Algae Growth

    記錄藻類生長

  • While algae blooms aren't necessarily dangerous to humans, they're usually a bad sign for

    雖然藻類茂盛對人類沒有絕對危險,但他們對當地生態系統來說

  • the local ecosystem.

    是不好的徵兆

  • Large blooms of algae have been surfacing every year in the Yellow Sea near the Qingdao

    在青島旁邊的黃海,每年都有大量藻類浮出海面

  • Province, and the problem seems to be worsening.

    問題也似乎越來越嚴重

  • These huge piles of algae sitting on top of the water create an enormous mess, and in

    大量的藻類布滿水面造成巨大的混亂

  • 2013 the local government was tasked with trying to clean up a bloom that was larger

    在 2013 年,當地政府的任務就是清理這些面積超過

  • than 11,000 square miles.

    11,000 平方英里的藻類

  • These algae blooms greatly affect the local marine life, which often simply can't survive

    藻類的繁殖影響當地海洋生物極大,這些生物往往無法在

  • the conditions they're forced to deal with.

    他們被迫身處的環境下生存

  • The algae tends to block the sun's rays, and can also greatly change the chemical balance

    藻類的生長會擋住陽光照射,也會嚴重影響到水中化學變化

  • of the water.

    的平衡

  • To make matters worse, the algae can start to cause problems to humans when it decomposes

    讓事情演變更糟的是,藻類分解所散發的有毒氣體至大氣層

  • and sends toxic fumes into the atmosphere.

    可能開始會給人類帶來一些麻煩

  • When the Olympics were hosted in China, the government had to spend millions and enlist

    奧運在中國舉辦時,政府必須花費數萬以及聘用 10,000 人

  • the aid of 10,000 people to clean the algae up enough to allow the games to continue.

    協助清理藻類才得以讓活動繼續進行

  • The damage from that year alone was estimated to cost local seafood farmers roughly 100

    根據估算,就那麼一年便讓當地海鮮農民

  • million dollars.

    損失了大約一億美金

  • Part of the problem may be seaweed farmers, who are scraping waste into the water that

    部分問題的原因也可能是海藻農民,他們會在適合的情況下,將廢物刮入水中

  • later turns into algae blooms when the conditions are right.

    之後變成海藻大量繁殖

  • Of course, many experts feel that if industrial pollution wasn't so bad those conditions

    當然,很多專家認為如果工業污染沒有這麼嚴重

  • wouldn't be there.

    這些條件也不存在

  • 7.

    第七

  • They're Approaching A Water Crisis

    中國正面臨水源危機

  • When you think of a country with a serious water crisis, China isn't what comes to

    講到水源危機岌岌可危的國家,中國並不會是

  • mind.

    我們預料中的答案

  • But China is approaching a crisis, even though they would appear to have plenty of water

    但中國正在面臨這個問題,即使他們看似擁有

  • to go around.

    充足的水源

  • To begin with, many industrial plants are located near water sources and dump their

    首先,很多工業廠房位在靠近水源附近的地方,並沒有徹底做回收或任何處理

  • waste directly into the water, with very little recycling or treatment.

    直接將廢物倒入水裡

  • Oftentimes sewage isn't treated properly or at all, and ends up in the same sources

    在一般情況下,污水處理不當或壓根沒處理的話

  • of water intended for industry, drinking and bathing.

    工業、飲用,和洗澡水都會使用到同個水源

  • If that wasn't enough, since the 1960s, 10,000 bodies have been found in water sources.

    這樣還不夠的話,從六零年代開始,有 10,000 具屍體在水源中被尋獲

  • Apart from pollution, China is also destroying some of their water sources.

    除了污染,中國也在破壞一些水源

  • Due to industry using water without sustainable practices, many of China's rivers are drying

    由於工業用水沒有持續的處理行動,許多中國的河流

  • up.

    都開始乾涸

  • Many different ruined rivers and lakes will affect other water sources and make the crisis

    被不同方式破壞的河流和湖泊影響其他水源

  • worse.

    也讓水源危機更糟糕

  • On top of all that, China has an infrastructure problem when it comes to getting water where

    最重要的是,在中國需要水的地方遇到了

  • it needs to be.

    基礎建設的問題

  • Most of China's people and the agriculture that keeps them fed are located in the north,

    大多數的中國人口以及他們賴以為生的農物都位在北方

  • but the large majority of the country's natural water is still located in the south.

    但豐富的國家天然水源仍在南方

  • And even if you can get water, you may not want to drink it.

    就算你獲得水,你也不會想喝它

  • Some experts believe that half the drinking water in major cities is unsafe to consume,

    有些專家認為在大都市一半的飲用水都很不安全

  • and groundwater supplies are in a similar state of pollution.

    而地下水的供應也處於類似的污染狀態

  • 6.

    第六

  • They're Starting To Experience Conditions Similar To A Nuclear Winter

    他們開始要經歷類似核冬天的氣候

  • A nuclear winter is a theoretical scenario that would occur in the aftermath of multiple

    核冬天是在多次核爆發生後

  • nuclear bomb detonations.

    形成的理論情形

  • Apart from the dangers of the radiation itself, the ash that accumulates in the air would

    除了輻射本身的危險外,灰燼在空氣中累積

  • block the sun's rays for a period that may last years.

    會遮住陽光照射的時間會維持好幾年

  • This would cause the planet to cool, and would greatly impede photosynthesis.

    這會造成植物枯萎,也會大大阻礙光合作用

  • It would be almost impossible to grow crops.

    幾乎無法種植農作物

  • Aside from the radiation, this may soon be a reality in parts of China.

    除了輻射,這件事實很可能即將在中國部分區域發生

  • As the country's smog problem worsens, and the government becomes less able to sweep

    隨著國家霧霾問題惡化,政府方面也無法刻意隱藏這項問題

  • it under the rug, more Chinese scientists are delving into the miasma, and it's not

    越來越多中國科學家開始研究瘴氣

  • good news.

    這並不是件好事

  • One scientist concluded that the smog in some areas is already bad enough that it could

    一位科學家得出了結論:霧霾在某些區域已經嚴重到

  • be severely impeding photosynthesis.

    足夠嚴重阻礙光合作用

  • She believes that if the problem isn't dealt with soon, it could spread to much of the

    她認為如果這項問題沒有馬上處理妥當

  • country and put agriculture across China at serious risk.

    會蔓延到全國絕大多數的地區,使中國的農物面臨嚴重災害

  • 5.

    第五

  • Improperly Designed Garbage Incinerators Are Polluting The Atmosphere

    垃圾焚化爐的不良設計正污染大氣層

  • China is struggling to contain the insane amounts of waste the country produces.

    中國正在努力控制該國產生的失控數量的廢物

  • Landfills are quickly overfilling, leaving them with nothing to do but simply destroy

    垃圾掩埋場很快就溢出了,這讓他們只想著銷毀他們的垃圾

  • the garbage if they can.

    不做任何事情

  • In many situations, this has led to a strategy of garbage incineration, with the fumes vented

    由於許多情況,這導致了焚燒垃圾的策略,讓這些廢氣

  • straight into the atmosphere.

    直接排放到大氣中

  • While this probably doesn't sound like a great idea even in the best of situations,

    即使在最好的情況下,這也聽起來不是好主意

  • there are some incinerator plants in China that are having a serious environmental impact.

    中國有些焚化爐對環境有嚴重的傷害

  • Regulations aren't well designed and there are a plethora of incinerator facilities that

    規則不完善,以及過多的焚化設備

  • aren't even close to standard, belching nasty smoke into the air with mercury and

    甚至沒有接近標準,把含有水銀以及任何你想像得到的毒藥之惹人厭的空氣

  • every other poison you could imagine.

    瀰漫到空氣中

  • The horrible toxic fumes that spew forth have caused protests by everyone near them, and

    噴出有毒的可怕空氣導致附近居民出聲抗議

  • they're an obvious threat to everyone's health for miles.

    這些很明顯對人類的健康是個威脅

  • 4.

    第四

  • It's Become The Largest Dumping Ground For E-Waste

    成為電子垃圾最大的聚集地

  • E-waste is an increasingly vexing problem for the world.

    電子垃圾成為全球越來越嚴重的問題

  • When old electronics are tossed out they often aren't properly recycled because it's

    舊的電子器物被丟棄時通常無法妥當回收,因為相當耗時

  • too time consuming, unsafe or expensive.

    不安全,也很昂貴

  • In many cases, a venue that recycles old cell phones and computers may just take all that

    在許多情況下,回收舊手機和電腦可能只需要將所有垃圾運動到另一個國家

  • junk and send it to another country to pick over as they please.

    接著任意挑選

  • This is technically illegal, but there's little deterrent.

    在繼續上說是違反的,但沒什麼威懾力

  • Using both the guise of donations and straight up smuggling, China has becoming the leading

    以佯裝捐贈與直接走私並用,中國已經成為

  • importer of e-waste to the point that 70% of the world's e-waste is ending up there.

    電子垃圾的主要進口國家,全世界有 70 %的電子垃圾都在那裡銷毀

  • One town called Guiyu has become a hot zone for the stuff, and many entrepreneurs have

    其中貴嶼鎮就是熱門區,許多企業家為了獲得

  • risen up around mining old electronic garbage for valuable metals and other useful scrap.

    有價值的金屬以及其他有用的廢料,他們開始開採破舊的電子垃圾

  • Unfortunately, this is terrible for their health and the environment.

    很不幸的,這樣的行為對他們的健康與環境非常糟糕

  • The process often involves burning plastic or using hydrochloric acid, neither of which

    開採過程常常要用到燃燒塑膠或使用鹽酸

  • is good for the user or the atmosphere.

    不管哪一樣都對使用者或環境不好

  • To make matters worse, this pollution has also affected the town's water supply and

    讓情況更糟的是,這樣的污染也影響了鎮裡的水源供給

  • rice crops.

    以及稻米作物

  • While the local government is trying to stop the flood of e-waste into the town, they face

    雖然當地政府試著阻止鎮裡的電子垃圾氾濫,卻被當地居民抵制

  • resistance from some residents because it's the only way they know how to make a living.

    因為這是他們唯一能過活的辦法

  • 3.

    第三

  • Pollutants Are Making The Food Supply Unsafe

    污染物造成不安全的食物供應

  • It stands to reason that if China's air and water isn't doing well, their soil probably

    照理來說,如果中國的空氣與水源都不好,他們的土壤

  • isn't faring much better.

    大概也好不到哪去

  • The problem with the soil may actually be more serious than any others.

    土壤的問題確實比任何問題還嚴重

  • While many farmers are worried about the constant pollution levels they're exposed to, most

    雖然許多農民都在擔心他們所面臨的污染不斷上升

  • of the country is worried about the safety of their food supply — a supply they're

    但大部分的人更擔心他們的食物供應之安全性—

  • increasingly unable to trust.

    越來越無法信任的供應

  • The soil problem has been one of the most carefully guarded secrets in China.

    土壤問題已經是其中中國掩藏的秘密之一

  • In fact, a few years ago the Chinese government conducted a study of the soil in order to

    事實上,中國政府在幾年前進行了土壤研究

  • assess environmental concerns.

    以評估環境問題

  • The results have never been released, which led to speculation that they're worse than

    結果還沒有公開,這讓人們臆測

  • anyone could have imagined.

    結果可能比任何人想像得還糟糕

  • To give you some idea, a group of Chinese officials found levels of cadmium beyond what's

    為了讓你清楚一些,中國官員發現在 155 樣稻米樣品中

  • recommended as safe in 155 samples of rice.

    鎘的含量超出了規定安全標準

  • One official commented that eight million acres of Chinese farmland was so poisoned

    其中一位官員說中國有八百萬畝農地都含有重金屬污染

  • with heavy metal contamination that it should no longer be used to grow crops.

    無法再種植農作物

  • The worst part is that it's almost impossible for Chinese consumers to know whether or not

    最糟糕的是中國的消費者幾乎不可能知道

  • their food is contaminated.

    他們所吃的食物是否被污染

  • 2.

    第二

  • Cancer Villages

    癌症村

  • Since the late 1990s, international activists and groups in China have been working on the

    從 20 世紀 90 年代末開始,中國的國際運動與組織已經在癌症村

  • problem of cancer villages.

    關心當地的問題

  • A cancer village is a small town of 100 or so residents that's extremely close to industrial

    癌症村是只有 100 位左右居民的小鎮

  • plants.

    非常接近工業工廠

  • These plants are constantly producing some of the nastiest pollutants on earth.

    這些工廠不斷生產一些對地球最有害的污染物

  • People from the villages describe it as a nightmare, with chemically tainted water that

    鎮里的居民都說那裡像是夢魘,無法淨化的化學污染水源

  • can't be purified and clouds of toxic ash floating through the air.

    以及有毒的灰燼飄浮在空中

  • The Chinese government doesn't want to address or even acknowledge the problem, but like the smog

    中國政府並不想解決或承認這件事,但就像霧霾

  • the problem has become bad enough that no amount of covering up can hide it.

    問題早已嚴重到不需要加以掩飾

  • Unfortunately, these villages are unlikely to go away anytime soon.

    不幸的是,這些城鎮大概不會那麼快消失

  • As it turns out, the richer citizens of China don't like pollution when it affects them,

    事實證明,在中國較富有的市民不喜歡污染事件影響到他們

  • so they've been pressuring the government to move industrial plants.

    所以他們會向政府施壓以遷移工業工廠

  • The government obliges and moves them near poor villages that lacks the political influence

    政府迫使工廠遷移到貧民村莊區,在那裡沒辦法對政治產生影響

  • to do anything about it.

    所以他們無法對此有所舉動

  • 1.

    第一

  • It Affects The Entire World

    污染影響全世界

  • While it's important for China to help its own country, the problem affects more than

    雖然中國要幫助自己的國家很重要,但問題是他們的影響

  • just China.

    不只發生在中國

  • The massive amount of pollution is starting to affect the rest of the world, and the results

    大量的污染開始影響世界上其他國家

  • aren't pretty.

    結果不大樂觀

  • Scientists at Texas A&M University ran climate simulations both with and without China's

    德克薩斯州 A&M 大學的科學家以有無中國現今的空氣污染進行了氣候模擬

  • current air pollution and found troubling results.

    發現了令人不安的結果

  • According to their simulations, cyclones in the Pacific Ocean are being strengthened by

    根據模擬結果,太平洋氣旋因為污染增加而變強

  • the pollution levels, and there's an increase in ocean storms in general.

    一般來說,風暴洋也會增加

  • If that wasn't bad enough, tracing the pollutants led to the conclusion that some of it's

    如果這還不嚴重,就得追溯有些污染物直達美國西部

  • reaching the western United States, and much of the pollution levels in those states could

    這些州的污染提升

  • be blamed on China.

    絕大部分得歸咎於中國

  • As the study points out, this is massively ironic because the United Statesand other

    正如研究所指出,諷刺的是美國 — 或是其他已開發國家 —

  • developed countriesrely on China for cheap consumer goods.

    或是其他已開發國家,都得依賴中國便宜的消費品

  • While many countries have outlawed practices that are bad for the environment, they turn

    雖然很多國家已經禁止對環境有害的行為

  • around and buy massive amounts of goods from countries that continue to poison the environment.

    他們轉而向那些繼續破壞環境的國家購買大量的商品

  • Countries like China fill a void by allowing us to get things for cheap while feeling like

    像中國這樣的國家,時常以便宜的價格讓我們買到東西來填補空白

  • we're taking the high road by enacting tougher pollution laws at home.

    雖然我們在自己國內以最好的途徑制訂更嚴格的污染法律

  • These countries' economies quickly become based on manufacturing, and the cycle becomes

    很快地,這些國家都以製造業為基礎

  • hard to break.

    這個循環也難以打破

  • While China may need to change, it's a problem of more than just their making.

    雖然中國需要改變,但問題不僅僅是他們製造什麼

  • If we want China to stop polluting, the rest of the world needs to find a more environmentally

    如果我們想要阻止中國造成的污染,其他的國家必須找出

  • sustainable way to produce the goods that drive our economies.

    更環保且永續的方法來製造商品以促進經濟

Top 10 Ways China Is Ruining Its Own Environment

造成中國環境危機的前十大原因

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雅思口語-part3-環境污染 (Top 10 Ways China Is Ruining Its Own Environment)

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    ben   發佈於 2018 年 12 月 15 日
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