字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 Strictly speaking 倫敦佛洛伊德博物館 the question for Freud is not: 嚴格來說 'how does one become a pervert?' 佛洛伊德的問題並不是 The question is: 「性倒錯是怎麼發生的？」 'how does one become sexually normal?' 而是 because he was of the conviction 「一個人在性的方面·如何能正常？」 that human sexuality 因為他深信 is instrinsically, 人類的性特質 is fundamentally 在根深蒂固 disturbed. 本質深處 The first thing we need to understand is that 就是令人不勝其擾的 when Freud talked about sexuality 精神分析是什麼？ he employed 二部曲：性特質 an enlarged concept of sexuality. 首先我們必須了解 It no longer meant 佛洛伊德談的「性」，是廣義的「性」 genital, penetrative sexual acts 這裡的「性」講的並不是生殖器或插入式的性行為 but any practice 而是指任何飽含原慾 that was invested with libido 充斥情慾的行為 that had an erotic charge for that person. 很多關於「性」的當代理論中 In a lot of contemporary theories about sexuality 人們還是從演化理論的角度出發 people still speak using evolutionary theory 然後說：「男人喜歡這個、 and say: 'you know, men like this 女人喜歡那個 是因為我們被預設要繁衍後代。」 and women like that because we're sort of 可是大家都知道 designed to breed.' 事情並不是如此 But everybody knows 人類比只想繁衍後代要來得複雜得多 that it's not really like that. 更倒錯、更困難 Human beings are so much more complex than that 且尋求完全不同的目標 and more perverse, and more difficult 人類可能對於為了繁衍而從事的性，絲毫沒有興趣 and look for totally other things. 也就代表 我們應該改變如下的想法 They might not be interested in reproductive sex at all. 佛洛伊德主張的「性特質」 其實就是人類當中的性行為 Which means that 佛洛伊德的「性」確實包括性行為 we need to move away from thinking that 但遠非如此而已 Freud's concept of sexuality 我們的「性」 不僅與「生殖」緊密相關 is all about people having sex. 「性」還可以帶給我們愉悅、歡樂 It's about that too 以及全身上下的不安與不適 but it's about much more than that. 佛洛伊德很早就發現 Our sexuality is not bound up with 兒童會體驗到 simply the task of reproduction, 很強烈的性慾 but rather we can find pleasure and joy 但不是成人的方式 as well as disturbance 而是一種從身體部位得到愉悅的方式 all over the body. 例如： 從口腔活動而來的「口欲驅力」 What he had discovered very early on 肛門活動 was that young children experience 被撫觸、皮膚的感受 intense sexual desires. 被搔癢等等，所得到的愉悅 Not in the adult form, 嬰兒出生後 but in the form of that they get pleasure from 照顧者會特別注意身體的一些部位 the 'oral drive', we would say, 與嬰兒眼神的交流 from oral activities, 持續的視線接觸 from anal activities, 哺餵母乳 當然牽涉到口腔 from touching, from their skin, 說話 當然牽涉到接收的雙耳 from being tickled. 還有各種清潔活動 After a baby is born 洗澡、換尿布等等 the caregivers will focus on particular parts of the body. 所有你可以想像到 There'll be an exchange of looks, 照顧嬰兒會發生的事 sustained eye contact with the baby. 這就是成人已臻組織完備的 「性」的早期形式 There'll be feeding, which obviously 這給我們些許提示 involves the mouth. 表示性驅力本身並不單純 There will be speaking, 它是由各種不同的成分所組成 which involves the ears. 而在倒錯的現象中又趨於分崩離析 There will be all sorts of other 1905年佛洛伊德《性學三論》 cleaning activity 成人的「性」是很複雜的東西 bathing, changing nappies and so on. 它涵蓋了 各種嬰兒的性的形式 All the things one imagines 例如：來自嘴巴的愉悅、好比：親吻 in the care of children. 肛門所帶來的愉悅 They are early forms 被不等程度的潛抑、或者被行動化 of what later becomes 觸摸、觀看、被觀看 organised into adult sexuality. 但在成人的性 Adult sexuality 這些都必須臣服於 主要的性活動 is quite a complex thing. 也就是生殖器官的性 It includes 以及從中所得到的興奮與愉悅 all the various forms of infantile sexuality 但如果這些不同的嬰兒性形式的呈現 like the oral pleasures, 成為成人的主要性活動 say, kissing, 例如：偷窺狂從觀看別人脫衣服就能興奮 anal pleasures, which may be 我們可以稱之為倒錯 more or less repressed and acted on 但是 這種觀看是嬰兒的性特質當中正常的成分 touching, looking, being looked at. 某個層面 佛洛伊德所主張的是 But in adult sexuality 被成人視為倒錯的性 these are subordinated, usually, 其實在嬰兒時期就已存在 to the main form of sexual activity, 成人對性的看法 which is genital sex, 相對於平凡的兒童時期 所經歷過的各種身體感官與身體愉悅 and getting excitement and pleasure through that. 其實是一種非常限縮的觀點 But then, if these infantile forms of sexuality 倒錯的傾向，是人類性驅力當中 become the main sexual activity of the adult, 普遍常見、根深蒂固的特徵 say, a voyeurist who gets off 1905年佛洛伊德《性學三論》 just by watching somebody getting undressed 因此，佛洛伊德認為 we could call this perversion. 倒錯並非後天習得 But this watching is a normal part of 而是與生俱來的 infantile sexuality. 如果成長經歷一切順利 So in a way he's making the point 在社會化過程的庇護裡 that aspects of sexuality which 在羞恥與罪惡的羽翼之下 倒錯得以被多多少少地接受 in an adult might be regarded as perverse 各方影響下所得到的結果 就是一個可以稱之為被「規範」的性 are there in infantile life. 佛洛伊德想要挑戰 Sexuality, 所謂"正常"與"不正常"的截然二分 the way we think of it as an adult, 要區辨精神的正常與異常 並非科學所能勝任 is a much more restricted version 1938年佛洛伊德《精神分析綱要》 of this sense of sensation 佛洛伊德早年的發現 and enjoyment in the body 是與受到症狀影響 倍感痛苦甚至失能的病人 一起工作而來的 that is part of ordinary childhood. 也就是與所謂不正常的人的工作經驗 So for Freud, perversion 但是，他發現 造成這些現象底下的過程 is not really something that one acquires. 對每個人而言，都是些再正常不過的過程 Perversion is something with which one is born 所以佛洛伊德所挑戰的 and, if all goes well 有部分在於 他不允許我們舒適地假設 during the process of social development, 我們屬於「正常」的類別 the perversion becomes contained 而另一群人屬於「不正常」的類別 under the aegis of 當中有許多過程與特質 是每個人都熟悉 且每個人都有的 processes of socialisation 成人的「正常的性」 but also under the aegises of shame and guilt 源自於嬰兒的性 and the net result is 必須歷經一系列的發展 a form of sexuality that is 結合、分裂與壓抑 而這些過程往往難以完滿地達成 more normative, one could say. 1913年佛洛伊德《精神分析的科學旨趣The Claims of Psychoanalysis to Scientific Interest》 But Freud is interested in 佛洛伊德呈現出，我們的性特質 challenging the idea of a split between 透過與生命早期的照顧者互動而建立起來 the so-called 'normal' and 'abnormal'. 基本上，就是經由家人 Freud made his first discoveries 他很好奇這些歷程的發展 by working with patients who were 將這些發展的階段加以描述 suffering from some distressing, 他談到口腔、肛門 debilitating symptoms, 性器或陽具期等等 so something 'abnormal', you could say. 幼兒身體不同的地帶 But what he discovered 尤其是容易興奮的部位 was that the underlying processes 先從口腔開始 were processes that are normal to every person. 哺餵時口腔會得到刺激 So part of what's challenging in Freud 嬰兒從中得到歡愉 is that he doesn't allow us 我們說這是口腔期 comfortably to assume 再來是肛門期 that we are simply part of a 跟如廁訓練 category called 'normal' 與怎麼讓這行為井然有序有關 and that there's some other class of being 比如：這樣做不好，那樣做比較好 called the 'abnormal' 當中有其重要性 but that many of these processes and traits 你才剛開始學說話 are familiar, really, in everyone. 必須理解接收到的訊息的意義 Freud showed that our sexuality 當你便便，無論大小 will be built up through our interactions 這一切的一切 都突然變成很重要 with our early caregivers. 必須好好思考、慎重處理的事情 Basically, the family. 接著來到一個階段 And he's interested in how this develops 男生與女生 都開始對陰莖有興趣 through phases that he describes: 也就是陽具期 he talks about the oral, the anal, 對男生、女生來說都是陽具期 the genital, phallic, and so on. 這些與性息息相關 Different zones of the body 他們想知道 that are particularly excitable 從身體那個部位得到歡愉是怎麼回事 in the young child, 對哪裡那麼有興趣與關注 starting with the mouth, 所代表的是什麼呢？ that gets stimulated 我們已徹底遺忘的印象 卻在心靈生活中烙下最深的痕跡 when the child is being fed 1905年佛洛伊德《性學三論》 and the child gets pleasure from it. 這些時期或所謂的階段，所發生的事情 最有意思的地方在於 So we speak of an oral stage. 它們對於幼兒的父母來說 是如此明顯 Then there would be the anal phase 我們花那麼多時間 which would be to do with 處理噓噓、便便與小鳥 potty training or learning about how to 可是不消幾年之後 just sort of organise this thing. 就忘得一乾二凈 You know, 'it's bad to do it this way', 父母忘了 'it's good to do it that way'. 孩子也忘了 Something important about it. 特別是小孩，若是到了9歲 You're just beginning to learn to speak. 還記得3、4歲時所經歷的種種 You have to understand the messages 他們會覺得非常非常的羞恥 you're receiving about it. 有些意念會被意識所排除 When you pee, or when you poo, 不被當事者察覺有這念頭 or all that sort of thing 但它們並非就此消失 suddenly becomes something important 它們會試圖尋找各種方式來呈現 that needs to be thought about and dealt with. 也就是試著表達出來 And then comes a phase when 但它們總是以別的事物、另種方式顯露 both boys and girls 也許佛洛伊德最極端的想法是 become interested in the penis. 人們的症狀，本身就是一種性活動的方式 And that is what is called the phallic stage. 裡面充滿了情慾，和性的議題 And it would be phallic for boys as well as girls. 和一個人的早期生命所經歷的，有著糾結與關聯 It would be to do with sexuality 特別是 許多精神官能症的背後 and dealing with what it is to get 牽涉了與性慾的衝突 satisfaction from that part of the body. 精神分析得以施作前提之一 What means that 就是使得這些念頭與想法 there's something interesting about it. 有時候可以以原來的面貌呈現 The interesting thing about those activities, 然後逐漸變得 those 'phases', as they're called, is that 比較不令人擔心、比較不可怕 比較不那麼困擾 they're so obvious to parents 所以精神分析的工作經常牽涉循著這些線索 of young children. 抽絲剝繭地 逐漸揭露 組成症狀的各種元素 You spend all your time with 經由這種做法 poo poo and pee pee and willies 在很多案例裡(雖然不是全部) and then a few years later 這些症狀得以煙消雲散 everyone's forgotten it. （中文字幕由臺灣 吾境思塾 楊明敏 校閱） The parents have forgotten it Chinese subtitles are checked by Yang M.M. ,iAnalysis ,Taiwan and the children have forgotten it. Children in particular, at the age of nine, would be deeply ashamed to remember the things they got up to when they were three or four. Some ideas get pushed out of consciousness and then become unavailable but they don't just go away. They still try to, you know, they look for expression. So they try to come out, but they always come out as something else. Perhaps Freud's most radical idea here was that the human symptom is itself a form of sexual activity, that it takes up an erotic charge linked to themes of sexuality, linked to one's early history. Behind many neurotic symptoms is some conflict that involves a sexual desire. One of the promises of psychoanalysis is that those ideas can come out as themselves sometimes, and then they become much less worrying, less frightening, less disturbing. So psychoanalytic work will often involve unravelling those threads to bring out the components, these threads that make up the symptom. And in doing that, in many cases, though not all, the symptom will evaporate.