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  • Strictly speaking

    倫敦佛洛伊德博物館

  • the question for Freud is not:

    嚴格來說

  • 'how does one become a pervert?'

    佛洛伊德的問題並不是

  • The question is:

    「性倒錯是怎麼發生的?」

  • 'how does one become sexually normal?'

    而是

  • because he was of the conviction

    「一個人在性的方面·如何能正常?」

  • that human sexuality

    因為他深信

  • is instrinsically,

    人類的性特質

  • is fundamentally

    在根深蒂固

  • disturbed.

    本質深處

  • The first thing we need to understand is that

    就是令人不勝其擾的

  • when Freud talked about sexuality

    精神分析是什麼?

  • he employed

    二部曲:性特質

  • an enlarged concept of sexuality.

    首先我們必須了解

  • It no longer meant

    佛洛伊德談的「性」,是廣義的「性」

  • genital, penetrative sexual acts

    這裡的「性」講的並不是生殖器或插入式的性行為

  • but any practice

    而是指任何飽含原慾

  • that was invested with libido

    充斥情慾的行為

  • that had an erotic charge for that person.

    很多關於「性」的當代理論中

  • In a lot of contemporary theories about sexuality

    人們還是從演化理論的角度出發

  • people still speak using evolutionary theory

    然後說:「男人喜歡這個、

  • and say: 'you know, men like this

    女人喜歡那個 是因為我們被預設要繁衍後代。」

  • and women like that because we're sort of

    可是大家都知道

  • designed to breed.'

    事情並不是如此

  • But everybody knows

    人類比只想繁衍後代要來得複雜得多

  • that it's not really like that.

    更倒錯、更困難

  • Human beings are so much more complex than that

    且尋求完全不同的目標

  • and more perverse, and more difficult

    人類可能對於為了繁衍而從事的性,絲毫沒有興趣

  • and look for totally other things.

    也就代表 我們應該改變如下的想法

  • They might not be interested in reproductive sex at all.

    佛洛伊德主張的「性特質」 其實就是人類當中的性行為

  • Which means that

    佛洛伊德的「性」確實包括性行為

  • we need to move away from thinking that

    但遠非如此而已

  • Freud's concept of sexuality

    我們的「性」 不僅與「生殖」緊密相關

  • is all about people having sex.

    「性」還可以帶給我們愉悅、歡樂

  • It's about that too

    以及全身上下的不安與不適

  • but it's about much more than that.

    佛洛伊德很早就發現

  • Our sexuality is not bound up with

    兒童會體驗到

  • simply the task of reproduction,

    很強烈的性慾

  • but rather we can find pleasure and joy

    但不是成人的方式

  • as well as disturbance

    而是一種從身體部位得到愉悅的方式

  • all over the body.

    例如: 從口腔活動而來的「口欲驅力」

  • What he had discovered very early on

    肛門活動

  • was that young children experience

    被撫觸、皮膚的感受

  • intense sexual desires.

    被搔癢等等,所得到的愉悅

  • Not in the adult form,

    嬰兒出生後

  • but in the form of that they get pleasure from

    照顧者會特別注意身體的一些部位

  • the 'oral drive', we would say,

    與嬰兒眼神的交流

  • from oral activities,

    持續的視線接觸

  • from anal activities,

    哺餵母乳 當然牽涉到口腔

  • from touching, from their skin,

    說話 當然牽涉到接收的雙耳

  • from being tickled.

    還有各種清潔活動

  • After a baby is born

    洗澡、換尿布等等

  • the caregivers will focus on particular parts of the body.

    所有你可以想像到

  • There'll be an exchange of looks,

    照顧嬰兒會發生的事

  • sustained eye contact with the baby.

    這就是成人已臻組織完備的 「性」的早期形式

  • There'll be feeding, which obviously

    這給我們些許提示

  • involves the mouth.

    表示性驅力本身並不單純

  • There will be speaking,

    它是由各種不同的成分所組成

  • which involves the ears.

    而在倒錯的現象中又趨於分崩離析

  • There will be all sorts of other

    1905年佛洛伊德《性學三論》

  • cleaning activity

    成人的「性」是很複雜的東西

  • bathing, changing nappies and so on.

    它涵蓋了 各種嬰兒的性的形式

  • All the things one imagines

    例如:來自嘴巴的愉悅、好比:親吻

  • in the care of children.

    肛門所帶來的愉悅

  • They are early forms

    被不等程度的潛抑、或者被行動化

  • of what later becomes

    觸摸、觀看、被觀看

  • organised into adult sexuality.

    但在成人的性

  • Adult sexuality

    這些都必須臣服於 主要的性活動

  • is quite a complex thing.

    也就是生殖器官的性

  • It includes

    以及從中所得到的興奮與愉悅

  • all the various forms of infantile sexuality

    但如果這些不同的嬰兒性形式的呈現

  • like the oral pleasures,

    成為成人的主要性活動

  • say, kissing,

    例如:偷窺狂從觀看別人脫衣服就能興奮

  • anal pleasures, which may be

    我們可以稱之為倒錯

  • more or less repressed and acted on

    但是 這種觀看是嬰兒的性特質當中正常的成分

  • touching, looking, being looked at.

    某個層面 佛洛伊德所主張的是

  • But in adult sexuality

    被成人視為倒錯的性

  • these are subordinated, usually,

    其實在嬰兒時期就已存在

  • to the main form of sexual activity,

    成人對性的看法

  • which is genital sex,

    相對於平凡的兒童時期 所經歷過的各種身體感官與身體愉悅

  • and getting excitement and pleasure through that.

    其實是一種非常限縮的觀點

  • But then, if these infantile forms of sexuality

    倒錯的傾向,是人類性驅力當中

  • become the main sexual activity of the adult,

    普遍常見、根深蒂固的特徵

  • say, a voyeurist who gets off

    1905年佛洛伊德《性學三論》

  • just by watching somebody getting undressed

    因此,佛洛伊德認為

  • we could call this perversion.

    倒錯並非後天習得

  • But this watching is a normal part of

    而是與生俱來的

  • infantile sexuality.

    如果成長經歷一切順利

  • So in a way he's making the point

    在社會化過程的庇護裡

  • that aspects of sexuality which

    在羞恥與罪惡的羽翼之下 倒錯得以被多多少少地接受

  • in an adult might be regarded as perverse

    各方影響下所得到的結果 就是一個可以稱之為被「規範」的性

  • are there in infantile life.

    佛洛伊德想要挑戰

  • Sexuality,

    所謂"正常"與"不正常"的截然二分

  • the way we think of it as an adult,

    要區辨精神的正常與異常 並非科學所能勝任

  • is a much more restricted version

    1938年佛洛伊德《精神分析綱要》

  • of this sense of sensation

    佛洛伊德早年的發現

  • and enjoyment in the body

    是與受到症狀影響 倍感痛苦甚至失能的病人 一起工作而來的

  • that is part of ordinary childhood.

    也就是與所謂不正常的人的工作經驗

  • So for Freud, perversion

    但是,他發現 造成這些現象底下的過程

  • is not really something that one acquires.

    對每個人而言,都是些再正常不過的過程

  • Perversion is something with which one is born

    所以佛洛伊德所挑戰的

  • and, if all goes well

    有部分在於 他不允許我們舒適地假設

  • during the process of social development,

    我們屬於「正常」的類別

  • the perversion becomes contained

    而另一群人屬於「不正常」的類別

  • under the aegis of

    當中有許多過程與特質 是每個人都熟悉 且每個人都有的

  • processes of socialisation

    成人的「正常的性」

  • but also under the aegises of shame and guilt

    源自於嬰兒的性

  • and the net result is

    必須歷經一系列的發展

  • a form of sexuality that is

    結合、分裂與壓抑 而這些過程往往難以完滿地達成

  • more normative, one could say.

    1913年佛洛伊德《精神分析的科學旨趣The Claims of Psychoanalysis to Scientific Interest》

  • But Freud is interested in

    佛洛伊德呈現出,我們的性特質

  • challenging the idea of a split between

    透過與生命早期的照顧者互動而建立起來

  • the so-called 'normal' and 'abnormal'.

    基本上,就是經由家人

  • Freud made his first discoveries

    他很好奇這些歷程的發展

  • by working with patients who were

    將這些發展的階段加以描述

  • suffering from some distressing,

    他談到口腔、肛門

  • debilitating symptoms,

    性器或陽具期等等

  • so something 'abnormal', you could say.

    幼兒身體不同的地帶

  • But what he discovered

    尤其是容易興奮的部位

  • was that the underlying processes

    先從口腔開始

  • were processes that are normal to every person.

    哺餵時口腔會得到刺激

  • So part of what's challenging in Freud

    嬰兒從中得到歡愉

  • is that he doesn't allow us

    我們說這是口腔期

  • comfortably to assume

    再來是肛門期

  • that we are simply part of a

    跟如廁訓練

  • category called 'normal'

    與怎麼讓這行為井然有序有關

  • and that there's some other class of being

    比如:這樣做不好,那樣做比較好

  • called the 'abnormal'

    當中有其重要性

  • but that many of these processes and traits

    你才剛開始學說話

  • are familiar, really, in everyone.

    必須理解接收到的訊息的意義

  • Freud showed that our sexuality

    當你便便,無論大小

  • will be built up through our interactions

    這一切的一切 都突然變成很重要

  • with our early caregivers.

    必須好好思考、慎重處理的事情

  • Basically, the family.

    接著來到一個階段

  • And he's interested in how this develops

    男生與女生 都開始對陰莖有興趣

  • through phases that he describes:

    也就是陽具期

  • he talks about the oral, the anal,

    對男生、女生來說都是陽具期

  • the genital, phallic, and so on.

    這些與性息息相關

  • Different zones of the body

    他們想知道

  • that are particularly excitable

    從身體那個部位得到歡愉是怎麼回事

  • in the young child,

    對哪裡那麼有興趣與關注

  • starting with the mouth,

    所代表的是什麼呢?

  • that gets stimulated

    我們已徹底遺忘的印象 卻在心靈生活中烙下最深的痕跡

  • when the child is being fed

    1905年佛洛伊德《性學三論》

  • and the child gets pleasure from it.

    這些時期或所謂的階段,所發生的事情 最有意思的地方在於

  • So we speak of an oral stage.

    它們對於幼兒的父母來說 是如此明顯

  • Then there would be the anal phase

    我們花那麼多時間

  • which would be to do with

    處理噓噓、便便與小鳥

  • potty training or learning about how to

    可是不消幾年之後

  • just sort of organise this thing.

    就忘得一乾二凈

  • You know, 'it's bad to do it this way',

    父母忘了

  • 'it's good to do it that way'.

    孩子也忘了

  • Something important about it.

    特別是小孩,若是到了9歲

  • You're just beginning to learn to speak.

    還記得3、4歲時所經歷的種種

  • You have to understand the messages

    他們會覺得非常非常的羞恥

  • you're receiving about it.

    有些意念會被意識所排除

  • When you pee, or when you poo,

    不被當事者察覺有這念頭

  • or all that sort of thing

    但它們並非就此消失

  • suddenly becomes something important

    它們會試圖尋找各種方式來呈現

  • that needs to be thought about and dealt with.

    也就是試著表達出來

  • And then comes a phase when

    但它們總是以別的事物、另種方式顯露

  • both boys and girls

    也許佛洛伊德最極端的想法是

  • become interested in the penis.

    人們的症狀,本身就是一種性活動的方式

  • And that is what is called the phallic stage.

    裡面充滿了情慾,和性的議題

  • And it would be phallic for boys as well as girls.

    和一個人的早期生命所經歷的,有著糾結與關聯

  • It would be to do with sexuality

    特別是 許多精神官能症的背後

  • and dealing with what it is to get

    牽涉了與性慾的衝突

  • satisfaction from that part of the body.

    精神分析得以施作前提之一

  • What means that

    就是使得這些念頭與想法

  • there's something interesting about it.

    有時候可以以原來的面貌呈現

  • The interesting thing about those activities,

    然後逐漸變得

  • those 'phases', as they're called, is that

    比較不令人擔心、比較不可怕 比較不那麼困擾

  • they're so obvious to parents

    所以精神分析的工作經常牽涉循著這些線索

  • of young children.

    抽絲剝繭地 逐漸揭露 組成症狀的各種元素

  • You spend all your time with

    經由這種做法

  • poo poo and pee pee and willies

    在很多案例裡(雖然不是全部)

  • and then a few years later

    這些症狀得以煙消雲散

  • everyone's forgotten it.

    (中文字幕由臺灣 吾境思塾 楊明敏 校閱)

  • The parents have forgotten it

    Chinese subtitles are checked by Yang M.M. ,iAnalysis ,Taiwan

  • and the children have forgotten it.

  • Children in particular, at the age of nine,

  • would be deeply ashamed

  • to remember the things they got up to

  • when they were three or four.

  • Some ideas get pushed out of consciousness

  • and then become unavailable

  • but they don't just go away.

  • They still try to, you know,

  • they look for expression.

  • So they try to come out,

  • but they always come out

  • as something else.

  • Perhaps Freud's most radical idea here

  • was that the human symptom

  • is itself a form of sexual activity,

  • that it takes up an erotic charge

  • linked to themes of sexuality,

  • linked to one's early history.

  • Behind many neurotic symptoms

  • is some conflict that involves

  • a sexual desire.

  • One of the promises of psychoanalysis

  • is that those ideas can come out

  • as themselves sometimes,

  • and then they become much

  • less worrying, less frightening,

  • less disturbing.

  • So psychoanalytic work will often involve

  • unravelling those threads

  • to bring out the components,

  • these threads that make up the symptom.

  • And in doing that, in many cases,

  • though not all,

  • the symptom will evaporate.

Strictly speaking

倫敦佛洛伊德博物館

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 佛洛伊德 愉悅 嬰兒 成人 精神 分析

什麼是精神分析?第二部分:性行為 (What is Psychoanalysis? Part 2: Sexuality)

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    Christina Yang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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