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  • First place I'd like to take you

    譯者: yuanyuan liang 審譯者: Zhu Jie

  • is what many believe will be the world's deepest natural abyss.

    我要帶大家去的第一個地方

  • And I say believe because this process is still ongoing.

    很多人相信是世界最深的天然地穴。

  • Right now there are major expeditions being planned for next year

    之所以說“相信”是因為這還是一個不斷發展探索的過程。

  • that I'll talk a little bit about.

    目前我正為下一年籌畫幾次重要的考察,

  • One of the things that's changed here,

    後面我會談到。

  • in the last 150 years since Jules Verne

    在這個領域發生的一個變化就是,

  • had great science-fiction concepts of what the underworld was like,

    過去的150年裏,自從儒勒•凡爾納

  • is that technology has enabled us to go to these places

    提出了關於地底世界的偉大科幻理念以來,

  • that were previously completely unknown and speculated about.

    科技已經能夠使我們到達這些地方,

  • We can now descend thousands of meters into the Earth with relative impunity.

    這些地方以前完全無法瞭解而只能靠估測。

  • Along the way we've discovered fantastic abysses and chambers so large

    現在我們能夠下到地下幾千米的地方,而且毫髮無傷。

  • that you can see for hundreds of meters

    一路以來我們已經發現了很多了不起的地穴和巨大的洞窟,

  • without a break in the line of sight.

    這些洞窟大到連綿數百米,

  • When you go on a thing like this, we can usually be in the field

    中間看不到任何阻斷。

  • for anywhere from two to four months,

    當去考察這類地方時,我們常常在荒郊野外

  • with a team as small as 20 or 30, to as big as 150.

    天涯海角的一呆就是2到4個月,

  • And a lot of people ask me, you know,

    團隊人數小到二三十人,大到150個人。

  • what kind of people do you get for a project like this?

    好多人都問我,

  • While our selection process

    你需要找些什麽樣的人完成這樣的探險計畫?

  • is not as rigorous as NASA, it's nonetheless thorough.

    雖然我們選人的過程

  • We're looking for competence, discipline, endurance, and strength.

    沒有NASA那麽嚴格,但是也是非常全面的。

  • In case you're wondering, this is our strength test.

    我們要求有專業能力、守紀律、耐力強,有力量。

  • (Laughter)

    如果你好奇的話,可以看看我們的力量測試。

  • But we also value esprit de corps

    (觀衆笑聲)

  • and the ability to diplomatically resolve inter-personal conflict

    但是我們也很重視團隊精神

  • while under great stress in remote locations.

    以及得體地解決人際衝突的能力。

  • We have already gone far beyond the limits of human endurance.

    尤其是在野外面對巨大壓力的情況下。

  • From the entrance, this is nothing like a commercial cave.

    我們早已遠遠超過了人類忍耐力的極限。

  • You're looking at Camp Two in a place called J2, not K2, but J2.

    從入口看,這就像個適合商業旅遊的洞穴。

  • We're roughly two days from the entrance at that point.

    你現在看到的是位于J2地點的2號營地,不是K2,而是J2。

  • And it's kind of like a high altitude mountaineering trip in reverse,

    從這點到洞口大約有兩天的路程。

  • except that you're now running a string of these things down.

    這就像反方向的高海拔登山,

  • The idea is to try to provide some measure of physical comfort

    除了你是吊在這些繩索上向下墜。

  • while you're down there, otherwise in damp, moist, cold conditions in utterly dark places.

    關鍵在於當人在下面時能獲得某程度的舒適感,

  • I should mention that everything you're seeing here, by the way,

    否則當我們在那裡時,就只有潮濕,沉悶,寒冷,一片漆黑。

  • is artificially illuminated at great effort.

    另外我還應該提一下,你們現在看到的所有東西,

  • Otherwise it is completely dark in these places.

    都是費了九牛二虎之力人工照明的結果。

  • The deeper you go, the more you run into a conflict with water.

    否則在這些地方就是漆黑一團。

  • It's basically like a tree collecting water coming down.

    下得越深,遇到的水的問題就越嚴重。

  • And eventually you get to places where it is formidable and dangerous

    基本上就像一棵樹向下收集水分。

  • and unfortunately slides just don't do justice.

    然後慢慢你就到達一些非常可怕和危險的地方,

  • So I've got a very brief clip here that was taken in the late 1980s.

    不幸的是,這些幻燈並不能把這些都展現出來。

  • So descend into Huautla Plateau in Mexico.

    這裡有一個很短的短片,拍攝於20世紀80年代。

  • (Video)

    這裏所深入的是墨西哥的瓦烏特拉高原。

  • Now I have to tell you that the techniques being shown here

    (視頻)

  • are obsolete and dangerous.

    現在我必須要告訴你們,這裡所看到的技術

  • We would not do this today unless we were doing it for film.

    都是過時而且危險的。

  • (Laughter)

    我們今天是不會這樣做的,除非我們是在拍電影。

  • Along that same line, I have to tell you

    (觀衆笑聲)

  • that with the spate of Hollywood movies that came out last year,

    還有,我必須要告訴大家,

  • we have never seen monsters underground --

    像去年好萊塢拍的那堆電影裏出現的怪物

  • at least the kind that eat you.

    我們在地底從來沒見過。

  • If there is a monster underground,

    至少沒見過會吃人的那種。

  • it is the crushing psychological remoteness

    如果地底真有怪物的話,

  • that begins to hit every member of the team

    那就是心理上的極度疏離

  • once you cross about three days inbound from the nearest entrance.

    開始衝擊到每個隊員,

  • Next year I'll be leading an international team to J2.

    一旦你離開最近的入口大約三天的路程後。

  • We're going to be shooting from minus 2,600 meters --

    明年我將帶領一個國際小隊前往J2。

  • that's a little over 8,600 feet down --

    我們將從地下2600米的深處開始拍攝——

  • at 30 kilometers from the entrance.

    也就是地下8600英尺多深的地方——

  • The lead crews will be underground for pushing 30 days straight.

    距離洞口30公里。

  • I don't think there's been a mission like that in a long time.

    先遣隊員將在地下連續停留30天。

  • Eventually, if you keep going down in these things,

    我想已經有很長時間沒有這樣的考察活動了。

  • probability says that you're going to run into a place like this.

    如果你不斷進入這類地方,最終

  • It's a place where there's a fold in the geologic stratum

    你會有機會碰見這樣的地方。

  • that collects water and fills to the roof.

    這個地方是地質岩層上的一個褶皺,

  • And when you used to find these things,

    匯集了大量的水,直沒到頂。

  • they would put a label on a map that said terminal siphon.

    以前當發現這种地方時,

  • Now I remember that term really well for two reasons.

    他們會在地圖上標識出來,寫上:末端虹吸管。

  • Number one, it's the name of my rock band, and second,

    我之所以能清楚地記得這個詞有兩個原因。

  • is because the confrontation of these things

    第一,這是我的搖滾樂隊的名字,第二,

  • forced me to become an inventor.

    因爲踫到這種地形,

  • And we've since gone on to develop

    迫使我成爲一個發明家。

  • many generations of gadgets for exploring places like this.

    迄今爲止,我們已經發展出

  • This is some life-support equipment closed-cycle.

    很多代的小機械,用以探索這類地方。

  • And you can use that now to go for many kilometers horizontally

    這是某种閉合的維生裝備——

  • underwater and to depths of 200 meters straight down underwater.

    使用它可以讓你在水下方圓幾公里

  • When you do this kind of stuff it's like doing EVA.

    及水下200米的深度活動。

  • It's like doing extra-vehicular activity in space,

    干這個就好像EVA,

  • but at much greater distances, and at much greater physical peril.

    就是太空中的艙外活動,

  • So it makes you think about how to design your equipment

    但活動的距離更長,所冒的生命危險更大。

  • for long range, away from a safe haven.

    所以這會令你思考如何設計裝備

  • Here's a clip from a National Geographic movie

    使人能夠離開安全艙更遠。

  • that came out in 1999.

    這是國際地理電影的片斷,

  • (Video) Narrator: Exploration is a physical process

    拍攝於1999年。

  • of putting your foot in places where humans have never stepped before.

    (視頻講解):探險是一個實實在在的歷程,

  • This is where the last little nugget of totally unknown territory remains on this planet.

    踏足在人類從未到達的地方。

  • To experience it is a privilege.

    這是這個星球上僅剩的最後一小片完全不為人知的地方。

  • Bill Stone: That was taken in Wakulla Springs, Florida.

    探索它是一種特權。

  • Couple of things to note about that movie. Every piece of equipment

    這個拍攝於佛羅里達的瓦庫拉泉。

  • that you saw in there did not exist before 1999.

    這個電影裏有這麽幾件事要注意:這裡你所看到的每一件裝備

  • It was developed within a two-year period and used on actual exploratory projects.

    是1999年以後才有的。

  • This gadget you see right here was called the digital wall mapper,

    它們是在兩年内設計並使用於實際的探險活動。

  • and it produced the first three-dimensional map anybody has ever done

    你看到的這裡這個小機器叫數字繪圖儀——

  • of a cave, and it happened to be underwater in Wakulla Springs.

    它繪製出有史以來的第一張地洞的三維地圖,

  • It was that gadget that serendipitously opened a door

    正好就是在瓦庫拉泉的水下。

  • to another unexplored world.

    正是這個小東西偶然地打開了

  • This is Europa.

    通往一個全然陌生世界的大門。

  • Carolyn Porco mentioned another one called Enceladus the other day.

    這是木衛二。

  • This is one of the places where planetary scientists

    Carolyn Porco 之前提到過土衛二。

  • believe there is a highest probability of the detection

    行星天文學家認為

  • of the first life off earth in the ocean that exists below there.

    最有可能探測到

  • For those who have never seen this story,

    地球之外初級生命的地方之一,就是木衛二的海洋。

  • Jim Cameron produced a really wonderful IMAX movie

    爲了那些從未親眼目睹這一切的人們

  • couple of years ago, called "Aliens of the Deep."

    Jim Cameron在兩年前製作了一個非常棒的IMAX電影

  • There was a brief clip --

    叫“深海異形”。

  • (Video) Narrator: A mission to explore under the ice of Europa

    這是一個片段——

  • would be the ultimate robotic challenge.

    (視頻)解說:探索木衛二冰下世界的任務

  • Europa is so far away that even at the speed of light,

    將是對機器人的終極挑戰。

  • it would take more than an hour for the command just to reach the vehicle.

    木衛二非常遙遠,即便用光速

  • It has to be smart enough to avoid terrain hazards

    也要花上一個小時才能使指令到達飛行器。

  • and to find a good landing site on the ice.

    必須非常靈敏才能避開危險地帶

  • Now we have to get through the ice.

    在冰面上找到一個良好的著陸點。

  • You need a melt probe.

    現在我們必須穿過冰層。

  • It's basically a nuclear-heated torpedo.

    你需要一個可以融化冰層的探頭。

  • The ice could be anywhere from three to 16 miles deep.

    基本上就是一個核熱能的魚雷。

  • Week after week, the melt probe will sink of its own weight

    任何一個地方的冰層就可能厚達3到16英里。

  • through the ancient ice, until finally --

    一個星期接著一個星期,融化探頭靠著自重下沉

  • Now, what are you going to do when you reach the surface of that ocean?

    穿透古老的冰層,直至最終……

  • You need an AUV, an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    現在,當你到達海洋表面時,你該怎麼辦?

  • It needs to be one smart puppy, able to navigate

    你需要一個AUV,自動水下作業車

  • and make decisions on its own in an alien ocean.

    它要像一條機靈的小狗,能夠四處探索,

  • BS: What Jim didn't know when he released that movie

    而且能在外星海洋裡獨立作業。

  • was that six months earlier NASA had funded a team I assembled

    吉姆這部電影上映時,他并不知道

  • to develop a prototype for the Europa AUV.

    就在六個月前,NASA已經為我組建的一個小組撥款,

  • I mean, I cut through three years of engineering meetings, design

    研發用於木衛二的自動水下作業車的原型機。

  • and system integration, and introduced DEPTHX --

    就是說,我跳過三年的工程會議,設計

  • Deep Phreatic Thermal Explorer.

    和系統集成的過程,直接給大家介紹DEPTHX——

  • And as the movie says, this is one smart puppy.

    深水熱能勘探機。

  • It's got 96 sensors, 36 onboard computers,

    正如電影所說的,這是一個機靈的小狗。

  • 100,000 lines of behavioral autonomy code,

    它有96個傳感器,36個機載運算器,

  • packs more than 10 kilos of TNT in electrical onboard equivalent.

    十萬條行為自控代碼,

  • This is the target site,

    裝備的電能當量超過10公斤TNT。

  • the world's deepest hydrothermal spring at Cenote Zacaton in northern Mexico.

    這就是目的地,

  • It's been explored to a depth of 292 meters

    世界上最深的溫泉,位於墨西哥北部的薩卡通石灰岩洞。

  • and beyond that nobody knows anything.

    迄今已探索到292米的深度,

  • This is part of DEPTHX's mission.

    再往下是怎樣的尚無人知。

  • There are two primary targets we're doing here.

    這也是DEPTHX的一部份任務。

  • One is, how do you do science autonomy underground?

    這裡我們有兩個主要目標。

  • How do you take a robot and turn it into a field microbiologist?

    一個是當深入地下時,如何實現自主的科學研究?

  • There are more stages involved here

    如何能派出一個機器人并把它變成一個野外微生物學家?

  • than I've got time to tell you about, but basically we drive

    這中間包含了很多步驟

  • through the space, we populate it with environmental variables --

    但我沒有時間一一盡述,但是基本上,我們駕駛機器人

  • sulphide, halide, things like that.

    去各種地方,讓它適應不同的環境變數——

  • We calculate gradient surfaces, and drive the bot over to a wall

    硫化物,鹵化物之類的東西。

  • where there's a high probability of life.

    我們計算斜坡表面,然後駕駛機器人爬上一面峭壁,

  • We move along the wall, in what's called proximity operations,

    在那裡很可能找到生命。

  • looking for changes in color.

    我們沿著峭壁移動,也就是所謂的近距離操控,

  • If we see something that looks interesting, we pull it into a microscope.

    尋找顏色上的變化。

  • If it passes the microscopic test, we go for a collection.

    如果我們發現一些有趣的東西,就把它拖到顯微鏡下面。

  • We either draw in a liquid sample,

    如果它通過了顯微測試,我們就進行採集。

  • or we can actually take a solid core from the wall.

    或是抽取一些液體樣品,

  • No hands at the wheel.

    或者我們從石壁上採集一個實體的岩芯樣品。

  • This is all behavioral autonomy here

    無須全程地人手操作。

  • that's being conducted by the robot on its own.

    全是機器人的自主行為。

  • The real hat trick for this vehicle, though,

    由機器人自己獨立完成。

  • is a disruptive new navigation system we've developed,

    但是這部機器真正厲害的地方

  • known as 3D SLAM, for simultaneous localization and mapping.

    在於我們開發的一種顛覆性的最新巡航系統,

  • DEPTHX is an all-seeing eyeball.

    叫作3D SLAM,用於同時定位和繪圖。

  • Its sensor beams look both forward and backward at the same time,

    DEPTHX是一個全視角的眼球。

  • allowing it to do new exploration

    它的感應光線可以同時向前和向後看,

  • while it's still achieving geometric sensor-lock

    使它可以一邊進行新的探索,

  • on what it's gone through already.

    同時可以將幾何感應器鎖定在

  • What I'm going to show you next

    它已經通過的地方。

  • is the first fully autonomous robotic exploration underground

    下面我給大家看的

  • that's ever been done.

    是首次全自主機器人的地下探索,

  • This May, we're going to go from minus 1,000 meters in Zacaton,

    這是史無前例的。

  • and if we're very lucky, DEPTHX will bring back the first

    今年5月,我們將從薩卡通地下1000米的地方開始,

  • robotically-discovered division of bacteria.

    如果夠幸運,DEPTHX將帶回第一個

  • The next step after that is to test it in Antartica and then,

    由機器人發現的細菌種類。

  • if the funding continues and NASA has the resolution to go,

    下一步就是要在南極進行測試,然後

  • we could potentially launch by 2016, and by 2019

    如果仍有撥款,而且NASA下定決心,

  • we may have the first evidence of life off this planet.

    我們極有可能於2016年發射,到2019年,

  • What then of manned space exploration?

    就可能獲得第一個存在地外生命的證據。

  • The government recently announced plans to return to the moon by 2024.

    那麼載人的空間探索呢?

  • The successful conclusion of that mission will result

    政府最近宣佈計畫於2024年重返 月球。

  • in infrequent visitation of the moon by a small number

    這一任務的勝利完成就是

  • of government scientists and pilots.

    少數政府科學家和宇航員

  • It will leave us no further along in the general expansion

    偶爾探訪月球。

  • of humanity into space than we were 50 years ago.

    它對於人類探索宇宙空間的貢獻

  • Something fundamental has to change

    與50年前沒什麽不同。

  • if we are to see common access to space in our lifetime.

    必須有更為根本的變革,

  • What I'm going to show you next are a couple of controversial ideas.

    才能讓我們在有生之年看到對宇宙的更普遍的接觸。

  • And I hope you'll bear with me and have some faith

    下面將給大家看一些極富爭議的觀點。

  • that there's credibility behind what we're going to say here.

    希望你們耐心聽下去,並且相信

  • There are three underpinnings of working in space privately.

    我們這裡所說的都是有可信度的。

  • One of them is the requirement

    私人進行宇宙探索事業有三大支柱。

  • for economical earth-to-space transport.

    其一是需要

  • The Bert Rutans and Richard Bransons of this world

    地球—宇宙之間經濟節約的交通。

  • have got this in their sights and I salute them.

    在這方面,Bert Rutans 和Richard Bransons

  • Go, go, go.

    已經看到了這點,我向他們致敬,

  • The next thing we need are places to stay on orbit.

    加油!加油!

  • Orbital hotels to start with, but workshops for the rest of us later on.

    其次我們需要可以在軌道上停留的地方。

  • The final missing piece, the real paradigm-buster, is this:

    從軌道酒店開始,之後才輪到我們的工作站。

  • a gas station on orbit.

    最後一個環節,真正扭轉乾坤的是

  • It's not going to look like that.

    軌道加油站。

  • If it existed, it would change all future spacecraft design and space mission planning.

    當然不會是這樣的。

  • Now, to give you a chance to understand

    如果這能成為現實,它將改變未來所有航天器的設計,以及太空探索計畫。

  • why there is power in that statement,

    現在,爲了讓你們有機會理解

  • I've got to give you the basics of Space 101.

    這個前景的魅力何在,

  • And the first thing is everything you do in space you pay by the kilogram.

    我要給你們上一堂太空基礎理論。

  • Anybody drink one of these here this week?

    你要知道的第一件事就是,在太空中做任何事都要按千克計算費用。

  • You'd pay 10,000 dollars for that in orbit.

    這星期有人喝過這東西么?

  • That's more than you pay for TED,

    在軌道上,你想喝瓶水要花一萬美元。

  • if Google dropped their sponsorship.

    這比你付給TED的還要多,

  • (Laughter)

    如果GOOGLE停止他們的贊助的話。

  • The second is more than 90 percent of the weight of a vehicle is in propellant.

    (笑聲)

  • Thus, every time you'd want to do anything in space,

    第二,一個航天器超過90%的重量都在於推進燃料。

  • you are literally blowing away enormous sums of money

    因此,任何時候你想在太空中干點什麽的話,

  • every time you hit the accelerator.

    你的的確確是在大把大把地燒錢,

  • Not even the guys at Tesla can fight that physics.

    只要你按一下加速器。

  • So, what if you could get your gas at a 10th the price?

    即便是Telsa(極品電動跑車)的傢伙們也貴不過這條物理定律。

  • There is a place where you can.

    因此,如果你能夠只用十分之一的價格就能獲得燃料呢?

  • In fact, you can get it better -- you can get it at 14 times lower

    有個地方能讓你如願以償。

  • if you can find propellant on the moon.

    事實上,更便宜——只需十四分之一的價格。

  • There is a little-known mission that was launched

    如果你能在月球上找到燃料。

  • by the Pentagon, 13 years ago now, called Clementine.

    有一個鮮為人知的任務,

  • And the most amazing thing that came out of that mission

    早在13年前五角大樓就開始啟動了,叫作橘子計畫。

  • was a strong hydrogen signature at Shackleton crater

    這項任務最令人驚異的發現就是

  • on the south pole of the moon.

    在夏克頓環形山發現了氫的強烈跡象,

  • That signal was so strong,

    就在月球的南極。

  • it could only have been produced by 10 trillion tons of water

    這個信號非常明顯,

  • buried in the sediment, collected over millions and billions of years

    唯一的可能就是有十萬億噸的水,

  • by the impact of asteroids and comet material.

    經過億萬年的積攢,埋藏在沉積物中,

  • If we're going to get that, and make that gas station possible,

    主要來自小行星和彗星物質的撞擊。

  • we have to figure out ways to move large volumes of payload through space.

    如果我們想要得到這些水,并使加油站就成為可能,

  • We can't do that right now.

    我們就必須設法可以在太空中移動大量的貨物。

  • The way you normally build a system right now is you have a tube stack

    現在還無法做到。

  • that has to be launched from the ground,

    目前通常的做法是用一組管裝燃料,

  • and resist all kinds of aerodynamic forces.

    必須從地面發射上去,

  • We have to beat that.

    要對抗各種空氣阻力。

  • We can do it because in space there are no aerodynamics.

    我們必須克服這個問題。

  • We can go and use inflatable systems for almost everything.

    我們能夠做到因為在太空中沒有空氣阻力。