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  • Ever met someone who is so extremely dumb that they don't know how stupid they actually are?

    你曾經遇過笨到不行卻渾然未覺的人嗎?

  • Ever tried to explain a new concept to someone who clearly doesn't get it?

    你曾經試著向某人解釋一個新觀念,但他卻完全聽不懂嗎?

  • Well, you're not alone.

    你不是唯一一個這麼想的人

  • Researchers have come up with a theory that explains why the less we know about something, the more confident we are in our ability to master it.

    研究者有一套理論解釋,為何我們對某事物的理解不多我們卻反而自信滿滿地以為我們可以做到

  • So there's a term for Dumb and Dumber?

    所以才有「愚蠢」和「愚蠢至極」的名詞出現嗎?

  • Yes.

    沒錯

  • And it is more common than you might think.

    而且這現象比你想的更加普遍

  • Join us today as we explore the avenues of dumbness, in this episode of the Infographics show.

    今天就和我們一起從這集的動畫來了解「愚蠢」

  • What is the Dunning Kruger effect?

    什麼是「鄧寧-克魯格效應」?

  • Named after Cornell University researchers David Dunning and Justin Kruger, the Dunning-Kruger effect is a condition in the field of psychology where an intellectually challenged individual fails to adequately assess the extent of their own intelligence (or lack thereof).

    「鄧寧-克魯格效應」是取自康乃爾大學研究學者大衛‧鄧寧以及賈斯汀‧克魯格的姓氏用來解釋心理學領域中,當一個自以為聰明的人 無法適當呈現應有的才智 (或是打從一開始就不具備此才智)

  • Armed with an unhealthy bias of illusory superiority, these low-ability people cannot objectively evaluate their own mental shortcomings.

    藉由透過虛幻、不健康且充滿偏見的優越感來武裝自己,這些才智不足的人無法客觀地評估自己心智的缺陷

  • In other words, they are too stupid to know how stupid they are.

    換句話說,他們笨到不知道自己有多蠢

  • In 1999's study, "Unskilled and Unaware of it," Dunning and Kruger studied the criminal case of McArthur Wheeler, a bank robber who disguised himself by covering his face with lemon juice.

    鄧寧和克魯格於 1999 年發表《毫無才能且無自知之明》論文,研究一件關於銀行搶劫犯麥克阿瑟‧惠勒的犯罪案例,他在臉上塗抹檸檬汁來偽裝自己

  • His rationale being that the chemical properties of lemon juice are used in invisible ink, therefore should render him invisible to the bank security cameras.

    他的理論是檸檬汁的化學成分可以用在隱形墨水所以應該也可以讓他不被銀行的監視器看到

  • An easy enough mistake, and one that cost him his freedom.

    一個顯而易見的錯誤,而這個錯誤也讓他賠上自由之身

  • After he was easily caught by the cops, the wannabe thief was shown the video surveillance footage of himself robbing the banks.

    警察輕而易舉地抓到他後,播放監視器影給這位不切實際的搶劫犯看他正在搶劫銀行的畫面

  • Genuinely surprised that his plan hadn't worked, Wheeler was without the required mental capabilities to figure out the gap in his own reasoning.

    他卻驚訝地問為何計畫沒有成功。惠勒沒有足夠的認知來發現他的理論和實際有落差

  • Other investigations followed, and the Dunning Kruger's 2003 paper "Why do People Fail to Recognize Their Own Incompetence?" observes the following:

    鄧寧和克魯格在 2003 年發表論文該研究也證實他們的理論《論無法正確認識能力不足如何導致過高自我評價》擷取 2003 年研究內容:

  • "Successful negotiation of everyday life would seem to require people to possess insight about deficiencies in their intellectual and social skills."

    「日常生活中成功的談判似乎取決人們必須具備對於自我認知以及社交能力不足的洞察力」

  • However, people tend to be blissfully unaware of their incompetence.

    然而,人們卻寧願不去了解自己的缺陷

  • This lack of awareness arises because poor performers are doubly cursed:

    認知缺陷的產生對於表現欠佳的人就像雙重詛咒

  • Their lack of skill deprives them not only of the ability to produce correct responses, but also of the expertise necessary to surmise that they are not producing them.

    不僅被剝奪正常回應的能力也剝奪了他們認知到自己無法回應的能力

  • People base their perceptions of performance, in part, on their preconceived notions about their skills.

    某種程度上,人們將表現的認知建立在先入為主的個人能力上

  • A good example of the Dunning-Kruger effect in action would be the early audition rounds of a talent show open to the fame-crazy public.

    鄧寧-克魯格效應的知名案例是早期唱歌比賽的海選秀開放給迫切想成名的大眾

  • British Pop-star wannabe Warren Wald became a mini-celebrity when he auditioned for the show Pop Idol in 2003 with a rendition of the 1980s track Eye of The Tiger.

    這位想成名的英國人華倫‧華德變得小有名氣,因為他參加 2003 年英國選秀節目 Pop Idol,詮釋 1980 年影集主題曲《虎之眼》

  • He sang the song so badly that the public adored him.

    他唱得很爛,爛到觀眾欽佩他

  • Warren, who led a simple life, suddenly became a tabloid newspaper sensation.

    默默無名的華倫,突然之間變成娛樂新聞的焦點

  • He gave interviews on television and radio, and the Youtube clip of him singing went viral.

    他不僅在電視和廣播節目接受訪談,Youtube 上更瘋狂轉載他在選秀節目唱歌的影片

  • Warren had no apparent idea just how badly he sang until the nature of his fame came to light.

    華倫從不知道自己唱歌很難聽,直到他聲名大噪的真相浮出檯面

  • When the penny dropped, Warren realized he was being celebrated for his guts and determination rather than his promise as a vocalist.

    華倫終於恍然大悟,發現自己出名的原因是因為他上台的勇氣和決心而不是因為他完成自己想成為歌手的承諾

  • His singing career is currently on hold.

    他的歌手生涯就此打住

  • The public does have a tendency to champion underdogs and this tends to reinforce the Dunning-Kruger effect.

    大眾的確會擁護弱者,而這種現象強化鄧寧-克魯格效應

  • Studies have shown that the Dunning-Kruger effect is not limited to the mentally challenged.

    研究指出鄧寧-克魯格效應並非侷限於身心障礙者

  • High performing individuals can also overestimate their abilities.

    表現突出的人亦會高估他們的能力

  • In fact, most of us do it, a lot of the time.

    事實上,我們大多數人時常會高估自己

  • The way to break out of the habit takes bravery and a level of humility that is uncommon in most people.

    要突破這樣的習慣需要勇氣以及某種程度的謙遜,但謙遜在大多數人身上並不常見

  • We have to ask for feedback from a trusted source and be prepared for an honest response.

    我們必須主動向可信任的人獲得回饋,也要有心理準備聽到誠實的答案

  • So if you feel you have a talent for singing, perhaps test your theory on a few honest people before appearing on national television.

    所以如果你覺得自己有唱歌的天分,或許你可以先在幾位誠實的人面前測試看看然後再去電視觀眾面前表演

  • What we now call the Dunning-Kruger effect is what the scientists used to call metacognitionthinking about thinking.

    我們常說的鄧寧-克魯格效應,便是科學家所稱的「後設認知」

  • Perhaps the less we know about a topic, and the simpler it appears, the easier it is to ascribe some sort of understanding of it.

    或許我們對某個話題越不清楚、某個話題看似越單純,我們越容易誤以為我們很了解該話題

  • We must be careful.

    我們必須非常小心

  • We could well be one of the many Dunning-Kruger sufferers walking around blissfully ignorant of our ignorance.

    我們極有可能會像鄧寧-克魯格效應的實驗者,完全不知道我們有多無知

  • So what's the dumbest thing you've watched somebody do?

    至今為止,你看過誰做過最蠢的事嗎?

  • Were they aware they were doing it or were they blissfully ignorant?

    他們知道自己在做蠢事,還是他們渾然不知他們的愚蠢舉動?

  • Let us know in the comments!

    讓我們聽聽你的看法!

  • Also, be sure to check out our other video called "What Are the Signs That You Are a Psychopath?"

    務必也點閱我們另一個影音節目《哪些是精神疾病的徵兆》

  • Thanks for watching, and, as always, don't forget to like, share, and subscribe.

    謝謝收看,要記得按讚、分享以及訂閱我們的頻道喔!

  • See you next time!

    下次見了!

Ever met someone who is so extremely dumb that they don't know how stupid they actually are?

你曾經遇過笨到不行卻渾然未覺的人嗎?

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 認知 效應 華倫 愚蠢 理論 研究

為什麼愚蠢的人不知道自己很愚蠢?(Why Do Stupid People Not Realize They Are Stupid?)

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    Evangeline 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 28 日
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