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  • If you were to jump into any random spot in the ocean,

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

  • you would probably see something like this.

    如果你要跳入海洋中 一個隨機選擇的地點,

  • Empty of large animals.

    你可能會看到這樣的景象。

  • Because we have taken them out of the water

    沒有大型動物。

  • faster than they can reproduce.

    因為我們把牠們 從水中抓出來的速度

  • Today I want to propose a strategy to save ocean life,

    比牠們的繁殖速度還快。

  • and the solution has a lot to do with economics.

    今天我想要提出一項策略, 來拯救海洋生命,

  • In 1999, a little place called Cabo Pulmo in Mexico

    這項解決方案和經濟 有密切的相關性。

  • was an underwater desert.

    1999 年,墨西哥 一個叫普爾莫角的小地方

  • The fishermen were so upset not having enough fish to catch

    是水底的沙漠。

  • that they did something that no one expected.

    沒有魚可以捕,讓漁夫非常沮喪,

  • Instead of spending more time at sea, trying to catch the few fish left,

    他們做了一件沒人預期到的事。

  • they stopped fishing completely.

    他們沒有花更多時間在海上, 試著抓出所剩無幾的魚,

  • They created a national park in the sea.

    他們反而完全停止捕魚。

  • A no-take marine reserve.

    他們在海上建立了一個國家公園。

  • When we returned, 10 years later, this is what we saw.

    一個不可捕魚的海洋保護區。

  • What had been an underwater barren

    十年後,我們再返回時, 看到了這樣的景象。

  • was now a kaleidoscope of life and color.

    本來的水底荒漠,

  • We saw it back to pristine in only 10 years.

    現在成了生命和色彩的萬花筒。

  • Including the return of the large predators,

    我們看到它在僅僅 十年間就回到原貌。

  • like the groupers, the sharks, the jacks.

    連大型捕食動物都回來了,

  • And those visionary fishermen

    像是石斑魚、鯊魚、鰺科魚,

  • are making much more money now, from tourism.

    還有那些有遠見的漁夫。

  • Now, when we can align economic needs with conservation,

    現在從觀光賺的錢更多了。

  • miracles can happen.

    當我們能讓經濟需求與保育配合,

  • And we have seen similar recoveries all over the world.

    奇蹟就會發生。

  • I spent 20 years studying human impacts in the ocean.

    在全世界,我們都看過 類似的恢復狀況。

  • But when I saw firsthand the regeneration of places like Cabo Pulmo,

    我花了二十年研究 人類對海洋的影響。

  • that gave me hope.

    但當我親眼看到 像普爾莫角這類地方的重生,

  • So I decided to quit my job as a university professor

    我找到了希望。

  • to dedicate my life to save more ocean places like this.

    所以我決定辭去大學教授的工作,

  • In the last 10 years, our team at National Geographic Pristine Seas

    把我的人生投入拯救 更多像這樣的海洋地區。

  • has explored, surveyed and documented

    在過去十年,我們的 「國家地理原始海洋」團隊

  • some of the wildest places left in the ocean

    探索、調查,並記錄了

  • and worked with governments to protect them.

    海洋中一些最野生的地方,

  • These are all now protected, covering a total area half the size of Canada.

    並和政府合作,來保護這些地方。

  • (Applause)

    這些現在都受到保護了,

  • These places are the Yellowstones and the Serengetis of the sea.

    加起來的總面積 有半個加拿大這麼大。

  • These are places where you jump in the water

    (掌聲)

  • and are immediately surrounded by sharks.

    這些地方是海洋的 黃石公園和塞倫蓋提。

  • (Laughter)

    在這些地方,當你跳入水中,

  • And this is good,

    就會馬上被鯊魚圍繞。

  • because the sharks are a good indicator of the health of the ecosystem.

    (笑聲)

  • These places are time machines

    這是好現象,

  • that take us to the ocean of 1,000 years ago.

    因為鯊魚是很好的指標, 表示生態系統很健康。

  • But they also show us what the future ocean could be like.

    這些地方是時光機,

  • Because the ocean has extraordinary regenerative power,

    帶我們回到一千年前的海洋。

  • we have seen great recovery in just a few years.

    但它們也讓我們看到, 未來的海洋可能是什麼樣子。

  • We just need to protect many more places at risk

    因為海洋有超凡的新生力,

  • so they can become wild and full of life again.

    短短幾年我們就已經 看到了了不起的恢復狀況。

  • But today, only two percent of the ocean

    我們得要保護更多 面臨風險的地方,

  • is fully protected from fishing and other activities.

    讓它們能回復野生,再次充滿生命。

  • And that's not enough.

    但,現今只有 2% 的海洋

  • Studies suggest that we need at least 30 percent of the ocean under protection

    能得到完整的保護, 不受捕魚和其他活動影響。

  • not just to save marine life, but to save us, too.

    那並不足夠。

  • Because the ocean gives us more than half of the oxygen we breathe, food,

    研究指出,我們至少 要有 30% 的海洋受到保護,

  • it absorbs much of the carbon pollution

    這樣不僅能拯救海洋生命, 也能拯救我們。

  • that we throw in the atmosphere.

    因為我們呼吸的氧氣和食物 有一半以上都來自海洋,

  • We need a healthy ocean to survive.

    海洋吸收了大氣中大量

  • Now, is there a way to accelerate ocean protection?

    由我們造製的碳污染。

  • I think so.

    要有健康的海洋,我們才能生存。

  • And it involves us looking at the high seas.

    有什麼方式可以加速海洋保護嗎?

  • Now, what are the high seas?

    我認為有。

  • Now coastal countries have authority over 200 nautical miles from shore.

    這個方法需要我們去研究公海。

  • Everything beyond those areas are called the high seas.

    什麼是公海?

  • In dark blue on this map.

    沿岸國家擁有海岸起算 兩百海浬範圍內的主權。

  • No country owns the high seas,

    在那之外的區域就叫做公海。

  • no country is responsible for them,

    在這張地圖上用深藍色標示。

  • but they all are, so it's a little like the Wild West.

    公海不屬於任何國家,

  • And there are two main types of fishing in the high seas.

    也沒有任何國家要為公海負責,

  • At the bottom and near the surface.

    但公海有一點像是蠻荒的美國西部。

  • Bottom trawling is the most destructive practice in the world.

    在公海,有兩種主要的捕魚方式。

  • Super trawlers, the largest fishing vessels in the ocean,

    在海底和在海面。

  • have nets so large that they can hold a dozen 747 jets.

    海底拖網捕魚是世界上 最具破壞性的做法。

  • These huge nets destroy everything in their paths --

    超級拖網漁船是 海上最大的捕魚船,

  • including deep corals that grow on sea mounds,

    它的魚網大到可以網住 12 台 747 噴射機。

  • which can be thousands of years old.

    這些大型魚網會把它們 經過的地方都摧毀——

  • And fishing near the surface targets mostly species

    包括長在海底山上的深海珊瑚,

  • that migrate between the high seas and country's waters,

    有些已經好幾千歲。

  • like tuna and sharks.

    海面的捕魚,目標是在公海

  • And many of these species are threatened because of too much fishing

    和國家領海之間遷徒的物種,

  • and bad management.

    比如鮪魚和鯊魚。

  • Now, who fishes in the high seas?

    這些物種當中有許多 都因為過度捕撈和不良管理

  • Until now, it was difficult to know exactly,

    而受到威脅。

  • because countries have been very secretive

    那麼誰會在公海捕魚?

  • about the long-distance fishing.

    到目前為止,都很難明確知道,

  • But now, satellite technology allows us to track individual boats.

    因為國家對於遠洋捕魚

  • This is a game-changer.

    都是保密到家。

  • And this is the first time

    但現在,衛星技術 讓我們能夠追蹤個別船隻。

  • we are presenting the data that you are going to see.

    這改變了遊戲規則。

  • I'm going to show you the tracks of two boats

    這是第一次,

  • over the course of a year,

    我們把接下來各位 將會看到的資料公開呈現。

  • using a satellite automated identification system.

    我等下要讓各位看的是,

  • This is a long-liner, fishing around the southern coast of Africa.

    在一年間兩艘船的軌跡,

  • After a few months fishing there, the boat goes to Japan to resupply,

    用的是衛星自動化辨識系統。

  • and shortly after, here it is, fishing around Madagascar.

    這是一艘延繩漁船, 沿著非洲南海岸捕魚。

  • This is a Russian trawler fishing, probably, for cod,

    在那裡捕魚了幾個月之後, 這艘船到日本去做再補給,

  • in Russian waters,

    沒多久,在這裡, 到馬達加斯加捕魚。

  • and then across the high seas of the north Atlantic.

    這是一艘俄國拖網漁船, 可能是在捕鱈魚,

  • Thanks to Global Fishing Watch,

    這是俄國水域,

  • we have been able to track over 3,600 boats

    接著橫越了北大西洋的公海。

  • from more than 20 countries, fishing in the high seas.

    有了 Global Fishing Watch, (全球捕魚監看網站)

  • They use satellite positioning and machine-learning technology

    我們能夠追蹤來自 超過 20 個不同國家,

  • to automatically identify if a boat is just sailing or fishing,

    在公海上捕魚的至少 3600 艘船。

  • which are the white spots here.

    他們用衛星定位及機器學習技術,

  • So with an international group of colleagues,

    自動辨識出一艘船 是在航行或是在捕魚,

  • we decided to investigate

    就是這裡的白點。

  • not only who fishes in the high seas, but who benefits from it.

    所以,我們和同事決定組成

  • My colleague, Juan Mayorga,

    一個國際團體,來調查

  • at the University of California, Santa Barbara,

    誰在公海上捕魚,以及誰從中獲益。

  • has produced detailed maps of fishing effort,

    我的同事,華安馬尤勒加,

  • which means how much time and fuel is spent fishing

    來自聖塔芭芭拉的加州大學,

  • in every pixel in the ocean.

    針對捕魚耗資做出了細節地圖,

  • We have a map for every country.

    耗資指的是花在海洋中 每一個像素內捕魚

  • China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and Spain alone

    所花的時間和燃料。

  • account for almost 80 percent of the fishing in the high seas.

    每個國家,我們都有一張地圖。

  • When we put all of the countries together,

    光是中國、台灣、日本、 韓國,和西班牙,

  • this is what we get.

    就幾乎佔了公海捕魚的 80%。

  • Because we know the identity of every boat in the database,

    當我們把所有這些國家加在一起,

  • we know its size, its tonnage, the power of its engines,

    就得到這個。

  • how many crew are on board.

    因為我們知道資料庫中 每一艘船的身份,

  • With this information, we can calculate fuel costs, labor costs, etc.

    我們就能知道它的大小、 噸位、引擎馬力、

  • So for the first time,

    有多少船員。

  • we have been able to map the costs of fishing in the high seas.

    有這些資訊,我們就能計算出 燃料成本、勞力成本等等。

  • The darker the red, the higher the costs.

    所以,第一次,

  • Thanks to our colleagues at the University of British Columbia,

    我們得以在地圖上繪製出 公海的捕魚成本。

  • we know how much every country is actually fishing.

    紅色越深,表示成本越高。

  • And we know the price of the fish as it comes off the vessel.

    有賴我們在英屬 哥倫比亞大學的同事,

  • Combined with the data on effort,

    我們知道每個國家的實際捕魚量。

  • we have been able to map the revenue of fishing the high seas.

    我們也知道當魚獲 離開船的時候的價格。

  • The darker the blue, the higher the revenue.

    和耗資的資料結合,

  • We have costs, and we have revenue.

    我們就能夠在地圖上繪製出 在公海捕魚的收入。

  • So for the first time,

    越深的藍色,表示越高的收入。

  • we have been able to map the profitability of fishing in the high seas.

    我們有成本,我們有收入。

  • Now I'm going to show you a map.

    所以,第一次,

  • Red colors mean we are losing money by fishing in that part of the ocean.

    我們能夠在地圖上繪製出 在公海上捕魚的利潤。

  • Blue colors mean it's profitable.

    現在我要展示一張地圖。

  • Here it is.

    紅色表示在海洋的那個區域 捕魚是會損失錢的。

  • It seems mostly profitable.

    藍色表示是有利可圖。

  • But there are two more factors we have to take into account.

    就是這張圖。

  • First, recent investigations reveal

    似乎大多有利可圖。

  • the use of forced labor, or slave labor,

    但我們還需要考量兩個因子。

  • in high seas fishing.

    第一,近期的調查顯示,

  • Companies use it to cut costs, to generate profits.

    在公海捕魚時, 有人會使用強迫的勞工

  • And second, every year, governments subsidize high seas fishing

    或是奴隸勞工。

  • with more than four billion dollars.

    公司用這些人 來縮減成本,產生利潤。

  • Let's go back to the map of profits.

    第二,每年政府會補助公海捕魚,

  • If we assume fair wages,

    金額超過 40 億美元。

  • which means not slave labor,

    我們再回來看利潤地圖。

  • and we remove the subsidies from our calculation,

    如果我們假設薪資是公平的,

  • the map turns into this.

    也就是說沒有奴隸勞工,

  • Fishing is truly profitable in only half of the high seas fishing grounds.

    且我們在計算時把補助給排除,

  • In fact, on aggregate,

    地圖就會變成這樣。

  • subsidies are four times larger than the profits.

    只有在一半的公海上, 捕魚才是有利可圖的。

  • So we have five countries doing most of the fishing in the high seas

    事實上,從總計來看,

  • and the economics are dependent on huge government subsidies,

    補助是利潤的四倍之多。

  • and for some countries, on human rights violations.

    所以有五個國家 大部分的捕魚都在公海進行,

  • What this economic analysis reveals,

    而經濟方面則大量依賴政府補助,

  • is that practically the entire high seas fishing proposition is misguided.

    有些國家,則是依賴 違反人權的方式。

  • What sane government would subsidize an industry

    這項經濟分析揭示出一個狀況,

  • anchored in exploitation and fundamentally destructive?

    實際上整個公海補魚的 主張就已經被誤導了。

  • And not so profitable, anyway.

    神智清楚的政府怎麼會 去補助一個產業,

  • So, why don't we close all of the high seas to fishing?

    如果這個產業靠的是剝削, 且從根本上就是具有摧毀性的?

  • Let's create a giant high seas reserve, two-thirds of the ocean.

    而且還不是很能獲利。

  • A modeling study from --

    所以,為什麼我們不停止 所有的公海捕魚?

  • (Applause)

    我們來建立一個巨大海洋保護區, 佔海洋比例的三分之二。

  • A modeling study from colleagues at UC Santa Barbara,

    一篇建模的研究——

  • suggests that such reserve would help migratory species like tuna

    (掌聲)

  • recover in the high seas.

    聖塔芭芭拉加州大學的同事 有一篇建模的研究,

  • And part of that increased abundance would spill over into the countries' waters,

    指出這類保護區能夠協助 遷徒型物種,比如鮪魚,

  • helping to replenish them.

    在公海中恢復原來的狀況。

  • That would also increase the catch in these waters,

    這些物種夠豐足之後, 有一部分就會進入到國家的領海,

  • and so would the profits,

    協助補充領海的生物。

  • because the cost of fishing would be lowered.

    那就會增加在這些領海的漁獲量,

  • And the ecological benefits would be huge,

    利潤跟著提升,

  • because these species of large predators, like tuna and sharks,

    因為捕魚的成本會下降。

  • are key to the health of the entire ecosystem.

    經濟的利益會很大,

  • Therefore, protecting the high seas

    因為這些大型捕食動物, 比如鮪魚和鯊魚,

  • would have ecological, economic and social benefits.

    是整個生態系統健康的關鍵。

  • But the truth is that most fishing companies

    因此,保護公海

  • don't care about the environment.

    會帶來生態、經濟, 以及社會的益處。

  • But they would make more money by not fishing in the high seas.

    但真相是大部分的捕魚公司

  • And this would not affect our ability to feed our growing population,

    都不在乎環境。

  • because the high seas provide only five percent of the global marine catch,

    但如果不在公海捕魚, 他們會賺更多錢。

  • because the high seas are not as productive as near-shore waters.

    這不會影響到我們供應 食物給不斷成長的人口,

  • And most of the catch of the high seas is sold as upscale food items,

    因為全球海洋的漁獲, 只有 5% 是來自公海,

  • like tuna sashimi or shark fin soup.

    因為公海不像近海水域 那麼有生產力。

  • The high seas catch does not contribute to global food security.

    在公海上大部分的漁獲都是 以高檔商品的定位來銷售,

  • So how are we going to do it?

    比如鮪魚生魚片或是魚翅湯。

  • How are we going to protect the high seas?

    公海漁獲對於全球的糧食保障 並沒有什麼貢獻。

  • As we speak, negotiators at the United Nations

    那麼,我們要如何做?

  • are beginning discussions on a new agreement to do just that.

    我們要如何保護公海?

  • But this cannot happen behind closed doors.

    就在這個時候,聯合國的談判專家

  • This is our greatest opportunity.

    已經開始討論關於 保護公海的新協議。

  • And we all should ensure

    但關起門來是不可能讓它實現的。

  • that our countries will support the protection of the high seas

    這是我們最大的機會。

  • and get rid of subsidies to industrial fishing.

    我們都應該要確保

  • In 2016, 24 countries and the European Union

    我們的國家會支持對公海的保護,

  • agreed to protect the Ross Sea,

    不要再對工業捕魚提供補助。

  • the wildest places in Antarctica,

    2016 年,24 個國家以及歐盟

  • full of wildlife like killer whales, leopard seals, penguins.

    同意要保護羅斯海,

  • And this included fishing nations, like China, Japan, Spain, Russia.

    那是南極洲最野生的地方,

  • But they decided that protecting such a unique environment

    充滿了野生動物, 像是逆戟鯨、豹海豹、企鵝。

  • would be worth more than exploiting it for relatively little benefit.

    這些國家還包含了捕魚國家, 如中國、日本、西班牙、俄國。

  • And this is exactly the type of cooperation

    但他們會決定要保護 這麼獨特的環境,

  • and willingness to set aside differences

    是因為保護它的價值更高, 不需為了相對少的利益來利用它。

  • that we are going to need.

    就是要靠這種合作和意願,

  • We can do it again.

    來排除歧見,

  • If 20 years from now,

    這才是我們會需要的。

  • our children were to jump into any random spot in the ocean,

    我們可以再做一次。

  • what would they see?

    如果 20 年之後,

  • A barren landscape, like much of our seas today,

    我們的孩子要跳入海洋中 一個隨機選擇的地點,

  • or an abundance of life, our legacy to the future?

    他們會看到什麼?

  • Thank you very much.

    貧瘠的地景, 就像現在大部分的海洋?

  • (Applause)

    或是充滿生命的景象, 我們留給未來的遺產?

  • Thank you.

    非常謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

If you were to jump into any random spot in the ocean,

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Yanyan Hong

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 海洋 國家 保護 地圖 補助

【TED】安瑞克沙拉: 我們來把公海轉變為世界上最大的自然保護區 (Let's turn the high seas into the world's largest nature reserve | Enric Sala)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2018 年 06 月 28 日
影片單字