Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • [Music]

    在這世界上,有一場無聲大戰已延續了數十億年之久。

  • A war has been raging for billions of years,

    每天都是數以萬億計的殺戮,我們卻毫無所覺。

  • killing trillions every single day, while we don't even notice.

    在這場血腥大戰中的主角就是這世界最致命的實體:

  • The war is fought by the single deadliest entity on our planet:

    【噬菌體】

  • the bacteriophage

    【好聽的開場音樂】

  • or 'phage' for short.

    噬菌體是一種病毒

  • [Intro + Music]

    你不能說它有生命,

  • A phage is a virus;

    也不能說它沒有生命。

  • not quite alive,

    它們看起來就像是被精心打造出來的樣子,

  • not quite dead.

    它頭部的外形是一個"二十面體",

  • Also, they look as if someone made them up.

    就像是一個有著20個面和30條邊的骰子。

  • Their head is an icosahedron,

    在這個頭部裡頭裝著它的遺傳物質,

  • a sort of dice with 20 faces and 30 edges.

    下方通常接著一條長尾巴,上頭有一些纖維狀細腿。

  • It contains the genetic material of the virus

    噬菌體的數量要比地球上所有生物(包含細菌在內)

  • and often sits on a long tail that has leg-like fibers.

    的總和還要來得多。

  • There are more phages on earth than every other organism combined,

    幾乎只要有生命的地方都可以看見他們的蹤影。

  • including bacteria.

    在你的手上、腸道裡和眼皮上的噬菌體可多達數十億。

  • And they are probably everywhere living things exist.

    得知自己與這死神級殺手共枕的消息,可能會讓你坐立難安,

  • Billions are on your hands, in your intestines and your eyelids right now.

    不過,先別緊張。

  • Which might make you nervous since phages are responsible for the majority of deaths on earth

    雖然"種族滅絕"是它們的家常便飯,

  • but you're lucky.

    但它們只對細菌下手。

  • While they do commit genocide for breakfast,

    它們每天最多可以殺掉海洋中所有細菌的四成。

  • they only kill bacteria.

    然而看似強大的噬菌體並非沒有弱點,

  • Up to 40% of all bacteria in the oceans are killed by them every single day.

    噬菌體就像其他的病毒一樣需要宿主來寄生和繁殖。

  • But phages also have major flaws.

    說穿了它們不過是個帶著殼的一團遺傳物質,

  • Like any other virus, phages need a host to survive and reproduce.

    而且有特化的能力。

  • They're not much more than genetic material in a hull

    通常一種噬菌體只會選擇某一種特定細菌來寄生,

  • and they specialize.

    頂多再包含到它們的近親家族。

  • Usually, a phage has chosen one specific bacteria

    這些細菌就是他們的獵物。

  • and maybe some of its very close relatives.

    噬菌體就像是只會擊殺特定細菌家族的巡航導彈。

  • These are its prey.

    當噬菌體鎖定了它的獵物時,

  • Imagine a phage as like a cruise missile that only hunts and kills members of one very unlucky family.

    它的尾絲就會附著上去,

  • When a phage finds its victim,

    並且用像是注射針的東西刺穿細菌的表層。

  • it connects its tail fibers with receptors and uses a sort of syringe to puncture a surface.

    噬菌體會將它的遺傳物質從其尾部注入細菌內部。

  • In a weird motion, the phage squeezes its tail and injects its genetic information.

    在幾分鐘時間內它就會刧持和接管一切,

  • Within minutes, the bacteria is taken over.

    然後強迫細菌開始製造新噬菌體的零件。

  • It's now forced to manufacture all the parts of new phages.

    它們在新的噬菌體擠滿細菌內部之前是不會停手的。

  • They only stop when the bacteria is filled up with brand-new phages.

    在最後的那一刻,

  • In the final step,

    它們會釋放出【內溶素】,

  • they produce 'endolysin',

    那是種強力的酶,可以在細菌的身上打出個洞來。

  • a powerful enzyme that punches a hole in the bacteria.

    內部的高壓會讓細菌死於猛烈的爆漿。

  • The pressure is so high that the bacteria sort of vomits out all of its insides and dies.

    被釋出的新生噬菌體會展開一輪全新的循環歷程。

  • New phages are released and begin the cycle anew.

    在最近這幾年間,

  • In the last few years,

    噬菌體獲得了世界上第二致命物種的關注,

  • bacteriophages have enjoyed the attention of the second deadliest beings on earth:

    也就是我們人類。

  • humans.

    最近我們已經著手研究要將噬菌體注射進身體,

  • Recently, we've started looking into injecting millions of them into our bodies

    因為我們正在陷入絕望的困境中,

  • because we're sort of getting desperate;

    那完全是我們自己捅出來的。

  • we screwed up.

    在過去一個小小的傷口 或者隨便喝了地上一口水都會喪命

  • In the past a single cut or a sip from the wrong puddle could kill you.

    細菌就像是我們的噬菌體一樣

  • Bacteria were our phages.

    殘忍的獵殺我們這些小怪物

  • Tiny monsters that hunted us mercilessly.

    在一百年前左右 我們在大自然中找到了一個解決方案

  • But then, about 100 years ago, we found a solution in nature.

    我們意外地發現了 真菌會製造一種可以殺死細菌的化合物

  • By accident, we found fungi that produced compounds that killed bacteria:

    抗生素

  • antibiotics.

    我們一夜之間便擁有一批強大的超級武器

  • Suddenly, we had a powerful super weapon.

    抗生素強大到讓我們忘記細菌曾是一個可怕的怪物

  • Antibiotics were so effective that we stopped thinking of bacteria as monsters.

    只有老弱者們會被細菌殺死

  • Only the old and the weakest among us were killed by them.

    我們的抗生素越用越多 而且越來越常用在不重要的小病上

  • We used antibiotics more and more for less and less serious causes.

    我們越來越不把怪物放在眼裡

  • We lost respect for the monsters and the weapon

    但細菌是會進化的 而且一個接一個對我們的武器免疫了

  • But bacteria are living things that evolve and one by one they started to become immune against our weapons.

    這個情況持續直到我們創造出了「超級細菌」

  • This continued until we had created what are called 'superbugs',

    對我們所有武器都免疫的細菌

  • bacteria immune to almost everything we have.

    這種超級細菌正在全世界傳播

  • This immunity is spreading across the world as we speak.

    到2050年死於超級細菌的人 將會比癌症還要多

  • By 2050, superbugs could kill more humans a year than cancer.

    因為小小傷口及小小咳嗽就會帶走你和你所愛的人 這樣的日子已慢慢重現了

  • The days when a cut or bladder infection or a cough could kill you or your loved ones are coming back.

    目前僅在美國每年就有2萬3千個人死於耐藥菌

  • In the US alone, more than 23,000 people die from resistant bacteria each year.

    然而這個小小病毒機器人「噬菌體」 可能可以拯救我們

  • But it turns out that phages, our tiny killer virus robots, could save us.

    我們可以把它們注入身體中去治療感染

  • We can inject them into our bodies to help cure infections.

    等等...把那麼多病毒注入身體中 怎麼會是個好主意?

  • Hold on, how could injecting millions of viruses into an infection be a good idea?

    噬菌體是非常特化的細菌殺手

  • Phages are very very specialized killers of bacteria.

    特化到人類實際上對他們完全免疫

  • So specialized, in fact, that humans are completely immune to them;

    我們的差異太大了

  • we are too different.

    我們每天會遇到上億個噬菌體 然而我們只是禮貌地忽略對方

  • We encounter billions of phages every day and we just politely ignore each other.

    抗生素就像地毯式轟炸一般毀滅一切

  • Antibiotics are like carpet bombing, killing everything even the good bacteria in our intestines that we don't want to harm

    包含我們其實不想傷害的益菌

  • Phages are like guided missiles that only attack what they're supposed to

    噬菌體就像導彈一樣 只擊殺那該被擊殺的

  • Wait a minute, if we use phages to kill bacteria, won't bacteria develop ways of defending themselves?

    等一下,如果我們用噬菌體去對付細菌...

  • Well, it's more complex than that; phages evolved too.

    那細菌會不會進化到也對噬菌體免疫呢?

  • There has been an arms race between them and bacteria for billions of years and so far, they're doing great.

    嗯...這機制比你想得更複雜

  • This makes phages smart weapons that are constantly getting better at killing.

    噬菌體也會進化

  • But even if bacteria were to become immune against our phage, we still might be able to win.

    噬菌體和細菌間的軍備競賽已持續了上億年

  • It turns out that in order to become resistant to even just a few species of phages,

    而且噬菌體挺有優勢的

  • bacteria have to give up their resistance to antibiotics.

    這使得噬菌體成了一種 會自動進化擊殺技巧的智慧型武器

  • We might be able to trap them in a catch-22.

    就算到最後細菌也對噬菌體免疫了

  • This has already been successfully tested with a patient who had no other hope left

    我們還是能夠獲勝

  • The bacteria 'Pseudomonas Aeruginosa', one of the most feared bacteria, infected the man's chest cavity.

    結果就是

  • They are naturally resistant to most antibiotics

    細菌要是想增加對於某幾種噬菌體的抗性

  • and can even survive an alcoholic hand gel.

    細菌就必須相對地放棄它們對抗生素的抗性

  • After years of suffering, a few thousand phages were directly inserted into his chest cavity

    我們就可以利用雙面困境來逮住它們

  • together with antibiotics the bacteria were immune to.

    這些成果已經在一位沒有其他希望的患者上 成功試驗過了

  • After a few weeks, the infections had completely disappeared.

    綠膿桿菌,一種十分可怕的細菌 感染了這個人的胸腔

  • Unfortunately, this treatment is still experimental and pharma companies are still reluctant to invest the necessary billions

    這種細菌天生對多種抗生素免疫

  • in a treatment that has no official approval yet.

    即使含有酒精的洗手液也無法完全殺死他們

  • But things are finally changing.

    在病了幾年後 讓幾千個噬菌體直接注射到他的胸腔中

  • In 2016, the largest phage clinical trial to date began and phages are getting more and more attention.

    以及綠膿桿菌已經免疫的一些抗生素

  • and we better get used to it because the era in which antibiotics have been our super weapon is drawing to a close.

    幾周後,感染完全消失

  • It might be a weird concept but injecting the deadliest being on planet Earth

    不幸的是,這種療法依然是實驗性的 製藥公司並不是很願意投資這種

  • directly into our bodies could save millions of lives

    沒有通過官方批准的療法

  • This video was made possible by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    但事情總算有了變化

  • If you'd like to support Kurzgesagt, you can do so on patreon.com/Kurzgesagt and get fancy things in return.

    在2016年,啟動了世界最大的噬菌體臨床實驗

[Music]

在這世界上,有一場無聲大戰已延續了數十億年之久。

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 細菌 抗生素 免疫 武器 病毒 怪物

地球上最致命的生物--嗜血桿菌 (The Deadliest Being on Planet Earth - The Bacteriophage)

  • 429 40
    mommy 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字