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  • In J. K. Rowling's best-selling books, the boy wizard Harry Potter continually fights pure evilyou know, that creepy snake tongue man with no nose.

    在 J. K. Rowling 的暢銷小說中,巫師哈利波特持續地對抗著邪惡勢力-- 擁有詭異蛇舌又沒有鼻子的男人。

  • But how would Harry go fighting the evil forces of the world we live in?


  • By evil forces I mean bigotry, prejudice and other negative attitudes that are the roots of our social conflicts.


  • Could he diminish these bitter human traits and make us better?


  • It turns out he already has.


  • [Brain Craft intro]

    [Brain Craft 片頭音樂]

  • A good amount of research shows that reading fiction can increase empathy, improve our understanding of other people and reduce prejudice.


  • And over the 20 years since Harry Potter was first published, researchers have been finding this story is particularly good at promoting these prosocial values.

    在哈利波特出版的這 20 年間,研究人員發現這個故事非常有效地宣導了這些有益於社會的價值觀。

  • 20 years...doesn't time fly by?!

    20 年……時間過太快了吧?!

  • So, what's so special about Harry Potter?


  • Well, Harry's world wasn't just fun magic and wizardryit was plagued with the same injustice that exists in our world.


  • For instance, the bad characters in the story, like Voldemort and the Death Eaters, believed "pure blood" wizards were superior to muggle-borns, whom they called "mudbloods.”


  • Of course, these kind of themes are nothing new in literaturebut J.K. Rowling approaches them in a way that's accessible to children.

    當然,這類題材並不是第一次出現在文學作品中,但 J.K. Rowling 將這個主題昇華至兒童能理解的境界。

  • And learning about these issues at an early age may help kids apply this understanding to their own social environments.


  • So, how well do children learn from Harry?


  • In a series of experiments published in 2015, researchers in Italy examined whether reading Harry Potter improves attitudes toward stigmatized groups, including immigrants and LGBTQ people.

    在 2015 年發表的實驗成果中,義大利的研究者證實了閱讀哈利波特改善了人們對待被汙名化的團體的態度,其中包括對移民者和同志族群的態度。

  • In a survey of 117 high schoolers, those who read the most Harry Potter books and related to Harry were more open toward LGBTQ people.

    在針對 117 名高中生的調查中顯示,那些讀越多哈利波特小說和越認同哈利波特的學生對待同志族群也更加包容。

  • But was that the effect of reading the books or were more open minded people more attracted to the books?


  • To find out, the researchers gathered a group of fifth-graders and asked them about their attitudes toward immigrants.

    為了知道答案,研究者召集了 34 名五年級的學生,並詢問了他們對移民者的態度。

  • Then, over a few weeks, the students broke into smaller groups and discussed passages from the Harry Potter books.


  • Kids who focused on sections dealing with prejudice and also identified with Harry, showed improved attitudes towards immigrants.


  • Researchers think the Harry Potter stories have this effect because it improves empathy – “the experience of understanding another person's condition from their perspective.”


  • We can see examples of this in the pages!


  • A textual analysis of the series found that Harry and his friends respond empathetically to acts of discrimination .


  • Empathy is communicated to readers through Harry's inner thoughts, perspectives, actions and words.


  • Fiction is the simulation of people and their experiences.


  • So reading is like practicing how life feels like through another person's eyesthe power of fiction is that this can lead to changes in everyday life.


  • Psychologists have surveyed people before and after reading novels and found getting immersed in a story improves empathy and theory-of-mind.


  • In one brain imaging study in 2013, researchers found after people read a novel, three hub regions in their brain show altered activity for several days.

    在 2013 年的一個腦成像研究中,研究者發現人們在讀完一部小說後,三個腦中的樞紐地帶將會持續呈現活躍狀態好幾天。

  • These regions have been linked to language function and representing other people's perspectives.


  • In other words, when we read stories, we activate the same brain areas as those involved with the processing of understandings of other people.


  • And according to the narrative collective-assimilation hypothesis, experiencing a narrative leads us to psychologically become a part of the group described within the narrative.


  • In a 2011 study, participants who read passages from the Harry Potter and Twilight series showed this effect. For example, they tended to implicitly associate wizard or vampire words with themselves, some said they felt more British or thought they had sharper teeth.

    在一份2011 年的研究中指出,閱讀哈利波特和暮光之城的實驗參與者都表現出了此種心態,舉例來說,他們傾向於將巫師和吸血鬼相關的字彙內化到他們的用語中,有些人甚至說他們覺得自己更像英國人,或是覺得自己擁有尖銳的牙齒了。

  • In other words, those who read the Twilight series identified with vampires and Harry Potter readers identified with wizards. Because obviously I'm in Ravenclaw.


  • So the real magic of Harry Potter is that, by reading it, we become more psychologically like him: an orphan who stands up against injustice and discrimination, and be friends a variety of people from different social standings and backgrounds.


  • Because, just as Dumbledore said, "Differences of habit and language are nothing at all if our aims are identical and our hearts are open.”


In J. K. Rowling's best-selling books, the boy wizard Harry Potter continually fights pure evilyou know, that creepy snake tongue man with no nose.

在 J. K. Rowling 的暢銷小說中,巫師哈利波特持續地對抗著邪惡勢力-- 擁有詭異蛇舌又沒有鼻子的男人。

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B1 中級 中文 澳洲腔 哈利波特 小說 巫師 閱讀 故事 研究

為什麼大家都應該讀《哈利波特》?(Why Everybody Should Read Harry Potter)

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    Evangeline 發佈於 2018 年 08 月 09 日