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  • In J. K. Rowling's best-selling books, the boy wizard Harry Potter continually fights pure evilyou know, that creepy snake tongue man with no nose.

    在 J. K. Rowling 的暢銷小說中,巫師哈利波特持續地對抗著邪惡勢力-- 擁有詭異蛇舌又沒有鼻子的男人。

  • But how would Harry go fighting the evil forces of the world we live in?

    但哈利波特是如何對抗我們這個世界的邪惡勢力的呢?

  • By evil forces I mean bigotry, prejudice and other negative attitudes that are the roots of our social conflicts.

    在這裡我指的是像固執、偏見,或其他導致社會紛亂的負面態度。

  • Could he diminish these bitter human traits and make us better?

    他能夠徹底消滅這些黑暗人性並讓我們變得更好嗎?

  • It turns out he already has.

    事實上,他已經做到了。

  • [Brain Craft intro]

    [Brain Craft 片頭音樂]

  • A good amount of research shows that reading fiction can increase empathy, improve our understanding of other people and reduce prejudice.

    大量的研究顯示閱讀科幻小說能夠增強同理心,使我們更能了解其他人並降低偏見。

  • And over the 20 years since Harry Potter was first published, researchers have been finding this story is particularly good at promoting these prosocial values.

    在哈利波特出版的這 20 年間,研究人員發現這個故事非常有效地宣導了這些有益於社會的價值觀。

  • 20 years...doesn't time fly by?!

    20 年……時間過太快了吧?!

  • So, what's so special about Harry Potter?

    所以哈利波特到底是哪裡異於常人呢?

  • Well, Harry's world wasn't just fun magic and wizardryit was plagued with the same injustice that exists in our world.

    哈利的世界中不僅僅只有有趣的魔法和巫術,他的世界中充斥者和我們世界一樣的不公不義。

  • For instance, the bad characters in the story, like Voldemort and the Death Eaters, believed "pure blood" wizards were superior to muggle-borns, whom they called "mudbloods.”

    舉例來說,那些故事中的反派角色,像是佛地魔和食死人,他們相信血統純正的巫師優於那些麻瓜生的小孩,還叫他們麻種。

  • Of course, these kind of themes are nothing new in literaturebut J.K. Rowling approaches them in a way that's accessible to children.

    當然,這類題材並不是第一次出現在文學作品中,但 J.K. Rowling 將這個主題昇華至兒童能理解的境界。

  • And learning about these issues at an early age may help kids apply this understanding to their own social environments.

    在早年學習到這些種族主題,更能讓孩童了解如何正確地在社會生活中看待這類現象。

  • So, how well do children learn from Harry?

    那兒童們究竟從哈利身上學到了多少呢?

  • In a series of experiments published in 2015, researchers in Italy examined whether reading Harry Potter improves attitudes toward stigmatized groups, including immigrants and LGBTQ people.

    在 2015 年發表的實驗成果中,義大利的研究者證實了閱讀哈利波特改善了人們對待被汙名化的團體的態度,其中包括對移民者和同志族群的態度。

  • In a survey of 117 high schoolers, those who read the most Harry Potter books and related to Harry were more open toward LGBTQ people.

    在針對 117 名高中生的調查中顯示,那些讀越多哈利波特小說和越認同哈利波特的學生對待同志族群也更加包容。

  • But was that the effect of reading the books or were more open minded people more attracted to the books?

    但真的是因為這些書造就了這些改變嗎?還是心態本來就開放的人們更容易被這類書所吸引呢?

  • To find out, the researchers gathered a group of fifth-graders and asked them about their attitudes toward immigrants.

    為了知道答案,研究者召集了 34 名五年級的學生,並詢問了他們對移民者的態度。

  • Then, over a few weeks, the students broke into smaller groups and discussed passages from the Harry Potter books.

    接著,幾週後,這些學生被分成不同小組並對哈利波特小說中的片段進行討論活動。

  • Kids who focused on sections dealing with prejudice and also identified with Harry, showed improved attitudes towards immigrants.

    在解決偏見問題和對哈利的討論中非常專注的學生,同時也展現了對移民者態度的改善。

  • Researchers think the Harry Potter stories have this effect because it improves empathy – “the experience of understanding another person's condition from their perspective.”

    研究者認為哈利波特的故事之所以能有這樣的成效,是因為他增強的讀者的同理心是「一場藉由他人的角度來了解其他人所處的情境體驗」。

  • We can see examples of this in the pages!

    我們可以實際在書中看到一些例子!

  • A textual analysis of the series found that Harry and his friends respond empathetically to acts of discrimination .

    一個小說文本分析指出,哈利和他的朋友對歧視行為加以同理。

  • Empathy is communicated to readers through Harry's inner thoughts, perspectives, actions and words.

    同理心的概念便藉由哈利的心態、想法和行為傳達給讀者。

  • Fiction is the simulation of people and their experiences.

    科幻小說是對人類和其經驗的模擬體驗。

  • So reading is like practicing how life feels like through another person's eyesthe power of fiction is that this can lead to changes in everyday life.

    所以閱讀科幻小說就像是在體會他人世界裡的人生是什麼感覺,科幻小說這樣的功能是能夠使日常生活產生變化的

  • Psychologists have surveyed people before and after reading novels and found getting immersed in a story improves empathy and theory-of-mind.

    心理學家調查了人們在讀小說前後的心理狀態後發現,徹底投入到故事中能夠增強同理心和心智理論。

  • In one brain imaging study in 2013, researchers found after people read a novel, three hub regions in their brain show altered activity for several days.

    在 2013 年的一個腦成像研究中,研究者發現人們在讀完一部小說後,三個腦中的樞紐地帶將會持續呈現活躍狀態好幾天。

  • These regions have been linked to language function and representing other people's perspectives.

    這些地帶連結著語言能力和對他人想法的認知能力。

  • In other words, when we read stories, we activate the same brain areas as those involved with the processing of understandings of other people.

    換句話說,當我們在讀這些故事時,我們活化的大腦區域與負責處理對他人理解的區域是相同的。

  • And according to the narrative collective-assimilation hypothesis, experiencing a narrative leads us to psychologically become a part of the group described within the narrative.

    根據故事集體性同化假說,閱讀故事的經驗將導致我們心理上將自己想像成故事中群體的一份子。

  • In a 2011 study, participants who read passages from the Harry Potter and Twilight series showed this effect. For example, they tended to implicitly associate wizard or vampire words with themselves, some said they felt more British or thought they had sharper teeth.

    在一份2011 年的研究中指出,閱讀哈利波特和暮光之城的實驗參與者都表現出了此種心態,舉例來說,他們傾向於將巫師和吸血鬼相關的字彙內化到他們的用語中,有些人甚至說他們覺得自己更像英國人,或是覺得自己擁有尖銳的牙齒了。

  • In other words, those who read the Twilight series identified with vampires and Harry Potter readers identified with wizards. Because obviously I'm in Ravenclaw.

    換句話說,那些閱讀暮光之城的人將自己想像成吸血鬼,哈利波特的讀者也將自己想像成巫師了,像我就是雷文克勞學院的學生。

  • So the real magic of Harry Potter is that, by reading it, we become more psychologically like him: an orphan who stands up against injustice and discrimination, and be friends a variety of people from different social standings and backgrounds.

    哈利波特最神奇的地方在於,讀了這部小說,我們從心理層面上變得更像他:一個反抗不公不義的孤兒,有著許多來自不同社會階層和背景的朋友們。

  • Because, just as Dumbledore said, "Differences of habit and language are nothing at all if our aims are identical and our hearts are open.”

    這正如鄧不利多說的:「如果我們擁有共同的目標和開闊的心胸,習慣和語言的不同根本微不足道。」

In J. K. Rowling's best-selling books, the boy wizard Harry Potter continually fights pure evilyou know, that creepy snake tongue man with no nose.

在 J. K. Rowling 的暢銷小說中,巫師哈利波特持續地對抗著邪惡勢力-- 擁有詭異蛇舌又沒有鼻子的男人。

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B1 中級 中文 澳洲腔 哈利波特 小說 巫師 閱讀 故事 態度

為什麼大家都應該讀《哈利波特》?(Why Everybody Should Read Harry Potter)

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    Evangeline   發佈於 2018 年 08 月 09 日
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