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  • Many of us will experience some kind of trauma during our lifetime.

    我們絕大多數人都會在人生中經歷某種創傷

  • Sometimes, we escape with no long-term effects.

    有時,我們能夠步出傷痛,不留任何長期影響

  • But for millions of us, those experiences linger,

    但對幾百萬人而言,這些經歷徘徊許久

  • causing symptoms like flashbacks,

    造成症狀如幻影重現、

  • nightmares,

    夢魘、

  • and negative thoughts that interfere with everyday life.

    和干擾日常作息的負面思想

  • This phenomenon, called post-traumatic stress disorder,

    這個症狀,稱作創傷後壓力症候群

  • or PTSD,

    或是 PTSD

  • isn't a personal failing;

    並非個人的懦弱

  • rather, it's a treatable malfunction of certain biological mechanisms

    它其實是可治療的特定生理機制障礙

  • that allow us to cope with dangerous experiences.

    這種機制讓我們對抗危險處境

  • To understand PTSD,

    要了解 PTSD

  • we first need to understand how the brain processes a wide range of ordeals,

    我們首先要知道大腦如何處理諸多痛苦的經驗

  • including the death of a loved one,

    包含愛人的死去、

  • domestic violence,

    家暴、

  • injury or illness,

    受傷或是疾病、

  • abuse,

    辱罵、

  • rape,

    強暴、

  • war,

    戰爭、

  • car accidents,

    車禍、

  • and natural disasters.

    和自然災害

  • These events can bring on feelings of danger and helplessness,

    這些事件會帶來危機感和無助感

  • which activate the brain's alarm system,

    進而激發大腦的警報系統

  • known as thefight-flight-freezeresponse.

    稱為「戰鬥或逃跑反應」

  • When this alarm sounds,

    當這個警報響起時

  • the hypothalamic, pituitary, and adrenal systems,

    下丘腦、腦垂體和腎上腺系統

  • known as the HPA axis,

    統稱為 HPA 軸

  • work together to send signals to the parasympathetic nervous system.

    就會開始運作,發送信號到副交感神經系統

  • That's the network that communicates with adrenal glands and internal organs

    那是和腎上腺還有內臟聯繫的網絡

  • to help regulate functions like heart rate,

    他們一起會幫忙調節各種功能,比如心率、

  • digestion,

    消化、

  • and respiration.

    和呼吸

  • These signals start a chemical cascade

    這些信號開啟一道化學瀑布

  • that floods the body with several different stress hormones,

    讓體內溢滿各種不同的壓力荷爾蒙

  • causing physiological changes that prepare the body to defend itself.

    帶來生理上的改變,好讓身體做好自衛準備

  • Our heart rate speeds up,

    我們的心率會提高

  • breathing quickens,

    呼吸會加快

  • and muscles tense.

    還有肌肉會收縮

  • Even after a crisis is over,

    即使危機已過

  • escalated levels of stress hormones may last for days,

    逐步上升的壓力荷爾蒙仍可能維持數天

  • contributing to jittery feelings,

    造成戰戰兢兢的感覺、

  • nightmares,

    做噩夢、

  • and other symptoms.

    以及其他症狀

  • For most people, these experiences disappear within a few days to two weeks

    對於大多數人,隨著他們的荷爾蒙指數回歸平衡

  • as their hormone levels stabilize.

    這些經歷會在數天至兩週內消失

  • But a small percentage of those who experience trauma

    但是少數一些經歷了創傷的人們

  • have persistent problems

    擁有持續性的問題

  • sometimes vanishing temporarily only to resurface months later.

    -- 有時問題會暫時消失,然後幾個月後浮出檯面

  • We don't completely understand what's happening in the brain,

    我們還不完全了解大腦發生了什麼事

  • but one theory is that the stress hormone cortisol

    但有一個理論是,壓力荷爾蒙皮質醇

  • may be continuously activating thefight-flight-freezeresponse

    或許持續在激發「戰鬥或逃跑反應」

  • while reducing overall brain functioning, leading to a number of negative symptoms.

    使得大腦整體功能下降,也就帶來了許多負面症狀

  • These symptoms often fall into four categories:

    這些症狀通常能分為四類:

  • intrusive thoughts, like dreams and flashbacks,

    突發的想法,比如夢境和影重現

  • avoiding reminders of the trauma,

    避開令人聯想到創傷的東西

  • negative thoughts and feelings, like fear, anger, and guilt,

    負面的想法和感覺,譬如恐懼、怒氣和愧疚

  • andreactivesymptoms like irritability and difficulty sleeping.

    以及回應性的症狀如易怒和睡眠困難

  • Not everyone has all these symptoms,

    並非所有人都有這些症狀

  • or experiences them to the same extent and intensity.

    或是都經歷了同樣的內容和強度

  • When problems last more than a month, PTSD is often diagnosed.

    當問題持續了超過一個月,通常就會被診斷為 PTSD

  • Genetics,

    遺傳、

  • on-going overwhelming stress,

    持續性的巨大壓力、

  • and many risk factors like preexisting mental illnesses

    和許多風險因子,比如已有的心理疾病

  • or lack of emotional support,

    或是缺乏心理支持

  • likely play a role in determining who will experience PTSD.

    都可能決定誰可能經歷 PTSD

  • But the underlying cause is still a medical mystery.

    但是底下成因仍是一個醫學謎團

  • A major challenge of coping with PTSD is sensitivity to triggers,

    克服 PTSD 的主要困難在於對於觸發物的敏感

  • physical and emotional stimuli

    也就是會使大腦聯想到原始創傷的

  • that the brain associates with the original trauma.

    生理和情感刺激

  • These can be everyday sensations that aren't inherently dangerous

    這些有可能是本身不具危脅性的日常感知

  • but prompt powerful physical and emotional reactions.

    但卻會激發強烈的生理和情感反應

  • For example, the smell of a campfire

    舉例來說,營火的味道

  • could evoke the memory of being trapped in a burning house.

    可能喚起被困在失火房子裡的回憶

  • For someone with PTSD,

    對於有 PTSD 的某些人而言

  • that memory activates the same neurochemical cascade

    記憶會激發和原事件一樣的

  • as the original event.

    神經化學物質傾瀉

  • That then stirs up the same feelings of panic and helplessness

    因此激起同樣的恐懼和無助感

  • as if they're experiencing the trauma all over again.

    就好像再次經歷創傷一般

  • Trying to avoid these triggers, which are sometimes unpredictable,

    觸發物有時是難以預測的,試圖避開這些觸發物

  • can lead to isolation.

    有可能導致孤立

  • That can leave people feeling invalidated,

    那會使人感到無力、

  • ignored,

    被忽視、

  • or misunderstood,

    或誤解

  • like a pause button has been pushed on their lives

    就好像他們的生命被按下了暫停鍵

  • while the rest of the world continues around them.

    而外界卻持續運作

  • But, there are options.

    然而,是有選擇的

  • If you think you might be suffering from PTSD,

    如果你覺得你可能有 PTSD

  • the first step is an evaluation with a mental health professional

    第一步是要跟一位心理健康專家做評估

  • who can direct you towards the many resources available.

    他們能夠指引你獲得可用的許多資源

  • Psychotherapy can be very effective for PTSD,

    藉由幫助病患更清楚了解他們的觸發物

  • helping patients better understand their triggers.

    心理療法可以大大改善 PTSD

  • And certain medications can make symptoms more manageable,

    特定的療法也能使症狀更好掌握

  • as can self- care practices, like mindfulness and regular exercise.

    自我的康復練習也是,比如冥想或是規律運動

  • What if you notice signs of PTSD in a friend or family member?

    要是你發現朋友或是家人有患有 PTSD 的徵兆呢?

  • Social support, acceptance, and empathy are key to helping and recovery.

    社會支持、接受和同理心都是幫助復原的關鍵

  • Let them know you believe their account of what they're experiencing,

    讓他們知道,你相信他們所正在經歷的

  • and that you don't blame them for their reactions.

    並且不會因此被責難

  • If they're open to it,

    如果他們願意

  • encourage them to seek evaluation and treatment.

    鼓勵他們尋求評估和治療

  • PTSD has been calledthe hidden wound

    PTSD 也被稱為「隱藏的傷口」

  • because it comes without outward physical signs.

    因為它不具有外顯的生理跡象

  • But even if it's an invisible disorder, it doesn't have to be a silent one.

    但就算那病症是隱形的,不代表它應該被漠視

Many of us will experience some kind of trauma during our lifetime.

我們絕大多數人都會在人生中經歷某種創傷

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B2 中高級 中文 英國腔 TED-Ed 症狀 生理 荷爾蒙 激發 壓力

【TED-Ed】 一同來認識創傷後壓力症候群,並且克服創傷! (The psychology of post-traumatic stress disorder - Joelle Rabow Maletis)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2018 年 07 月 06 日
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