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  • You might not want to think about this,

    你可能壓根不想要想到這個

  • but over 3500 species of cockroaches

    但有超過 3500 種蟑螂

  • live on this planet.

    在這個星球上生活

  • The good news?

    好消息是?

  • Only about 30 of those species

    其中僅有 30 種

  • have adapted to live around humans.

    已適應能以人類為居

  • The bad news?

    壞消息呢?

  • 30 species of cockroaches can live around us!

    有 30 種蟑螂能和我們為居!

  • Roaches are one of the most common pests in the US.

    蟑螂是美國最普遍的昆蟲之一

  • So it's no surprise that humans

    所以並不訝異人們

  • are always trying to kill them.

    總想殺死它們

  • But no matter how many times we stomp them, squash them, and bomb them with toxic chemicals, these pesky pests always seem to pop up time and time again.

    但不論我們如何跺腳踩牠們壓扁牠們或是用有毒的化學物質轟炸牠們這些麻煩的昆蟲似乎永遠能一而再、再而三地冒出來

  • So what's going on?

    所以到底是怎麼回事?

  • Let's take a closer look at the roach

    我們來更近一步看看蟑螂吧。

  • you probably know better than you'd like.

    你可能比你想的知道更多。

  • Periplaneta Americana, aka, the American Cockroach.

    美洲家蠊,也被稱作美洲蟑螂。

  • But this name is misleading.

    不過這名稱有點誤導

  • This guy is actually from Africa, not America.

    小強其實是從非洲來的,不是美洲

  • It made its way to the US by infesting boats in the 16th century, and it's been spreading to almost every corner in the world ever since.

    牠們 16 世紀時群居跟著船隻沿路來到美國。自此,就在世界各個角落散播開來

  • It turns out, it's one of the largest species of cockroach around.

    美洲蟑螂變成了全球最大的蟑螂種類。

  • But that's not the only big thing about it.

    但是不止如此。

  • New research has revealed that it has a massive genome, one of the largest of any studied insect.

    新的研究顯示美洲蟑螂有巨大的基因,也是所有研究的昆蟲物種最大的之一。

  • And many of these genes are exactly what make this roach a master survivor.

    而這些基因正是讓蟑螂成為最強大的倖存者的緣故。

  • Let's start with the genes associated with something called Chemoreception.

    我們從基因和一種稱為Chemoreception 相關聯的化學作用來看。

  • That's how roaches smell and taste their environment.

    那就蟑螂聞、嚐到環境的方式

  • Turns out they're actually way better at sniffing out and eating food than most other insects.

    這確實讓蟑螂比其他大多的昆蟲更能嗅及進食。

  • The American roach has 154 olfactory receptors for smell, and 544 gustatory receptors for taste.

    美洲蟑螂有 154 個嗅覺感官以及 544 個供嚐味的味覺感官。

  • More than any other insect on the planet.

    遠比其他地球上的昆蟲都多

  • As a result, these cockroaches are not picky eaters.

    因此,這些蟑螂不是吹毛求疵的挑食者

  • Sure, they like cheese, meat and sugar like the rest of us, but they'll also go for things like cardboard, book bindings, human toenails, rotting meat, blood, excrement, and even each other.

    當然啦,牠們跟我們一樣愛起司、肉類跟糖類。不過,牠們也愛像是厚紙板、裝訂書、人的腳指甲、腐爛的肉、血液、排泄物或甚至是蟑螂彼此。

  • That's right, these roaches have been known to eat other dead or crippled cockroaches, all in the name of survival.

    沒錯,這些蟑螂已被得知為了生存會吃掉其他死掉或殘缺的蟑螂。

  • It sounds gross, but this diverse diet makes it easy to find a meal just about anywhere, even if it's poisonous to most animals.

    聽起來好惡心,但是這樣多元的飲食讓蟑螂們很容易在各地飽食一餐,就算是對其他動物來說是有毒的。

  • This roach has a bunch of genes called Cytochrome P450s, which help it withstand poisonous chemicals, like peppermint.

    這種蟑螂有許多叫做 Cytochrome P450s 的基因,會幫助牠們自己承受有毒化學物質像是薄荷油。

  • These genes code for detoxification enzymes, which keep the insect safe.

    這些用來解毒酶的基因碼會讓昆蟲安全。

  • On top of that, this roach has a super-strong immune system that seeks out and kills harmful microbes and fungi, making the most unsanitary environment look like a five-star hotel to the American cockroach.

    根據如此,這種蟑螂有超強大的免疫系統,會找出並殺光有害的微生物跟菌類,讓大多數不衛生的環境對美洲蟑螂而言,就像間五星級飯店。

  • Not gross enough yet?

    還不夠噁心嗎?

  • Well consider this.

    那來聽聽這個

  • Cockroaches can live nearly a week without their heads.

    蟑螂可以沒有頭部並生活近一星期

  • Yeah, that's not a myth.

    沒錯,這可不是唬你的

  • They don't have a highly pressurized network of blood vessels like humans, so they don't bleed out.

    牠們沒有個像人類一樣增壓的血管網路,所以牠們並不會流血。

  • Instead, their necks actually seal off the opening.

    取而代之,牠們的脖子會將傷口完全密封起來。

  • They can't regenerate a whole head, but roaches to have an impressive set of regenerative superpowers.

    牠們並不可以重新再生一個全新的頭部,但蟑螂卻有個令人印象深刻的重生超級能力。

  • For up to the first two years of its life,

    從牠們生命的前兩年

  • the American roach goes through a series

    當牠們變身為成蟲,美洲蟑螂會經過

  • of regenerative molts as it matures into an adult.

    一系列的再生的脫皮期

  • During a single molt stage, it can replace lost limbs.

    在脫皮的每一階段,能取代牠遺失的四肢

  • And over a series of molts, it can regrow antennae

    且在這一系列脫皮後,牠可以重新長出觸角

  • and even its eyes.

    還有甚至眼睛

  • Roaches may be hard to kill,

    蟑螂或許很難殺

  • but there's an easy way to keep them clear of your kitchen.

    但仍有個簡單的方法來阻止牠們靠近你的廚房

  • Cleanliness.

    那就是清潔

  • A roach just won't survive in unsanitary conditions, it actually enjoys it.

    蟑螂在不衛生的條件下不僅會生存牠事實上超享受的

  • Its heightened senses mean

    牠強大的感官也表示

  • it actually relishes rotting food.

    牠確實喜愛腐壞的食物

  • So, store food in airtight containers.

    所以,在密閉容器貯存食物

  • Cover trash bins, and keep your basement dry.

    蓋上垃圾桶蓋子並保持地下室的乾燥

  • It might also be smart to plug holes in your walls, unused electrical outlets, and especially drains, since get this, roaches can use your plumbing to climb up from sewers into your bathroom sink.

    將牆上的洞補起來或許也是個聰明的方法用不到的插座,特別是排水溝這樣做之後蟑螂能以你家水管,從下水道爬進你浴室的污水槽

  • It might not eliminate the risk entirely,

    這可能不會完全免除掉碰到蟑螂的風險

  • but it can't hurt,

    但保持清潔對你不是壞事

  • and it will certainly make you feel better.

    也能使你過得更舒適

  • However, we can't promise it will keep them out

    然而,我們不能夠保證這樣做

  • of your nightmares.

    就可以遠離蟑螂的夢魘

You might not want to think about this,

你可能壓根不想要想到這個

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C1 高級 中文 美國腔 蟑螂 美洲 昆蟲 基因 感官 有毒

致永遠的小強,為何蟑螂殺也殺不死? (Why Cockroaches Are So Hard To Kill)

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    Arissa Wang 發佈於 2018 年 09 月 05 日
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