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  • Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

  • Today we're going to look at ways to talk about something that's happened in the past,

  • and we'll also have a look at ways to form compound and complex sentences.

  • First, we're going to listen to a woman talk about a dramatic event in her past. Four years

  • ago, she had a stroke - a blood vessel burst in her brain.

  • Here's what happened to her:

  • A stroke is whereby the blood supply to the brain is cut off. The major signs of having

  • had a stroke that most people would equate with is weakness, so paralysis of an arm,

  • leg or face. In others it can be a loss of speech or inability to communicate. Others

  • may have loss of vision or a combination of all those things.

  • I was just so physically fit and also emotionally I was on top of the world. I had a really

  • good job at that time, and I was getting married.

  • I just felt terribly nauseous and I woke up with pins and needles down one side of my

  • leg, and then it worked its way up towards my arm and across.

  • I was just immobile. I couldn't move. I couldn't walk. I was paralysed on this side of my body.

  • Simone is telling her story. She is giving a recount of what happened to her and how

  • she was affected.

  • A recount is a story about past events, usually in the order in which they occur.

  • Let's take another look at a clip from today's episode. Listen for the past tense verbs in

  • Simone's story.

  • I was just so physically fit and also emotionally I was on top of the world. I had a really

  • good job at this time, and I was getting married.

  • She says: I was so physically fit, I was on top of the world. I had a really good job.

  • Here, 'was' and 'had' are past tense verbs.

  • They're irregular verbs.

  • Let's compare the three forms of these irregular verbs.

  • From the infinitive form of the verb 'to be', we can form the simple present forms: am,

  • is and are; and we can also make the simple past forms - was or were.

  • Notice that the verb to be is the only verb in English that has two past tense forms.

  • All others just have one.

  • Let's do the same for the verb 'to have'.

  • What is the simple present for of the verb 'to have'?

  • Has, or have.

  • And the simple past form?

  • Had.

  • When you learn new verbs, it's important to learn them with all their different forms,

  • so make sure you write verbs down in a notebook, and work out all their different tenses as

  • well.

  • When you are recounting a story that happened in the past, you'll need to use all these

  • simple past tense forms of verbs.

  • You'll also need to use a variety of 'transition signals' - words that help to order the events.

  • Using transition signals will help the reader or listener follow the order of events in

  • the story.

  • Listen for the transition signal in this clip.

  • I just felt terribly nauseous and I woke up with pins and needles down one side of my

  • leg, and then it worked its way up towards my arm and across.

  • She uses the word 'then'. 'Then' is very common in informal spoken language, so are other

  • more informal transition signals like 'next' or 'after that'.

  • Simone said she had a feeling of pins and needles in her leg. Then it worked its way

  • to her arm.

  • In more formal language, you might find transition signals like 'at first' or 'subsequently,

  • or 'after a while'.

  • If we wanted to make Simone's story clearer, we could add some transition signals to her

  • story.

  • If we were writing her story, we might use more formal transition signals.

  • Simone had a feeling of pins and needles in her leg. Then it worked its way to her arm.

  • We might say:

  • At first, Simone had a feeling of pins and needles in her leg. After a while, it worked

  • its way to her arm.

  • Notice that transition signals like this are often followed by commas.

  • Adding transition signals has made Simone's story clearer. You can more easily see the

  • order of events. This is very important in more formal language.

  • Try to make sure you learn and use a number of different transition signals.

  • Now let's have another listen to a clip of Simone talking about her illness.

  • Pay attention to the type of sentences that Simone uses. Are the sentences simple, compound

  • or complex?

  • It worked its way up towards my arm and across. I was just immobile. I couldn't move. I couldn't

  • walk. I was paralysed on this side of my body.

  • Most of the sentences that Simone uses are 'simple' sentences.

  • If we wanted to write an account of Simone's illness, we could join up some of these sentences

  • to make 'compound' and 'complex' sentences.

  • We form 'compound' and 'complex' sentences by joining simple sentences and phrases together.

  • Simone says:

  • I was just immobile. I couldn't move. I couldn't walk.

  • But we could edit this to say:

  • I was just immobile. I couldn't move or walk.

  • Or:

  • I was just immobile. I could neither move nor walk.

  • OK, now let's finish with a quick look at the words used in the clip. Listen to the

  • clip one more time, and then we'll talk about a quick way to build your vocabulary.

  • Listen again. I was just immobile. I couldn't move. I couldn't

  • walk. I was paralysed on this side of my body.

  • Simone says she was 'immobile'.

  • The prefix im- is used to make the opposites of words beginning with 'm' or 'p'.

  • Im- means not, so immobile is the opposite of mobile - it means not mobile.

  • So we can have: mobile and immobile

  • mature, and immature

  • polite and impolite

  • patient and impatient

  • Knowing the opposites of words is very important.

  • Many words just have a different word that means the opposite, like:

  • hot, cold happy, sad

  • in, out up, down

  • but other words take prefixes that mean not, like un-, de-, dis, in-.

  • Listen to some of the clip again. Then we'll look at a how a few more opposites are formed.

  • The major signs of having had a stroke that most people would equate with is weakness,

  • so paralysis of an arm, leg or face. In others it can be a loss of speech or inability to

  • communicate.

  • I was just so physically fit and also emotionally I was on top of the world.

  • He says a sign of a stroke can be an inability to communicate.

  • He uses the in- prefix meaning 'not'.

  • 'Inability' means not having the ability, and here's a few more opposites.

  • She says she was physically fit, emotionally on top of the world.

  • The opposite of fit is unfit.

  • The opposite of emotionally is unemotionally.

  • A great tip is to try to find words with opposite meanings. Some words have several meanings,

  • so they have several opposites as well. A good thesaurus will really help you with this.

  • And that's all from me today. Don't forget to practice forming compound and complex sentences.

  • And remember to practice reading and writing in English every day. I'll see you next time

  • on Study English. Bye.

Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

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叙述 (Study English - Series 1, Episode 11: Recount in the Past)

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    大呆危   發佈於 2018 年 06 月 24 日
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