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  • Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

  • Today we're going to talk about acronyms, abbreviations and names, and then we'll do

  • a bit of vocabulary building as well.

  • The boy in today's clip is about to have a test to see whether he has Attention Deficit

  • Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.

  • While you're watching, listen for some other abbreviations.

  • How do you know if your child does have ADHD? An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the

  • Swinburne researchers.

  • Jacques Duff is a psychologist and one of Richard's PhD students. A computer programme

  • will compare Xavier's brain scan with a database of scans of ADHD sufferers. If he does have

  • the condition, the ADHD diagnosis will be automatically triggered.

  • Xavier was having a test to see if he has ADHD.

  • ADHD is an abbreviation.

  • An abbreviation is the short form of a phrase or a word.

  • We often abbreviate phrases using the first letter of each word.

  • Notice that you use capitals letters for these types of abbreviations.

  • ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ADHD is much quicker and easier

  • to say, and to write.

  • You might recognise some of these common abbreviations:

  • UFO stands for Unidentified Flying Object

  • ASAP means As Soon As Possible

  • Other common abbreviations are:

  • PC, Personal Computer

  • TV for Television

  • and CD-ROM - that's a Compact Disc with a Read Only Memory!

  • Notice that each letter in the abbreviation is pronounced separately, but the last letter

  • is pronounced more strongly because it carries the primary stress.

  • So we say USA, ASAP, ABC, and TV.

  • Listen for another abbreviation here.

  • Jacques Duff is a psychologist and one of Richard's PhD students.

  • Jacques Duff is one of Richard's PhD students.

  • PhD stands for Doctor of Philosophy.

  • Another abbreviation you'll recognise is IELTS.

  • IELTS stands for International English Language Testing System.

  • This form of abbreviation is called an acronym. With an acronym, we don't pronounce the individual

  • letters, we pronounce it as a word.

  • So we say IELTS, not I - E - L - T - S.

  • Some other examples of acronyms are:

  • AIDS, that's Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

  • and RAM, Random Access Memory

  • Another example is ASEAN - that stands for the Association of South East Asian Nations.

  • There's one more common shortening in today's story. Listen for whether it's an abbreviation

  • or an acronym.

  • An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the Swinburne researchers.

  • He says an EEG. That's an abbreviation. We don't pronounce it eeg, we say E-E-G.

  • EEG stands for Electro-Encephalograph.

  • That's a type of brain scan, but you can see why we shorten it to EEG.

  • Notice that in formal academic writing, it's necessary to write out an abbreviation in

  • full the first time you use it.

  • So if you wanted to write about an EEG, you'd write it out in full the first time, and place

  • the abbreviation in brackets, like this.

  • An Electro - Encephalograph [EEG] can help treat patients.

  • After that in your paper, you can just use the abbreviation on its own.

  • OK. So let's listen to the clip again, but this time, listen for words to do with universities.

  • How do you know if your child does have ADHD? An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the

  • Swinburne researchers.

  • Jacques Duff is a psychologist and one of Richard's PhD students. A computer programme

  • will compare Xavier's brain scan with a database of scans of ADHD sufferers.

  • He refers to the Swinburne researchers.

  • Swinburne is the name of a university in Victoria.

  • There were also some other university-related words.

  • Jacques Duff is a psychologist and a PhD student.

  • A great way to learn new words is in themes like this, and by organising them into word

  • trees.

  • Let's look at university words.

  • Students might study for a Diploma, a Bachelor degree, an Honours degree, a Masters degree

  • or a PhD.

  • Jacques Duff is a PhD student, so that's where he fits into this tree.

  • There are number of different people and places mentioned in today's story. We don't see them

  • all, but we hear their names.

  • Listen for the names in this clip.

  • An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the Swinburne researchers. Jacques Duff is a psychologist

  • and one of Richard's PhD students. A computer programme will compare Xavier's brain scan

  • with a database of scans of ADHD sufferers.

  • The people he mentions are Jacques Duff, Richard and Xavier.

  • If someone has an uncommon name, people will often ask how their name is spelt.

  • For example, Xavier is an uncommon name in Australia. So if I met Xavier, I might ask

  • him, "How do you spell your name?"

  • So it's a good idea to get used to spelling out your name.

  • Xavier is spelt like this: X-A-V-I-E-R, Xavier.

  • Jacques is also an uncommon name in English, because it's a French name.

  • In this case, we have both a first and a last name.

  • His first name is Jacques, and his last name is Duff.

  • A first name is sometimes called a Christian name. It's also called a given name. It's

  • the name your family chooses for you.

  • The last name is also called a surname, or family name. That's usually the name of one

  • parent that's passed on to their children.

  • Jacques's first name is spelt J-A-C-Q-U-E-S, and his surname is Duff.

  • Notice that if you asked someone in Australia to spell out the name Duff, they would say:

  • D-U-double F.

  • But in North America, people would spell it like this D-U-F-F. They don't use the word

  • double. They say the letter twice instead.

  • So if we asked Jacques Duff to spell out his surname, he would say: D-U-double F. Or, he

  • might say D-U-F-F.

  • You'll need to be familiar with both ways of spelling out double letters. You should

  • also make sure you know exactly how to spell out your own name in English.

  • That's all for today.

  • I'm Margot Politis - that's M-A-R-G-O-T P-O-L-I-T-I-S.

  • See you next time.

Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

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B2 中高級 澳洲腔

儿童多动症 (Study English - Series 1, Episode 9: ADHD)

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    大呆危   發佈於 2018 年 06 月 24 日
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