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  • Since the time of Homer,

    從荷馬的時代開始

  • ancient stories told of fierce warriors dwelling beyond the Mediterranean world,

    古老的故事就訴說著住在地中海世界以外的好鬥戰士

  • striking fear into the mightiest empires of antiquity.

    將恐懼帶進了古帝國裡

  • Their exploits were recounted by many epic poets.

    他們的功勳被許多史詩詩人傳頌著

  • They fought in the legendary Trojan War and their grand army invaded Athens.

    他們在特洛依戰爭中勇敢戰鬥, 而他們的大軍入侵了雅典

  • Jason and the Argonauts passed by their shores,

    當傑遜與阿爾戈英雄經過他們的海岸

  • barely avoiding their deadly arrows.

    他們差點沒逃過他們致命的箭雨

  • These formidable fighters faced off against the greatest champions of myth:

    這些令人畏懼的戰士對抗神話中最偉大的英雄:

  • Heracles,

    海克力斯

  • Theseus,

    忒修斯

  • and Achilles.

    和阿基里斯

  • And every single one of these warriors was a woman.

    而這些戰士全是女人

  • The war-loving Amazons, "the equals of men" in courage and skill,

    好戰的亞馬遜人,勇氣與戰技上「與男人不分高下」

  • were familiar to everyone in ancient Greece.

    在古希臘,人人都熟知她們

  • Amazon battle scenes decorated the Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis;

    雅典衛城的帕德嫩神廟,就是用亞馬遜戰鬥場面來做裝飾的

  • paintings and statues of Amazons adorned temples and public spaces.

    神廟和公共空間也有亞馬遜的畫作和雕像來裝飾

  • Little girls played with Amazon dolls,

    小女孩玩的也是亞馬遜的娃娃

  • and Amazons were a favorite subject on Greek vase paintings.

    希臘花瓶圖案最喜歡用的就是亞馬遜族

  • In Greek art and literature,

    在希臘的藝術與文學裡

  • they were depicted as daring and desirable,

    她們被描述成大膽、令人嚮往的人

  • but also terrifying and deadly,

    但同時也讓人怕害且致命

  • and doomed to die at the hands of Greek heroes.

    且注定會死在希臘英雄的手上

  • Were Amazons merely figures of myth, or something more?

    亞馬遜戰士只是神話人物嗎? 還是他們並不只如此?

  • It was long assumed that they were imaginary,

    長久以來,人們認為他們是想像出來的

  • like the cyclops and centaurs.

    就像獨眼巨人與半人馬一樣

  • But curiously enough, stories from ancient Egypt,

    但,讓人感到好奇的是, 有些故事來自古埃及

  • Persia,

    波斯

  • the Middle East,

    中東

  • Central Asia,

    中亞

  • India,

    印度

  • and China

    以及中國

  • also featured Amazon-like warrior women.

    他們都有寫到像亞馬遜族的女戰士

  • And Amazons were described in ancient historical accounts, not just myths.

    而他們被描述在歷史文本,而非神話而已

  • Writers like Herodotus, Plato, and Strabo never doubted their existence.

    希羅多德、柏拉圖,及斯特拉波等作家從未懷疑過他們的存在

  • So who were the real women warriors known as Amazons?

    所以,這些被稱為亞馬遜戰士的真實女性是什麼人?

  • Ancient historians located the Amazon homeland in Scythia,

    古老的歷史學家認為亞馬遜的家園就是斯基提亞

  • the vast territory stretching from

    那是片廣大的領土

  • the Black Sea across the steppes of Central Asia.

    從黑海一路延伸到中亞的俄羅斯大草原

  • This immense region was populated by nomadic tribes

    遊牧部落居住在這個廣大的區域

  • whose lives centered on horses,

    他們的生活主要圍繞在牧馬

  • archery,

    箭術

  • and warfare.

    以及戰爭上

  • Their culture flourished for about 1,000 years beginning around 800 BC.

    從西元前八百年左右開始, 他們的文化昌盛了約一千年

  • Feared by Greeks, Persians, and the Chinese, the Scythians left

    希臘人、波斯人,及中國人 都害怕斯基泰人

  • no written records. But we can find clues in how

    斯基泰人沒有留下任何書面記錄

  • their neighbors described them, as well as in archaeology.

    但我們能從他們的鄰居對他們的描述中找到線索, 考古學也是另一條路

  • Scythians' ancestors were the first to ride horses

    斯基泰人的祖先是最早開始騎馬的人

  • and they invented the recurve bow.

    他們發明了反曲弓

  • And, because a female mounted archer could be as fast and as deadly as a male,

    騎馬的女弓箭手能夠和男性一樣快速且致命,

  • all children were trained to ride and shoot.

    所有的孩子都要受訓, 學會騎馬和射箭

  • Women hunted and fought alongside men, using the same weapons.

    女性和男性一起打獵、打仗, 用的武器也相同

  • The harsh landscape and their nomadic lifestyle

    嚴酷的地形及他們的遊牧生活

  • created its own form of equality.

    使兩性間的生活方式相當平等

  • This amazed the ancient Greeks, whose women led restricted indoor lives.

    這讓女性過著拘謹的居家生活的古希臘人感到驚訝

  • The earliest stories of the Scythians, and Amazons,

    早期關於斯基泰人及亞馬遜戰士的故事

  • may have been exaggerated rumors.

    有可能是誇大的留言

  • But as the Greeks began to trade around the Black Sea and further east,

    但隨著希臘人開始在黑海以及更東的地方進行貿易

  • their portrayals became more realistic.

    對於亞馬遜人的描繪就變得更真實了

  • Early depictions of Amazons showed them with Greek weapons and armor.

    早期對於亞馬遜戰士的描寫,顯示她們用的是希臘武器和盔甲

  • But in later representations,

    但晚期的描述則描述著

  • they wielded bows and battle-axes,

    他們使用弓和戰斧

  • rode horses,

    騎著馬

  • and wore pointed caps and patterned trousers

    戴著尖帽,穿著有圖案的褲子

  • characteristic of steppe nomads.

    這是大草原遊牧民族的特點

  • Until recently, no one was sure how strong the links were

    直到最近, 沒有人能確定斯基泰人

  • between Scythians and the Amazons of Greek myth.

    和希臘神話中的亞馬遜戰士之間的關聯有多強

  • But recent archaeological discoveries have provided ample evidence.

    但近期的考古學有了新發現,他們提供了豐足的證據

  • More than 1,000 ancient Scythian kurgans, or burial mounds, have been excavated,

    有超過一千個古老的斯基提亞墳塚被挖掘出來,

  • containing skeletons and weapons.

    裡面有骨骸以及武器

  • Archaeologists had previously assumed

    考古學家先前假設

  • that weapons could only belong to male warriors.

    這些武器只屬於男性戰士

  • But modern DNA analysis so far

    但是,根據現今的 DNA 分析

  • has revealed that about 300 skeletons buried with weapons

    接露了埋在武器下面的 300 具遺骨

  • belong to females ranging in age from 10 to 45,

    屬於 10 到 45 歲的女性

  • and more are being found every year.

    每年還繼續發現更多

  • The women's skeletons show battle injuries:

    這些女性的遺骨上有戰爭留下的傷:

  • ribs slashed by swords,

    被劍砍傷的肋骨

  • skulls bashed by battle-axes,

    被戰斧重擊的頭骨

  • and arrows embedded in bones.

    以及有箭卡在裡面的骨頭

  • In classical art and writings,

    在古典藝術和寫作中

  • the fearsome Amazons were always portrayed as brave and heroic.

    讓人畏懼的亞馬遜戰士總是被描繪成勇敢地、英勇地

  • In male-dominated classical Greece, however,

    然而,在男性主導的古典希臘

  • the very idea of strong women who gloried in freedom and war aroused mixed feelings.

    光是想到在自由和戰爭中熠熠生輝的堅強女性,讓他們有著複雜的心情

  • And yet, the Greeks were also drawn to egalitarian ideals.

    但,希臘人也被平等主義的理想所吸引

  • Is it possible that the mythic realm of thrilling Amazon tales

    有沒有可能這令人毛骨悚然的亞馬遜傳說中

  • was a way to imagine women and men as equal companions?

    其實是種想像女性和男性是平等伴侶的理想?

Since the time of Homer,

從荷馬的時代開始

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 戰士 亞馬遜 希臘 女性 武器

【TED-Ed】 亞馬遜女戰士真的存在嗎? (Did the Amazons really exist? - Adrienne Mayor)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2018 年 10 月 11 日
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