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  • This episode is supported by Blue Apron.

    這部影片由 Blue Apron 贊助播出。

  • We all have habits we like to break, whether it's biting your fingernails, smoking or eating late at night.

    我們都有一些想要戒掉的壞習慣,像咬指甲、抽菸或深夜吃宵夜。

  • But why are these habits so hard to break?

    但是為什麼這些習慣這麼難戒掉呢?

  • Perhaps you think your day is made up of deliberate conscious decisions,

    也許你認為你一天之中的行為都經過深思熟慮,

  • but in reality, the University of Duke study found that 45% of your everyday behaviors are actions that you repeat everyday and tend to do in the same location.

    但事實上,杜克大學的研究發現,我們 45% 的日常行為每天不斷地重複,而且幾乎都會在同樣的地點進行。

  • These are your habits.

    這些就是你的習慣。

  • Habits are attributed to one of the most primitive structures in your brain, the basal ganglia, the same region that helps control processes such as breathing and swallowing.

    習慣源自於我們腦中最原始的結構之一,腦部基底核,這個區域也控制我們的呼吸和吞嚥。

  • In an MIT experiment, a mouse sits behind a gate of a T-shaped maze where to the left is a piece of chocolate.

    在麻省理工的一項實驗中,一隻老鼠被放在T字型迷宮外,迷宮左側放了一塊巧克力。

  • When the door clicks, the mouse explores the maze, sniffing and scratching up the walls.

    迷宮的門打開後,老鼠開始在迷宮中四處遊走、嗅聞、划牆壁。

  • First it explores to the right and then to the left, eventually finding the chocolate.

    老鼠一開始走向右邊,然後再走向左邊,最後找到了巧克力。

  • A scan of their basal ganglia shows it's working furiously throughout the whole process.

    老鼠的腦部掃描顯示其基底核在整個過程中的運作極度活躍。

  • However, after a week of training, the mouse runs immediately towards the chocolate once the gate clicks.

    然而,經過一周訓練後,老鼠在門打開後馬上就奔往有巧克力那端。

  • At this point, there is very little brain activity once the gate clicks and the brain doesn't fire back up again until it reaches the chocolate.

    這時,老鼠的大腦從迷宮門打開到找到巧克力前,幾乎沒有在活動。

  • Our brain seek to minimize effort and space, and this kind of automatic brain behavior is referred to as "chunking".

    我們的大腦會盡量節省時間和空間,這種自動的大腦行為稱為「記憶組塊」。

  • Chunking aids in creating a new habit pattern in cells of the brain.

    記憶組塊有助於在大腦細胞中建立新的習慣模式。

  • It's like a task you do everyday that you no longer really have to think about.

    就像每天不需要思考就會完成的任務。

  • Brushing your teeth or backing out of your driveway, skills that were once difficult to master but now become automatic.

    刷牙或倒車出庫,這些曾經很難掌握的技能,現在已經習慣成自然。

  • This process is a 3-step loop.

    這個過程是一個三步驟的循環。

  • Step 1 is the cue, which, for the mouse, is click of the gate.

    步驟一是提示,對老鼠來說就是開門。

  • Step 2 is routine, run through the base

    步驟二是完成例行公事,

  • and step 3 is the reward, in this case, chocolate.

    而步驟三是獎勵,這裡指的是巧克力。

  • The cue and reward eventually intertwine, creating anticipation and cravings, another central part of habits.

    提示和獎勵最終交織在一起,形成期望和渴望,這是習慣的另一個核心部分。

  • Because we go into automatic mode during routines, our brain stops fully participating in decision-making.

    因為我們做例行公事時會進入自動模式,這時我們的大腦不再完全參與決策過程。

  • Our habits will automatically unfold every time there is a cue.

    每當提示出現,我們的習慣就會自動展現出來。

  • These habits can be so entrenched that the rewards doesn't even have to be good.

    這些習慣可能已經根深蒂固,即使獎勵不大也無所謂。

  • A study of habitual popcorn eaters at the movies found that they were minimally impacted by hunger or how much they liked the food and they ate the same amount of popcorn, regardless of whether it was stale or fresh.

    在一項針對看電影時習慣吃爆米花者的研究發現,他們很少受飢餓或對食物喜歡程度影響,而且不管爆米花新不新鮮,他們吃的量都一樣。

  • Our habits often overrule what we know is good for us.

    我們的習慣經常使我們推翻我們知道對我們有益的東西。

  • For example, a study of America's "TAKE 5" campaign to encourage citizens to eat 5 fruits and vegetables a day, found the program was effective in educating the public,

    舉例來說,鼓勵民眾每天吃五種蔬果的美國TAKE 5運動的一項研究發現,該項目在教育民眾方面有效果,

  • but an assessment found that it did not change American intake, where only 11% met the goal.

    但一項評估發現,它並沒有改變美國人的蔬果攝取量,只有11%的人口達標。

  • It changed people's intentions but not their habits.

    它改變了人們的意圖,卻沒有改變他們的習慣。

  • So, what are you to do?

    所以該怎麼辦?

  • Charles Duhigg, author of "THE POWER OF HABIT," gives an example of buying a cookie everyday around 3:15pm at work.

    《習慣的力量》的作者Charles Duhigg舉了「每天下午3點15分左右買一塊餅乾」的例子。

  • The cue is 3 o'clock but the reward is a bit more complicated, as the cookie can be a bundle of many rewards.

    提示是3點,但獎勵更複雜一些,因為餅乾可能代表很多獎勵。

  • It could be a relief from hunger or an energy boost to satiate your craving for something sweet or it could be a nice break from work or even an opportunity to talk to people.

    可能是為了緩解飢餓、為了補充能量以滿足吃甜食的慾望,也可能只是想從工作中喘口氣或只是想藉機找人聊天。

  • Duhigg wanted to break his cookie habit, and after some trial and error, discovered that what he really craved was socialization that came from buying the cookie.

    Duhigg想要戒掉吃餅乾的習慣,而經過一系列試驗後,他發現其實他追求的是買餅乾帶來的社交行為。

  • So, around 3, he would get up and find someone to gossip with for 10 minutes instead.

    因此,3點左右,他會找人聊天10分鐘。

  • By using the same cue and the same reward of socialization, he was able to break the cookie habit.

    透過同樣的提示和社交獎勵,他成功戒掉了吃餅乾的習慣。

  • But what about the habits that you don't always notice, like biting your nails.

    但有些習慣你可能察覺不了,例如,咬指甲。

  • Psychologists suggest that first you think about "when" you bite your nails.

    心理學家建議,你得先思考,你什麼時候會咬指甲。

  • Are you nervous or bored?

    緊張還是無聊的時候?

  • In the case of boredom, nail-biting offers a "physical stimulation".

    在無聊的情況下,咬指甲提供了物理刺激。

  • So, next, you need to mark down every time in your day you feel bored and have the compulsion to bite your nails.

    所以,接下來,你需要記錄你每天覺得無聊且想要咬指甲的次數。

  • Maybe that's 5 times a day, maybe its 28.

    可能一天5次,也可能是28次。

  • But then you want to implement a "competing response".

    然後你必須進行對抗反應訓練。

  • Whenever you feel the desire to bite, you immediately put your hands in your pockets.

    每當你想要咬指甲時,就立刻把手放進口袋裡。

  • Next, find a substitute that provides a quick physical stimulation, like rubbing your arm or tapping your knuckles on the desk.

    接下來,尋找可快速提供物理刺激的替代動作,例如,摩擦手臂或用關節敲打桌子。

  • This allows for one habit to be replaced by another with a similar reward but also uses the same cue.

    這樣一來,即使提示不變,具有類似獎勵的新習慣就能取代舊習慣。

  • So, when you are ready to take on a bad habit, just remember, figure out what your body is actually craving, use the same cue and the reward that serves the correct purpose and be patient to help build that new habit.

    所以,快要養成壞習慣時,記得搞清楚身體的真正需求,使用相同的提示和類似的獎勵,耐心地培養新習慣。

This episode is supported by Blue Apron.

這部影片由 Blue Apron 贊助播出。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 習慣 老鼠 巧克力 大腦 步驟 獎勵

如何破除你的壞習慣!(How To Break Your Bad Habit)

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    Evangeline 發佈於 2021 年 03 月 28 日
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