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  • So, people want a lot of things out of life,

    人們總是想從生活中得到許多東西

  • but I think, more than anything else, they want happiness.

    但我認為,相較於其他,人們最想要的是幸福

  • Aristotle called happiness "the chief good," the end

    亞里斯多德將幸福稱為「最重要的好事」,也是

  • towards which all other things aim.

    所有其他事情最終的歸宿

  • According to this view, the reason we want a big house

    這樣來看的話,我們想要大房子

  • or a nice car

    或一部好車子

  • or a good job

    或是好工作的原因

  • isn't that these things are intrinsically valuable.

    並不是這些事物本身的價值

  • It's that we expect them to bring us

    而是期待這些東西可以帶給我們

  • happiness.

    幸福

  • Now in the last 50 years, we Americans have gotten

    半個世紀以來 我們美國人已經得到

  • a lot of the things that we want. We're richer.

    很多很多東西 我們變得富有

  • We live longer. We have access to technology

    我們的壽命更長 我們透過科技

  • that would have seemed like science fiction just a few years ago.

    過著幾年前還是被認為科幻小說中才有的生活

  • The paradox of happiness is that even though the

    這種存在於矛盾的幸福就是

  • objective conditions of our lives have improved dramatically,

    我們的物質生活得到了前所未有的提高

  • we haven't actually gotten any happier.

    而實際上我們卻沒有更快樂

  • Maybe because these conventional notions of progress

    這或許是因為這些傳統意義上的進步

  • haven't delivered big benefits in terms of happiness,

    從幸福的角度來說並沒有給我們帶來多大的價值

  • there's been an increased interest in recent years in happiness itself.

    這些年,人們更加關注幸福本身

  • People have been debating the causes of happiness

    人們爭辯幸福的成因

  • for a really long time, in fact for thousands of years,

    由來已久,事實上已歷經數千年了

  • but it seems like many of those debates remain unresolved.

    但似乎這些爭辯尚未得到結果

  • Well, as with many other domains in life, I think

    我覺得,對於生活中的其它領域

  • the scientific method has the potential to answer this question.

    用科學的研究方法是有希望回答這個問題的

  • In fact, in the last few years, there's been an explosion

    事實上,近幾年來,研究幸福

  • in research on happiness. For example, we've learned a lot

    已蔚為風潮。例如,我們學到很多

  • about its demographics, how things like income

    關於這方面的統計資料,例如收入

  • and education, gender and marriage relate to it.

    教育、性別和婚姻這些與幸福有關聯的因素

  • But one of the puzzles this has revealed is that

    而困擾我們的問題是

  • factors like these don't seem to have a particularly strong effect.

    以上這些因素對於人的幸福來說似乎沒有特殊的影響

  • Yes, it's better to make more money rather than less,

    當然,賺的錢越多越好

  • or to graduate from college instead of dropping out,

    拿到大學學位勝過於輟學

  • but the differences in happiness tend to be small.

    但是對於幸福與否,差異卻很小

  • Which leaves the question, what are the big causes of happiness?

    問題是,究竟甚麼是成就幸福的主因呢?

  • I think that's a question we haven't really answered yet,

    我想這個問題我們還沒真正得到答案

  • but I think something that has the potential to be an answer

    但是已經有些端倪

  • is that maybe happiness has an awful lot to do with

    或許幸福在很大程度上

  • the contents of our moment-to-moment experiences.

    和我們轉瞬之間的思考內容有關聯

  • It certainly seems that we're going about our lives,

    很明顯地,我們如何過日子

  • that what we're doing, who we're with, what we're thinking about,

    我們正在做甚麼,和誰一起,想些甚麼

  • have a big influence on our happiness, and yet

    都和我們的幸福息息相關,而且

  • these are the very factors that have been very difficult,

    這些重要的因素,一直是很難

  • in fact almost impossible, for scientists to study.

    事實上是不可能,用科學方法去研究的

  • A few years ago, I came up with a way to study people's happiness

    幾年前,我想到一個研究幸福的方法

  • moment to moment as they're going about their daily lives

    我們試圖關注人們日常生活的片段

  • on a massive scale all over the world, something we'd never

    而得到的數據是基於世界範圍內的調查的 而這個研究也是前所未有的

  • been able to do before. Called trackyourhappiness.org,

    我們為此建立了一個網站網址是trackyourhappiness.org (你的幸福足跡)

  • it uses the iPhone to monitor people's happiness in real time.

    我們透過蘋果手機去實時監測人們真實的幸福時刻

  • How does this work? Basically, I send people signals

    如何進行呢?基本上,我會傳送受測者一些訊號

  • at random points throughout the day, and then I ask them

    一天中隨機幾次,我問他們

  • a bunch of questions about their moment-to-moment experience

    一系列的問題,關於每個片刻的體驗

  • at the instant just before the signal.

    就在收到訊號前的當下感覺

  • The idea is that, if we can watch how people's happiness

    這個想法是,如果我們能觀察人們

  • goes up and down over the course of the day,

    在那一天中幸福感的高低起伏

  • minute to minute in some cases,

    有些是分鐘之間的體驗

  • and try to understand how what people are doing,

    並試著去了解當人們做甚麼

  • who they're with, what they're thinking about, and all

    和誰在一起,想些甚麼

  • the other factors that describe our day, how those might

    所有能形容自己那天的重點,那些因素是如何

  • relate to those changes in happiness, we might be able

    和幸福感的改變產生關聯,我們就有可能

  • to discover some of the things that really have

    發覺那些對於人的幸福

  • a big influence on happiness.

    有著重大影響的因素。

  • We've been fortunate with this project to collect

    我們很幸運地透過這個項目收集到了

  • quite a lot of data, a lot more data of this kind than I think

    很多很多資訊

  • has ever been collected before,

    比我先前預想的還多

  • over 650,000 real-time reports

    我們收到了超過65萬筆的即時紀錄

  • from over 15,000 people.

    而這些是從1萬5千多人中得到的

  • And it's not just a lot of people, it's a really diverse group,

    不僅人數眾多,還涵蓋各式各樣的群體

  • people from a wide range of ages, from 18 to late 80s,

    各個年齡層,18歲到80多歲

  • a wide range of incomes, education levels,

    不論學歷高低,收入多寡

  • people who are married, divorced, widowed, etc.

    已婚、離婚、守寡者等等

  • They collectively represent every one of

    這些受訪人代表了

  • 86 occupational categories and hail from over 80 countries.

    來自超過80多個國家和86個不同行業的群體

  • What I'd like to do with the rest of my time with you today

    剩下的時間,我想和大家

  • is talk a little bit about one of the areas that we've been

    分享一下我們調查中涉及到的一個領域

  • investigating, and that's mind-wandering.

    那就是「分心」

  • As human beings, we have this unique ability

    身為人類,我們擁有一項獨特能力

  • to have our minds stray away from the present.

    就是讓思緒脫離現況

  • This guy is sitting here working on his computer,

    這傢伙坐在電腦前工作

  • and yet he could be thinking about

    但他可能正想到

  • the vacation he had last month,

    上個月的假期

  • wondering what he's going to have for dinner.

    想著晚餐要吃甚麼

  • Maybe he's worried that he's going bald. (Laughter)

    或許正煩惱自己可能會禿頭

  • This ability to focus our attention on something other

    這種可將注意力從現狀轉移到

  • than the present is really amazing. It allows us to learn

    其他地方的能力其實相當神奇。讓我們能用許多方式

  • and plan and reason in ways that no other species of animal can.

    學習、計畫和推理,這是其他物種無法做到的

  • And yet it's not clear what the relationship is

    可是還不能清楚說明這項能力的運用和

  • between our use of this ability and our happiness.

    幸福之間的關係

  • You've probably heard people suggest that you should

    或許有人曾向你建議

  • stay focused on the present. "Be here now,"

    專注眼前的事。「活在當下」

  • you've probably heard a hundred times.

    可能都聽膩了

  • Maybe, to really be happy, we need to stay completely

    也許,要幸福,我們還真的要完完全全地

  • immersed and focused on our experience in the moment.

    專心致志在當下的體驗

  • Maybe these people are right. Maybe mind-wandering

    這些忠告也許是對的,分心

  • is a bad thing.

    不是一件好事

  • On the other hand, when our minds wander,

    換言之,分心

  • they're unconstrained. We can't change the physical reality

    是自然而然的事情。我們不能改變物理現況

  • in front of us, but we can go anywhere in our minds.

    卻能任由心思隨意奔馳

  • Since we know people want to be happy, maybe

    我們知道人們都想快樂,或許

  • when our minds wander, they're going to someplace happier than the place

    任由思緒四處晃蕩,會帶我們到比眼前更快樂的地方

  • that they're living. It would make a lot of sense.

    也是有道理的

  • In other words, maybe the pleasures of the mind

    換句話說,也許透過分心

  • allow us to increase our happiness with mind-wandering.

    能帶給我們心情的愉快,增加幸福感

  • Well, since I'm a scientist, I'd like to try to

    因為我是科學家,比較傾向

  • resolve this debate with some data, and in particular

    透過數據來解決爭辯,我在這裡特別

  • I'd like to present some data to you from three questions

    為大家提供3個問題的一些數據

  • that I ask with Track Your Happiness. Remember, this is from

    這些得自於「你的幸福足跡」。別忘了,這是來自於

  • sort of moment-to-moment experience in people's real lives.

    一系列受訪者真實生活的每個片刻的經驗

  • There are three questions. The first one is a happiness question:

    3個問題。首先是關於幸福的問題

  • How do you feel, on a scale ranging from very bad

    從量表最壞到最好的分數,你感覺如何?

  • to very good? Second, an activity question:

    其次,關於活動的問題

  • What are you doing, on a list of 22 different activities

    你正在做甚麼?表列中有22個不同的活動

  • including things like eating and working and watching TV?

    包含像吃東西、工作和看電視

  • And finally a mind-wandering question:

    最後是分心的問題

  • Are you thinking about something other

    對於當下進行的活動中

  • than what you're currently doing?

    你心有旁騖嗎?

  • People could say no -- in other words, I'm focused only on my task --

    他們可能回答「不」--也就是「我專注在眼前的事情」--

  • or yes -- I am thinking about something else --

    或「是」--「我正在胡思亂想」--

  • and the topic of those thoughts are pleasant,

    以及這些想法會讓你愉快

  • neutral or unpleasant.

    沒特別感覺或是不愉快

  • Any of those yes responses are what we called mind-wandering.

    對於所有「是」的答覆,我們歸類為「分心」

  • So what did we find?

    我們發現了甚麼

  • This graph shows happiness on the vertical axis,

    這個圖表顯示幸福感在垂直軸線上

  • and you can see that bar there representing how happy

    可以看到條狀圖表示當人們

  • people are when they're focused on the present,

    專注在當下時,感覺有多快樂

  • when they're not mind-wandering.

    當他們不分心時

  • As it turns out, people are substantially less happy

    事實證明,人們分心時遠比

  • when their minds are wandering than when they're not.

    不分心時不快樂

  • Now you might look at this result and say, okay, sure,

    你們現在看著這個結果,可能說:好吧,應該是這樣

  • on average people are less happy when they're mind-wandering,

    一般人處在分心狀態時,比較不快樂

  • but surely when their minds are straying away

    但是當他們的思緒能從一些

  • from something that wasn't very enjoyable to begin with,

    不開心的事情中脫離

  • at least then mind-wandering should be doing something good for us.

    至少,分心對我們還是有些好處

  • Nope. As it turns out,

    不,事實證明

  • people are less happy when they're mind-wandering

    人們處於分心狀態時,都是較不快樂的

  • no matter what they're doing. For example,

    不管他們當時在做甚麼。例如

  • people don't really like commuting to work very much.

    應該沒有人喜歡長時間的上班

  • It's one of their least enjoyable activities, and yet

    這是最無趣的活動之一,但是

  • they are substantially happier when they're focused

    他們覺得專注在上班這件事上

  • only on their commute than when their mind is going

    相較於胡思亂想

  • off to something else.

    還要快樂許多

  • It's amazing.

    真令人意想不到

  • So how could this be happening? I think part of the reason,

    為什麼會這樣?我猜想部分原因

  • a big part of the reason, is that when our minds wander,

    大部分的原因,當我們胡思亂想時

  • we often think about unpleasant things, and they are

    通常會想到不愉快的事

  • enormously less happy when they do that,

    當做這些事情時會讓他們相當不愉快

  • our worries, our anxieties, our regrets,

    想到憂愁、焦慮和後悔的事情

  • and yet even when people are thinking about something

    即使想到一些沒有特別感覺的事情

  • neutral, they're still considerably less happy

    比起心無旁騖

  • than when they're not mind-wandering at all.

    還是會覺得較不快樂

  • Even when they're thinking about something they would describe as pleasant,

    甚至他們想的是愉快的事情

  • they're actually just slightly less happy

    比起心無旁騖

  • than when they aren't mind-wandering.

    還是少了一點快樂

  • If mind-wandering were a slot machine, it would be like

    如果分心是一部吃角子老虎

  • having the chance to lose 50 dollars, 20 dollars

    讓我們有機會損失50元、20元

  • or one dollar. Right? You'd never want to play. (Laughter)

    或是1元。你不會想玩,對吧

  • So I've been talking about this, suggesting, perhaps,

    我的重點是,告訴你們或許

  • that mind-wandering causes unhappiness, but all

    分心是導致感覺不幸福的成因

  • I've really shown you is that these two things are correlated.

    我已經證明二者是有關係的

  • It's possible that's the case, but it might also be the case

    這個案例可能互成因果

  • that when people are unhappy, then they mind-wander.

    當人們不快樂時,他們就容易分心

  • Maybe that's what's really going on. How could we ever

    或許這樣更講得通。我們如何

  • disentangle these two possibilites?

    釐清這兩種可能呢?

  • Well, one fact that we can take advantage of, I think a fact

    有一個我們可以運用的事實,這個事實

  • you'll all agree is true, is that time goes forward, not

    你們都會同意,時間只會往前

  • backward. Right? The cause has to come before the effect.

    不會倒退,對吧?成因總是在結果之前

  • We're lucky in this data we have many responses from each person,

    我們很幸運地,這些資料包含每個受訪者的許多回應

  • and so we can look and see, does mind-wandering

    我們得以好好觀察,分心是否

  • tend to precede unhappiness, or does unhappiness

    產生在感覺不幸福之前,或者不幸福感

  • tend to precede mind-wandering, to get some insight

    在分心前產生,就能夠多少理解

  • into the causal direction.

    這不同的方向

  • As it turns out, there is a strong relationship between

    事實證明,兩者之間有強烈關聯

  • mind-wandering now and being unhappy a short time later,

    分心後會立即感覺不幸福

  • consistent with the idea that mind-wandering is causing people to be unhappy.

    和分心造成人們不快樂的想法是一致的

  • In contrast, there's no relationship between being unhappy

    對照下,並沒有發現這樣的關聯

  • now and mind-wandering a short time later.

    不快樂會立即分心

  • In other words, mind-wandering very likely seems to be an actual cause, and not merely a consequence, of unhappiness.

    換言之,分心似乎就是感覺不幸福的主因而非結果

  • A few minutes ago, I likened mind-wandering

    幾分鐘前,我將分心比喻為

  • to a slot machine you'd never want to play.

    你不會想玩的吃角子老虎

  • Well, how often do people's minds wander?

    那麼,我們常分心嗎?

  • Turns out, they wander a lot. In fact, really a lot.

    事實證明,常常。事實上,相當多

  • Forty-seven percent of the time, people are thinking

    47%的時間,人們想著

  • about something other than what they're currently doing.

    不是眼前進行的事情

  • How does that depend on what people are doing?

    程度取決於正在做甚麼事

  • This shows the rate of mind-wandering across 22 activities

    這裡顯示22種活動的分心程度

  • ranging from a high of 65 percent — (Laughter) —

    從最高的65%

  • when people are taking a shower, brushing their teeth,

    在沖澡時,刷牙時

  • to 50 percent when they're working,

    50%在工作時

  • to 40 percent when they're exercising,

    40%在運動時

  • all the way down to this one short bar on the right

    一路往下到最右邊最短的條狀圖

  • that I think some of you are probably laughing at.

    或許有些人會覺得好笑

  • Ten percent of the time people's minds are wandering

    10%的機率會分心

  • when they're having sex. (Laughter)

    當從事性行為時

  • But there's something I think that's quite interesting in this graph,

    圖表中我認為相當有趣的是

  • and that is, basically with one exception,

    基本上也是一個例外

  • no matter what people are doing, they're mind-wandering

    不論人們做甚麼,都會分心

  • at least 30 percent of the time, which suggests, I think,

    我認為至少30%的時間

  • that mind-wandering isn't just frequent, it's ubiquitous.

    分心不僅常常發生,簡直無處不在

  • It pervades basically everything that we do.

    遍及我們所做的每件事

  • In my talk today, I've told you a little bit about mind-wandering,

    我今天告訴大家一些關於分心的研究

  • a variable that I think turns out to be fairly important

    一個被證明是非常重要的變數

  • in the equation for happiness.

    可以和幸福畫上等號

  • My hope is that over time, by tracking people's

    我希望花更多時間,通過追蹤人們每天

  • moment-to-moment happiness and their experiences

    每個片刻的幸福感和經驗

  • in daily life, we'll be able to uncover a lot of important causes of happiness,

    我們將可以揭開更多成就幸福的重要原因

  • and then in the end, a scientific understanding of happiness

    最終,經由科學方式解讀的幸福

  • will help us create a future that's not only richer

    將幫助我們建立一個不僅更豐富

  • and healthier, but happier as well.

    更健康也更幸福的未來

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

So, people want a lot of things out of life,

人們總是想從生活中得到許多東西

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 分心 幸福 快樂 幸福感 愉快 事實

【TED】Matt Killingsworth: 想要更快樂?活在當下 (Want to be happier? Stay in the moment | Matt Killingsworth)

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    VoiceTube   發佈於 2014 年 11 月 11 日
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