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  • Your favorite athlete closes in for a victorious win.

    你最喜歡的運動選手即將獲得勝利。

  • The crowd holds its breath, and, at the crucial moment, she misses the shot.

    觀眾屏住呼吸,然後在關鍵時刻,她失手了。

  • That competitor just experienced the phenomenon known as "choking," where despite months, even years, of practice, a person fails right when it matters most.

    這名選手剛經歷了一種名為「失常」的現象,意思是,儘管練習了數個月,甚至數年,卻在最重要的時刻失敗了。

  • Choking is common in sports, where performance often occurs under intense pressure and depends on key moments.

    失常在運動中很常見,在壓力很大的情況下經常出現,而且在關鍵時刻發生。

  • And yet, performance anxiety also haunts public speakers, contestants in spelling bees, and even world-famous musicians.

    不僅如此,表現焦慮也讓公眾演說家深受其擾,還有拼字比賽選手,甚至是世界著名的音樂家。

  • Most people intuitively blame it on their nerves, but why does being nervous undermine expert performance?

    多數人直覺地責怪他們的神經,但是為什麼緊張會破壞專家的表現呢?

  • There are two sets of theories, which both say that primarily, choking under pressure boils down to focus.

    有兩種理論,兩者都認為,壓力下表現失常的主要原因是專注。

  • First, there are the distraction theories.

    第一個是分心的理論。

  • These suggest that performance suffers when the mind is preoccupied with worries, doubts, or fears, instead of focusing its attention on performing the task at hand.

    這個理論表示心事重重會影響到表現,比如憂慮、懷疑和恐懼,而不是把注意力集中在手頭執行的任務上。

  • When relevant and irrelevant thoughts compete for the same attention, something has to give.

    當相關的和無關的思想在競爭同樣的關注時,某一方必須放棄。

  • The brain can only process so much information at once.

    大腦一次只能處理這麼多資訊.

  • Tasks that challenge working memory, the mental "scratch pad" we use to temporarily store phone numbers and grocery lists, are especially vulnerable to pressure.

    挑戰工作記憶的任務,我們心理的「便條紙」,用來臨時儲存電話號碼和雜貨清單,特別容易受到壓力的影響。

  • In a 2004 study, a group of university students were asked to perform math problems, some easy, others more complex and memory-intensive.

    在 2004 年的研究中,一組大學生被要求完成數學題,有些很簡單,其他題目更複雜,而且考驗記憶力。

  • Half the students completed both problem types with nothing at stake, while the others completed them when calm and under pressure.

    一半的學生在無壓力下完成兩種類型的問題,而其他人則在平靜和壓力下完成題目。

  • While everyone did well on the easy problems, those who were stressed performed worse on the more difficult, memory-intensive tasks.

    每個人在簡單的問題上都表現得很好,但那些承受壓力的人在更困難、記憶密集的問題上表現更差。

  • Explicit monitoring theories make up the second group of explanations for choking under pressure.

    外顯監控理論為壓力下的表現失常構成第二組解釋。

  • They're concerned with how pressure can cause people to overanalyze the task at hand.

    他們關注壓力是如何導致人們過度分析手頭的任務。

  • Here, the logic goes that once a skill becomes automatic, thinking about its precise mechanics interferes with your ability to do it.

    理論的邏輯認為一旦技巧變成自動化的,而精確的運作方式會干擾你的能力。

  • Tasks we do unconsciously seem to be most vulnerable to this kind of choking.

    我們無意識進行的任務似乎最容易受到這種失常的影響。

  • A study on competitive golfers compared their performance when instructed to simply focus on putting as accurately as possible, versus when they were primed to be acutely aware of the mechanics of their putting stroke.

    一項研究比較了高爾夫球選手的表現,一種是他們把注意力集中在盡可能準確地擊球,另一種是當他們準備好要敏銳地察覺自己的推桿動作。

  • Golfers usually perform this action subconsciously, so those who suddenly tuned in to the precise details of their own moves also became worse at making accurate shots.

    高爾夫球選手通常會下意識的執行這個動作,所以那些突然調整自己動作細節的人,在準確的擊球時會出錯。

  • Choking may not be inevitable for everyone though.

    雖然每個人都無法避免失常。

  • Research suggests that some are more susceptible than others, especially those who are self-conscious, anxious, and afraid of being judged negatively by others.

    研究表明,有些人比其他人更易受影響,尤其是那些有自覺的、焦慮的,以及害怕被別人否定的人。

  • So, how can we avoid choking when it really counts?

    那麼,我們要如何在重要時刻避免失常?

  • First, it helps to practice under stressful conditions.

    首先,在有壓力的情况下進行練習。

  • In a study on expert dart players, researchers found that those who hadn't practiced under stress performed worse when anxious, compared to those who had become accustomed to pressure.

    在一項專業飛鏢運動員的研究中,研究人員發現:那些沒有在壓力下練習的人,和那些已經習慣壓力的人相比,焦慮時表現更糟。

  • Secondly, many performers extol the virtues of a pre-performance routine, whether it's taking a few deep breaths, repeating a cue word, or doing a rhythmic sequence of movements.

    第二,許多表演者讚揚上場前固定練習的優點,無論是做幾次深呼吸、重複一個提示詞,或做一系列有節奏的動作。

  • Studies on golfing, bowling, and water polo find that short rituals can lead to more consistent and accurate performance under pressure.

    關於高爾夫、保齡球和水球運動的研究發現:短暫儀式會讓表現在壓力下更一致和精準。

  • And thirdly, researchers have shown that having an external focus on the ultimate goal works better than an internal focus, where someone is tuned into the mechanics of what they're doing.

    第三,研究人員已經表明:外部關注最終目標比內部聚焦更有效,他們把正在做的事轉變成機械化。

  • A study of experienced golfers revealed that those who hit chip shots while focused on the flight of the ball performed significantly better than those who focused on the motion of their arms.

    有經驗的高爾夫球手的研究揭示:那些同時專注於球的飛行之擊球者,比那些專注於手臂動作的人表現得更好。

  • So, perhaps we can modify that age-old saying: practice, under pressure, with focus, and with that glorious end goal in sight, makes perfect.

    所以,也許我們可以修改那句古老的諺語:在壓力下練習、集中注意力,並專注於輝煌的目標,造就完美。

Your favorite athlete closes in for a victorious win.

你最喜歡的運動選手即將獲得勝利。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 壓力 表現 選手 研究 理論

【TED-Ed】在壓力超大時如何維持冷靜 (How to stay calm under pressure - Noa Kageyama and Pen-Pen Chen)

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    Evangeline 發佈於 2018 年 10 月 04 日
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