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  • The modern world is wonderful in many ways (dentistry is good, cars are reliable,

    現代社會在許多方面都很美好 (牙科技術好、汽車很可靠、

  • we can so easily keep in touch from Mexico with our grandmother in Scotland)

    我們在墨西哥也可以輕易地跟在蘇格蘭的奶奶保持聯絡),

  • but it's also powerfully and tragically geared to causing a high background level of anxiety and widespread low-level depression.

    但同時,它也能強烈且可悲地導致高潛在焦慮與廣泛的輕度憂鬱症。

  • There are six particular features of modernity that have this psychologically disturbing effect.

    現代化帶來的心理困擾上有六個主要的表徵。

  • Each one has a potential cure, which we will only collectively put into action when we know more about the disease in question.

    每一個都有潛在的對策,但只有當我們更了解這些病因時才能共同採取行動。

  • Here are the six: 1. Meritocracy:

    這六項表徵如下:1. 菁英主義:

  • Our societies tell us that everyone is free to make it, if they have the talent and energy.

    社會教導我們只要有天賦和精力,每個人都能成功。

  • The down side of this ostensibly liberating and beautiful idea is that any perceived lack of success is taken to be not, as in the past, an accident or misfortune, but as a sure sign of a lack of talent or laziness.

    這個想法表面上看來自由且美好,但缺點是不成功不會像過去一樣被當作意外或不幸,而是天分不足或懶惰的實證。

  • If those at the top deserve all their success, then those at the bottom must surely deserve all their failure.

    如果在成功巔峰的人實至名歸,那在社會底層的人就是罪有應得。

  • A society that thinks of itself as meritocratic turns poverty from a problem to evidence of damnation and those who have failed from unfortunates to losers.

    一個自詡為菁英制的社會,把貧窮的問題變成遭天譴的證據,也把運氣不好的可憐人歸類為失敗者。

  • The cure is a strong, culturally endorsed belief in two big ideas:

    解決之道就是堅定地從文化上擁戴以下兩個理念:

  • Luck, which says success doesn't just depend on talent and effort;

    「運氣」,也就是說成功不只取決於天賦跟努力;

  • and tragedy, which says good, decent people can fail and deserve compassion, rather than contempt.

    以及「不幸」,也就是說好的人才也會失敗,我們應該同情而非鄙視他們。

  • 2. Individualism: An individualistic society preaches that the individual and their achievements are everything

    2. 個人主義:個人主義化的社會宣揚個人成就代表一切,

  • and that everyone is capable of a special destiny.

    而每個人都有獨特的前途。

  • It's not the community that matters, the group is for no-hopers. To be ordinary is regarded as a curse.

    社會群體並不重要,團體是為註定失敗的人設立的。當一個「平凡人」被視為一種詛咒。

  • The result is that the very thing that most of us will end up being, statistically speaking, is associated, with freakish failure. The cure is a cult of the good ordinary life,

    結果就是,從統計學上來說,最後大部分的人都會成為這種人,異常地失敗。解決方案就是崇尚平凡卻美好的生活,

  • and proper appreciation of the pleasures and quiet heroism of the everyday.

    欣賞日常中的小確幸和安靜英雄主義。

  • 3. Secularism: secular societies cease to believe in anything that is bigger than or beyond themselves.

    3. 世俗主義 : 世俗社會不再相信有比自己更崇高的存在。

  • Religions used to perform the useful service of keeping our petty ways and status battles in perspective.

    過去可以仰賴宗教合理地約束生活瑣事和地位爭奪戰。

  • But now there is nothing to awe or relativize humans, whose triumphs and mishaps end up feeling like the be all and end all.

    但既然現在沒有值得敬畏或可與人類比擬的東西,一切的成就或不幸就全憑個人主宰。

  • A cure would involve regularly using sources of transcendence to generate a benign, relativizing perspective on our personal sorrows:

    解決方法是定期仰賴超然意識,激發對個人悲傷的良性、相對觀點:

  • music, the stars at night, the vast spaces of the desert or the ocean would humble us all in consoling ways.

    音樂、夜空的繁星、浩瀚的沙漠或海洋都能撫慰人心並令人感到謙卑。

  • 4. Romanticism: The philosophy of Romanticism tells us that each of us has one very special person out there who can make us completely happy.

    4. 浪漫主義:浪漫主義的哲學告訴我們,每個人都會找到特別的另一半,他能帶給我們絕對的幸福感。

  • Yet mostly we have to settle for moderately bearable relationships with someone who is very nice in a few ways and pretty difficult in many others.

    然而,大多數情況下,我們會和一個在某些方面很優秀但有時很難相處的人,維持尚可忍受的關係。

  • It feels like a disaster, in comparison with our original huge hopes.

    這就像一場災難,跟我們的期待落差太大。

  • The cure is to realize that we didn't go wrong, we were just encouraged to believe in a very improbable dream.

    解決方法是瞭解我們沒有做錯,只是被說服去相信難以實現的夢想。

  • Instead, we should build up our ambitions around friendship and non-sexual love.

    相反地,我們應該把這樣的抱負建立在友情及與性欲無關的愛之上。

  • 5. The Media: The media has immense prestige and a huge place in our lives,

    5. 媒體 : 媒體在我們的生活中擁有巨大的威望和地位,

  • but it routinely directs our attention to things that scare, worry, panic and enrage us,

    但它往往會將我們的注意力導向那些可怕、令人擔心、恐慌和憤怒的事物上,

  • while denying us agency or any chance for effective personal action.

    同時否定了有效個人行動的可能性。

  • It typically attends to the least admirable sides of human nature, without a balancing exposure to normal good intentions, responsibility and decency.

    它通常把焦點放在人性最不討喜的面向,而不會平衡地曝光人的善意、責任和正直。

  • At its worst, it edges us towards mob justice.

    最糟的情況下,它會讓我們走向暴民正義。

  • The cure would be news that focused on presenting solutions rather than generating outrage, that was alive to systemic problems rather than gleefully emphasizing scapegoat and emblematic monster,

    解決方法是把重點放在提供解決方法而非製造憤慨、意識到系統性問題的新聞上,不去關注興高采烈地報導代罪羔羊或象徵性怪物的新聞。

  • and that would regularly remind us that the news we most need comes from our own lives and direct experiences.

    還有去關注那些時常提醒我們最重要的資訊源自於自己的生活跟直接體驗的新聞。

  • 6. Perfectibility:

    6. 完全性 :

  • Modern societies stress that it is within our remit to be profoundly content, sane and accomplished.

    現代化社會強調深刻的滿足、明智、成就都在我們掌控範圍內。

  • As a result, we end up loathing ourselves, feeling weak and sensing that we've wasted our lives.

    結果,我們到頭來自怨自艾、覺得無力並且虛擲了光陰。

  • A cure would be a culture that endlessly promotes the idea that perfection is not within our grasp,

    對策是促進持續提倡完美並非一蹴可及的文化,

  • that being mentally, slightly, and at points very unwell is an inescapable part of the human condition

    認同感到心理上輕微 (有時候強烈) 的不適是身為人類無可避免的部分。

  • and that what we need, above all, are good friends with whom we can sit and honestly discuss our real fears and vulnerabilities.

    而我們最需要的是能跟我們一起坐下來誠實地討論我們真正的恐懼與脆弱的好友。

  • The forces of psychological distress in our world are currently much wealthier and more active than the needed cures.

    現代世界帶給我們的眾多心理壓力遠勝於相應的治療對策。

  • We deserve tender pity for the price we have to pay for being born in modern times.

    我們因為出生在現在而必須付出的代價值得溫柔的憐憫。

  • But more hopefully, cures are now open to us individually and collectively if only we recognize, with sufficient clarity, the sources of our true anxieties and sorrows.

    但值得期待的是,只要我們能夠認清焦慮和悲傷的真正根源,我們就能找到個別和集體的治療方法。

  • Did you know that the School of Life is a real place? With classes, events and a shop. Visit our website to learn more.

    你知道 School of Life 這個地方真的存在嗎?我們提供各種課程、活動和商店。請至我們的官網了解更多相關資訊。

The modern world is wonderful in many ways (dentistry is good, cars are reliable,

現代社會在許多方面都很美好 (牙科技術好、汽車很可靠、

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 社會 主義 解決 失敗 成就 方法

現代社會讓我們的心靈生病 (How the Modern World Makes Us Mentally Ill)

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    Evangeline 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 05 日
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