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  • As an elementary school teacher,

    譯者: Melody Tang 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • my mom did everything she could to ensure I had good reading skills.

    我媽媽是一位小學老師,

  • This usually consisted of weekend reading lessons at our kitchen table

    我母親竭盡所能確保 我有很好的閱讀能力。

  • while my friends played outside.

    她通常在週末時 在餐桌上教我閱讀,

  • My reading ability improved,

    而我的朋友在外面玩。

  • but these forced reading lessons didn't exactly inspire a love of reading.

    我的閱讀能力改善了,

  • High school changed everything.

    但是這種強迫式的閱讀課程 沒有激發我對閱讀的熱愛。

  • In 10th grade, my regular English class read short stories and did spelling tests.

    高中改變了一切。

  • Out of sheer boredom, I asked to be switched into another class.

    在十年級時,我上的一般英文課 要讀短篇故事和考拼音。

  • The next semester, I joined advanced English.

    因為很無聊,我要求調到另一班。

  • (Laughter)

    下一個學期,我就被調到高階英語課。

  • We read two novels and wrote two book reports that semester.

    (笑聲)

  • The drastic difference and rigor between these two English classes

    那學期,我們要讀兩本小說 以及寫兩個讀書報告。

  • angered me and spurred questions like,

    這兩個英語課之間的 巨大差異和嚴謹程度

  • "Where did all these white people come from?"

    讓我很生氣,也引發了像這類的問題,

  • (Laughter)

    「這些白人是從哪裡來的?」

  • My high school was over 70 percent black and Latino,

    (笑聲)

  • but this advanced English class had white students everywhere.

    我的高中有 70% 黑人 和拉丁美洲人,

  • This personal encounter with institutionalized racism

    但是那個高階英語課幾乎都是白人。

  • altered my relationship with reading forever.

    這個制度化種族主義的個人遭遇

  • I learned that I couldn't depend on a school, a teacher or curriculum

    永遠改變了我與閱讀的關係。

  • to teach me what I needed to know.

    我發現我無法依賴一個學校、 一個老師或課程

  • And more out of like, rebellion, than being intellectual,

    來教我我需要知道的。

  • I decided I would no longer allow other people to dictate

    主要是由於叛逆,而非做為知識分子,

  • when and what I read.

    我下定決心我不會再讓其他人決定

  • And without realizing it, I had stumbled upon a key

    我應該在何時閱讀以及閱讀什麼。

  • to helping children read.

    雖然我沒有意識到,

  • Identity.

    但我在偶然間發現了 一把幫助孩子閱讀的鑰匙。

  • Instead of fixating on skills

    那就是認同。

  • and moving students from one reading level to another,

    不是以閱讀技能

  • or forcing struggling readers to memorize lists of unfamiliar words,

    來將學生從一個閱讀級別 升到另一級,

  • we should be asking ourselves this question:

    或是強迫閱讀有困難的學生 去背不熟悉的單字,

  • How can we inspire children to identify as readers?

    我們應該問自己這個問題:

  • DeSean, a brilliant first-grader I taught in the Bronx,

    我們如何啟發孩子們 認同自己是閱讀者?

  • he helped me understand how identity shapes learning.

    迭翔,我在布朗克斯區教過的 一位很聰明的一年級學生,

  • One day during math, I walk up to DeSean, and I say,

    他幫助我了解到身分認同塑造學習。

  • "DeSean, you're a great mathematician."

    有一天上數學課時, 我走向迭翔,對他說:

  • He looks at me and responds,

    「迭翔,你是很棒的數學家。」

  • "I'm not a mathematician, I'm a math genius!"

    他看著我,回答說:

  • (Laughter)

    「我不是數學家,我是數學天才。」

  • OK DeSean, right?

    (笑聲)

  • Reading?

    好,迭翔,對!

  • Completely different story.

    閱讀呢?

  • "Mr. Irby, I can't read.

    完全相反。

  • I'm never going to learn to read," he would say.

    他會說:「爾比先生,我不會閱讀。

  • I taught DeSean to read,

    我永遠學不會閱讀。」

  • but there are countless black boys who remain trapped in illiteracy.

    我教他閱讀,

  • According to the US Department of Education,

    但是無數的黑人男孩仍然是文盲。

  • more than 85 percent of black male fourth graders

    根據美國教育部門的統計,

  • are not proficient in reading.

    超過 85% 的四年級黑人男孩

  • 85 percent!

    不擅長閱讀。

  • The more challenges to reading children face,

    85%!

  • the more culturally competent educators need to be.

    孩子們面對的閱讀挑戰越多,

  • Moonlighting as a stand-up comedian for the past eight years,

    教育工作者所需要的文化能力越高。

  • I understand the importance of cultural competency,

    在過去的八年裡我兼職做喜劇演員,

  • which I define as the ability to translate

    我了解到文化能力的重要,

  • what you want someone else to know or be able to do

    我認為那是一種

  • into communication or experiences that they find relevant and engaging.

    能夠把你要別人知道或能夠做到的,

  • Before going on stage, I assess an audience.

    翻譯成他們認為與他們有關 和願意參與的交流或經驗的能力。

  • Are they white, are they Latino?

    每次在上台前,我會評估聽眾。

  • Are they old, young, professional, conservative?

    他們是白人、拉美人?

  • Then I curate and modify my jokes

    他們是年長、年輕、 專業人士、保守派?

  • based on what I think would generate the most laughter.

    然後我策劃和修改我的笑話

  • While performing in a church, I could tell bar jokes.

    基於我認為會產生最多笑聲的想法。

  • But that might not result in laughter.

    當我在教堂表演時, 我不能說酒吧的笑話。

  • (Laughter)

    因為可能不會有人笑。

  • As a society, we're creating reading experiences for children

    (笑聲)

  • that are the equivalent of telling bar jokes in a church.

    在社會裡,我們為孩子們 創造的閱讀經驗

  • And then we wonder why so many children don't read.

    就像在教堂講酒吧的笑話。

  • Educator and philosopher Paulo Freire

    然後我們想知道 為什麼這麼多孩子不愛閱讀。

  • believed that teaching and learning should be two-way.

    教育家和哲學家保羅·弗雷勒

  • Students shouldn't be viewed as empty buckets to be filled with facts

    相信教學和學習應該是雙向的。

  • but as cocreators of knowledge.

    學生不應該被看成 需要被填滿事實的空桶,

  • Cookie-cutter curriculums and school policies

    而是被視為知識的共同創作者。

  • that require students to sit statue-still

    一成不變的課程和學校政策

  • or to work in complete silence --

    要求學生如雕像般坐著學習,

  • these environments often exclude the individual learning needs,

    或是上課時保持安靜──

  • the interest and expertise of children.

    這種環境通常不符合 個人的學習需求、

  • Especially black boys.

    興趣和孩子們的專長。

  • Many of the children's books promoted to black boys

    特別是黑人男孩。

  • focus on serious topics, like slavery, civil rights and biographies.

    給黑人男孩讀的兒童書籍

  • Less than two percent of teachers in the United States are black males.

    許多都是嚴肅的主題, 如奴隸、公民權利和傳記。

  • And a majority of black boys are raised by single mothers.

    少於 2% 的美國老師是黑人男性。

  • There are literally young black boys who have never seen a black man reading.

    大多數的黑人男孩由母親獨自扶養。

  • Or never had a black man encourage him to read.

    實際上,黑人男孩幾乎 從未見過成年黑人男子閱讀。

  • What cultural factors, what social cues are present

    或是從來沒有一位成年的 黑人男性鼓勵他們閱讀。

  • that would lead a young black boy to conclude

    有什麼文化因素和社會誘因

  • that reading is even something he should do?

    來讓黑人男孩覺得

  • This is why I created Barbershop Books.

    閱讀是他應該做的事?

  • It's a literacy nonprofit

    這是我成立理髮店書籍 (Barbershop Books) 的理由。

  • that creates child-friendly reading spaces in barber shops.

    這是一個掃盲非營利組織,

  • The mission is simple:

    我們創造孩子們喜歡的 理髮店閱讀空間。

  • to help young black boys identify as readers.

    我們的任務很簡單:

  • Lots of black boys go to the barber shop once or twice a month.

    幫助黑人男孩認同自己為閱讀者。

  • Some see their barbers more than they see their fathers.

    許多黑人男孩每個月 會去理髮店一、二次。

  • Barbershop Books connects reading to a male-centered space

    有些孩子見到理髮師的次數 比見到他們的父親還多。

  • and involves black men and boys' early reading experiences.

    理髮店書籍將閱讀與 男性為中心的空間連結起來,

  • This identity-based reading program

    讓成年黑人男子參與 男孩早期的閱讀經驗。

  • uses a curated list of children's books recommended by black boys.

    這個基於認同的閱讀計畫

  • These are the books that they actually want to read.

    使用由黑人男孩 推薦的兒童書籍清單。

  • Scholastic's 2016 Kids and Family Report

    這些是他們會想要讀的書。

  • found that the number one thing children look for when choosing a book

    學者出版社 (Scholastic) 2016 年的兒童和家庭報告

  • is a book that will make them laugh.

    發現孩子們選書時,

  • So if we're serious about helping black boys and other children to read

    首先會找能讓他們發笑的書。

  • when it's not required,

    所以如果我們很認真要幫助 黑人男孩和其他孩子主動閱讀,

  • we need to incorporate relevant male reading models

    而不是強迫他們閱讀,

  • into early literacy.

    我們需要將相關的男性閱讀模型

  • In exchange, some of the children's books that adults love so much

    融入早期識字學習。

  • for funny, silly or even gross books, like "Gross Greg".

    其實,一些兒童書籍 大人們也都非常喜歡。

  • (Laughter)

    那些有趣、愚蠢甚至是噁心的書籍 像《噁心的格雷》(Gross Greg)。

  • "You call them boogers. Greg calls them delicious little sugars."

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    「你稱它為鼻屎。 格雷稱它為美味的小糖。」

  • That laugh, that positive reaction

    (笑聲)

  • or gross reaction some of you just had,

    那個笑聲、正面的反應、

  • (Laughter)

    或是你們有些人覺得很噁心的反應,

  • black boys deserve and desperately need more of that.

    (笑聲)

  • Dismantling the savage inequalities that plague American education

    黑人男孩應該要有, 並迫切地需要更多。

  • requires us to create reading experiences

    消除困擾著美國教育的野蠻不平等

  • that inspire all children to say three words:

    需要我們創造閱讀體驗

  • I'm a reader.

    來激發所有的孩子說三個字:

  • Thank you.

    我閱讀。

  • (Applause)

    謝謝!

As an elementary school teacher,

譯者: Melody Tang 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 閱讀 黑人 男孩 孩子 笑聲

【TED】阿爾文-歐比:如何激勵每個孩子做一個終生閱讀者(如何激勵每個孩子做一個終生閱讀者|阿爾文-歐比)。 (【TED】Alvin Irby: How to inspire every child to be a lifelong reader (How to inspire every child to be a lifelong reader | Alvin Irby))

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