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  • Do you ever find yourself referencing a study in conversation

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: 易帆 余

  • that you didn't actually read?

    你可曾在對話當中引述一篇研究,

  • (Laughter)

    但你其實沒讀過那篇研究?

  • I was having coffee with a friend of mine the other day,

    (笑聲)

  • and I said, "You know, I read a new study

    有天,我和一位朋友在喝咖啡,

  • that says coffee reduces the risk of depression in women."

    我說:「你知道嗎, 我讀到一篇新研究,

  • But really, what I read was a tweet.

    它說咖啡會降低女性 得到憂鬱症的風險。」

  • (Laughter)

    但其實,我讀的是一則推特訊息。

  • That said --

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    上面說──

  • "A new study says drinking coffee may decrease depression risk in women."

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    「一篇新研究指出,喝咖啡會 降低女性得到憂鬱症的風險。」

  • And that tweet had a link to the "New York Times" blog,

    (笑聲)

  • where a guest blogger translated the study findings

    該推特訊息有附一個連結, 連到《紐約時報》部落格,

  • from a "Live Science" article,

    該部落格上有位客座部落客 翻譯了研究發現,

  • which got its original information

    內容是來自《趣味科學網》的文章,

  • from the Harvard School of Public Health news site,

    該文章的資訊來源

  • which cited the actual study abstract,

    是哈佛公共衛生學院的新聞網站,

  • which summarized the actual study published in an academic journal.

    該網站引用了那篇研究的摘要,

  • (Laughter)

    該摘要是將實際在學術期刊上 刊出的那份研究做了總整。

  • It's like the six degrees of separation,

    (笑聲)

  • but with research.

    這就像是六度分離,

  • (Laughter)

    只是換成研究。

  • So, when I said I read a study,

    (笑聲)

  • what I actually read was 59 characters that summarized 10 years of research.

    所以,當我說我讀到一篇研究,

  • (Laughter)

    我的意思其實是,我讀到了將 十年研究總整出來的 59 個字母。

  • So, when I said I read a study,

    (笑聲)

  • I was reading fractions of the study

    所以,當我說我讀到一篇研究,

  • that were put together by four different writers

    我讀到的只是該研究的一小部分,

  • that were not the author,

    由四名不同的寫手拼湊起來,

  • before it got to me.

    他們都不是該研究的作者,

  • That doesn't seem right.

    然後被我讀到。

  • But accessing original research is difficult,

    那似乎不太對。

  • because academics aren't regularly engaging with popular media.

    但,要評估原始的研究是很困難的,

  • And you might be asking yourself,

    因為學術人士通常 不和大眾媒體連結。

  • why aren't academics engaging with popular media?

    你可能會自問,

  • It seems like they'd be a more legitimate source of information

    為什麼學術人士不與大眾媒體連結?

  • than the media pundits.

    他們的資訊來源似乎比較可靠,

  • Right?

    比媒體專家來的更可靠。

  • (Laughter)

    對吧?

  • In a country with over 4,100 colleges and universities,

    (笑聲)

  • it feels like this should be the norm.

    在一個有 4100 間大專院校的國家,

  • But it's not.

    感覺這應該是常態才對。

  • So, how did we get here?

    但卻不是。

  • To understand why scholars aren't engaging with popular media,

    怎麼會變這樣?

  • you first have to understand how universities work.

    要了解為什麼學者 不和大眾媒體連結,

  • Now, in the last six years,

    需要先了解大學怎麼運作。

  • I've taught at seven different colleges and universities

    在過去六年間,

  • in four different states.

    我在七間不同的大專院校教書,

  • I'm a bit of an adjunct extraordinaire.

    在四個不同的州。

  • (Laughter)

    我也算添加了不尋常。

  • And at the same time, I'm pursuing my PhD.

    (笑聲)

  • In all of these different institutions,

    同時,我也在攻讀博士學位。

  • the research and publication process works the same way.

    在所有這些不同的機構中,

  • First, scholars produce research in their fields.

    研究和出版的過程 以同樣的方式運作。

  • To fund their research, they apply for public and private grants

    首先,學者要產出自己領域的研究。

  • and after the research is finished,

    為了替研究找資金,他們要 申請公家和私人的補助金,

  • they write a paper about their findings.

    在研究完成之後,

  • Then they submit that paper to relevant academic journals.

    他們要針對他們的發現寫一篇論文。

  • Then it goes through a process called peer review,

    然後他們會把那篇論文 投稿到相關的學術期刊。

  • which essentially means that other experts

    投稿論文要經過同儕評審的過程,

  • are checking it for accuracy and credibility.

    基本上,這就表示其他專家

  • And then, once it's published,

    要確認該論文的正確性和可靠性。

  • for-profit companies resell that information

    接著,一旦論文刊出之後,

  • back to universities and public libraries

    營利公司會轉售該資訊,

  • through journal and database subscriptions.

    透過期刊和訂閱資料庫的方式

  • So, that's the system.

    將資訊賣回給大學和公立圖書館。

  • Research, write, peer-review, publish, repeat.

    系統就是這樣運作的。

  • My friends and I call it feeding the monster.

    研究、撰寫、 同儕評審、刊出、重覆。

  • And you can see how this might create some problems.

    我和我朋友稱之為餵食怪獸。

  • The first problem is that most academic research is publicly funded

    你們可以看出這方式 可能會造成一些問題。

  • but privately distributed.

    第一個問題是,大部分的 學術研究都是由公家資助,

  • Every year, the federal government spends 60 billion dollars on research.

    卻由私人販售。

  • According to the National Science Foundation,

    聯邦政府每年花費 600 億美元在研究上。

  • 29 percent of that goes to public research universities.

    根據國家科學基金會,

  • So, if you're quick at math, that's 17.4 billion dollars.

    那些錢有 29% 流入公立研究大學。

  • Tax dollars.

    所以,如果你數學算很快, 那就是 174 億美元。

  • And just five corporations are responsible

    這是納稅人的錢。

  • for distributing most publicly funded research.

    但只有五間公司負責

  • In 2014, just one of those companies made 1.5 billion dollars in profit.

    發行大部分公家資助的研究。

  • It's a big business.

    2014 年,光是其中一間公司 就賺了 15 億美元的利潤。

  • And I bet you can see the irony here.

    這是個大事業。

  • If the public is funding academics' research,

    我打賭你們能看出這裡的諷刺之處。

  • but then we have to pay again to access the results,

    如果公家在資助學術人士的研究,

  • it's like we're paying for it twice.

    但我們卻要再付錢 才能取得研究結果,

  • And the other major problem

    好像我們為此付了兩次錢。

  • is that most academics don't have a whole lot of incentive

    還有另一個大問題,

  • to publish outside of these prestigious subscription-based journals.

    大部分的學術人士並沒有很大的動機

  • Universities build their tenure and promotion systems

    把論文刊登在這些訂閱式 知名期刊以外的地方。

  • around the number of times scholars publish.

    大學中的終身職和升職體制,

  • So, books and journal articles are kind of like a form of currency for scholars.

    是以學者刊出的數目為依據。

  • Publishing articles helps you get tenure and more research grants down the road.

    所以,書籍和期刊 就像是學者的一種貨幣。

  • But academics are not rewarded for publishing with popular media.

    出版文章能協助你取得終身職 以及更多的研究獎助金。

  • So, this is the status quo.

    但若在大眾媒體刊出, 學術人士是無法得到獎賞的。

  • The current academic ecosystem.

    這就是現況,

  • But I don't think it has to be this way.

    目前的學術生態系統。

  • We can make some simple changes to flip the script.

    但我不認為它一定得這樣。

  • So, first, let's start by discussing access.

    我們能做些簡單的改變來反轉現狀。

  • Universities can begin to challenge the status quo

    首先,我們先來談談取得。

  • by rewarding scholars for publishing

    大學挑戰現況的一個做法是

  • not just in these subscription-based journals

    獎勵學者出版,

  • but in open-access journals as well as on popular media.

    不僅限於訂閱式的期刊,

  • Now, the open-access movement is starting to make some progress

    也包括開放取得的期刊和大眾媒體。

  • in many disciplines,

    目前有許多學科在開放取用上 已開始有些進展。

  • and fortunately, some other big players have started to notice.

    幸運的是,其他一些大玩家 也開始注意到此事。

  • Google Scholar has made open-access research

    「Google 學術搜尋」 已讓開放取用的研究

  • searchable and easier to find.

    很容易能被搜尋到。

  • Congress, last year, introduced a bill

    去年,國會推出一項議案,

  • that suggests that academic research projects

    建議學術研究計畫如果有

  • with over 100 million or more in funding

    超過一億美元以上的資金,

  • should develop an open-access policy.

    應該要建立開放取用的政策。

  • And this year, NASA opened up its entire research library to the public.

    今年,太空總署把它的整個 研究圖書館開放給大眾。

  • So, you can see this idea is beginning to catch on.

    這個想法已經開始流行。

  • But access isn't just about being able

    但取用並不只是要能夠

  • to get your hands on a document or a study.

    拿到一份文件或是研究。

  • It's also about making sure

    它的重點在於要確保

  • that that document or study is easily understood.

    那份文件或研究能很容易理解。

  • So, let's talk about translation.

    所以,咱們來談談轉譯。

  • I don't envision this translation to look like the six degrees of separation

    我並不會把轉譯想像成

  • that I illustrated earlier.

    我先前描述的六度分離。

  • Instead, what if scholars were able to take the research that they're doing

    反之,如果學者能夠轉譯他們的研究

  • and translate it on popular media

    並公開在大眾媒體上,

  • and be able to engage with the public?

    與大眾能有所連結,那會如何?

  • If scholars did this,

    如果學者這麼做,

  • the degrees of separation between the public and research

    民眾和學術研究之間的距離

  • would shrink by a lot.

    就會縮短很多。

  • So, you see, I'm not suggesting a dumbing-down of the research.

    但我並不是在建議 每分研究都要通俗易懂。

  • I'm just suggesting that we give the public access to that research

    我只是建議我們 要讓民眾能夠輕易取得研究,

  • and that we shift the venue and focus on using plain language

    並聚焦在使用平易近人的語言,

  • so that the public who's paying for the research

    這麼一來,真正在為研究付錢的大眾

  • can also consume it.

    也能讀懂這些研究。

  • And there are some other benefits to this approach.

    這樣做還有其它好處。

  • By showing the public how their tax dollars

    讓大眾知道他們納的稅

  • are being used to fund research,

    如何被用來資助研究,

  • they can begin to redefine universities' identities

    就能開始重新定義大學存在的意義,

  • so that universities' identities are not just based on a football team

    不是根據它們的足球隊

  • or the degrees they grant

    或授予的學位來定義,

  • but on the research that's being produced there.

    而是根據它們所發佈的研究來定義。

  • And when there's a healthy relationship between the public and scholars,

    當大眾和學術之間有良好的互動,

  • it encourages public participation in research.

    就能鼓勵大眾參與研究。

  • Can you imagine what that might look like?

    你們能想像那會是什麼樣子嗎?

  • What if social scientists

    如果社會科學家

  • helped local police redesign their sensitivity trainings

    能夠協助當地的警察 重新設計他們的敏感度訓練,

  • and then collaboratively wrote a manual to model future trainings?

    然後合作撰寫一份手冊 供未來訓練參考,那會如何?

  • Or what if our education professors consulted with our local public schools

    或者,如果我們的教育專家 和當地的公立學校合作,

  • to decide how we're going to intervene with our at-risk students

    擬定要如何介入處理問題學生,

  • and then wrote about it in a local newspaper?

    然後在當地的報紙上 發佈相關文章,那會如何?

  • Because a functioning democracy

    因為一個運作良好的民主機制

  • requires that the public be well-educated and well-informed.

    需要大眾受到良好的 教育並能理解資訊。

  • Instead of research happening behind paywalls and bureaucracy,

    而不是讓研究被私人機構 或官僚政治拿來賺錢用,

  • wouldn't it be better if it was unfolding right in front of us?

    把它攤開在我們面前, 不是比較好嗎?

  • Now, as a PhD student,

    身為博士生,

  • I realize I'm critiquing the club I want to join.

    我知道我是在批評 我想要加入的俱樂部。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Which is a dangerous thing to do,

    做這種事還蠻危險的,

  • since I'm going to be on the academic job market in a couple of years.

    因為幾年之後我就會 在學術工作市場上了。

  • But if the status quo in academic research

    但,如果學術界的現況

  • is to publish in the echo chambers of for-profit journals

    是以發佈期刊營利為目的,

  • that never reach the public,

    刊在永遠到不了大眾的期刊上,

  • you better believe my answer is going to be "nope."

    你最好相信,我的答案會是「不」。

  • I believe in inclusive, democratic research

    我相信包容性的民主研究,

  • that works in the community and talks with the public.

    能在社區內起作用,能和民眾對話。

  • I want to work in research and in an academic culture

    我希望我所從事的學術界文化

  • where the public is not only seen as a valuable audience,

    不僅能把民眾視為有價值的觀眾,

  • but a constituent, a participant.

    更能把他們視為一份子、參與者。

  • And in some cases even the expert.

    甚至在某些情況下視他們為專家。

  • And this isn't just about

    重點並不是

  • giving you guys access to information.

    給予大家取得資訊的途徑。

  • It's about shifting academic culture from publishing to practice

    重點是轉變學術文化, 從出版轉變到實做,

  • and from talking to doing.

    從「說」轉變到「做」。

  • And you should know that this idea, this hope --

    你們應該知道,這想法、這希望

  • it doesn't just belong to me.

    不只屬於我。

  • I'm standing on the shoulders of many scholars, teachers,

    我正站在許多人的肩膀上, 包括學者、老師、

  • librarians and community members

    圖書館圓,和社區成員,

  • who also advocate for including more people in the conversation.

    他們也主張讓更多人參與對話。

  • I hope you join our conversation, too.

    我希望各位也能參與我們的對話。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Do you ever find yourself referencing a study in conversation

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: 易帆 余

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學術研究是公共資助的--為什麼不公開?| 艾麗卡-斯通 (Academic research is publicly funded -- why isn't it publicly available? | Erica Stone)

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