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  • Why are cities full of uncomfortable benches?

    為何城市中充滿了不舒適的板凳?

  • This one has armrests to prevent you from dozing off.

    這一個裝設扶手來防止你在板凳上打瞌睡。

  • Here's anotheragain with the arms, the stiff metal.

    這是另一個,又一個裝有扶手的板凳,堅硬的金屬製成。

  • And this oneit's brand new.

    而這一個,它是新款的。

  • The MTA in New York began installing them as part of a subway enhancement plan.

    紐約大都會運輸署 (Metropolitan Transportation Authority,MTA) 開始裝設這種設施,屬於地鐵補強計畫的一部分。

  • And they don't call it a bench.

    他們不將它稱為板凳。

  • They prefer the term "leaning bars".

    他們比較喜歡這個詞,「倚靠欄杆」。

  • So what if i told you it was designed with discomfort in mind?

    所以如果我告訴你,這是刻意設計成不舒適的樣子呢?

  • New York City is filled with some of the most innovative architecture and urban planning in the world.

    紐約充滿了世界最具創新的建築與都市計畫。

  • Today, nearly every kind of public space here has been developed with close attention to detail.

    現今,幾乎所有公共空間的開發細節都會被密切關注。

  • So these benches are no mistake.

    所以這些板凳並不是失誤。

  • They are designed to allow you to sit but not get too cozy.

    它們是被設計來讓你坐的,但不會坐得太舒適。

  • And that's intentional.

    那是有目的的。

  • The concept stems from a school of thought that goes by many names, but today we'll use "defensive design".

    這個概念源自於一個擁有不同稱呼的學術思維,但今日我們稱之「保護性設計」。

  • Defensive design is about moderating behavior.

    保護性設計是有關節制行為的設計概念。

  • The goal is to limit the ways an object can be misused.

    目標是減少一個物件被錯誤使用的方式。

  • These benches have armrests because that will prevent anyone from laying down.

    這些板凳裝設扶手,為了避免任何人躺在板凳上。

  • Their short back is another nod to say, "This bench isn't yours forever."

    短的椅背是在示意:「這個板凳不會永遠是你的。」

  • This trend is worldwide.

    這樣的趨勢,全世界比比皆是。

  • And it's not just in the benches.

    也不只有板凳如此。

  • When you start looking for defensive designs in New York City, you'll find examples everywhere.

    當你開始在紐約尋找保護性設計,你會發現到處都是案例。

  • It's the presence of security cameras in subway turnstiles or Times Square.

    這是裝設在地鐵十字旋轉門或時代廣場的監視器。

  • It's these spikes on this column, meant to deter birds.

    這是一整列鐵絲網,為了制止鳥類停留。

  • It's the knobs on these ledges, meant to discourage skateboarders.

    在邊緣上的突起,是為了阻止玩滑板的人。

  • And there were once sprinklers underneath the awning of this bookstore, to prevent people from sleeping there.

    這個書店曾經安裝灑水器在遮棚下,以防止有人在此睡覺。

  • It's sidewalk barriers.

    這是人行道障礙物。

  • It's even these regular streetlights.

    即使是這些普通的街燈。

  • Yeah, streetlights are probably some of the most recognizable defensive designs.

    街燈可能是最好辨別的保護性設計。

  • When they surfaced in the 19th-century Western cities, the dynamic of urban life changed.

    當他們出現在西元 19 世紀的西方城市,都市生活就此改變了。

  • Because of them, more people spent time outside at night, which drove economic development and a reduction in crime.

    因為這些燈,更多人在晚上外出,帶來經濟發展,也降低犯罪率。

  • Most hostile architecture tries to influence behavior in a similar way.

    許多敵意建築也試著以相似的方式影響他人行為。

  • The designs attempt to make public space a bit more hospitable, more ideal.

    設計試圖使公共空間變得友善、變得更理想。

  • Defensive designs can deter crime.

    保護性設計可以制止犯罪。

  • It can prevent the destruction of public property.

    可以防止公共設施被破壞。

  • And it can prevent loitering.

    它也可以避免街頭遊蕩。

  • But there is a reason why defensive design is characterized as "hostile".

    但保護性設計被認為是「懷有敵意的」是有原因的。

  • Take the example of the leaning bar.

    拿倚靠欄杆作為例子。

  • Disability advocates have a problem with that appearing in the MTA.

    身障人士擁護者對紐約大都會運輸署設置的倚靠欄杆有些問題。

  • One advocate pointed out that "People who travel who have disabilities or just get tired sometimes need a bench to sit on, and not a wall to lean against."

    一位擁護者指出:「那些旅人、身障的人或有時候只是疲憊的人,需要的是可以坐下來休息的一張板凳,而非一道牆讓他們倚靠。」

  • And while no one likes an uncomfortable bench, these additions mean something more for people who are experiencing homelessness.

    雖然沒人喜歡一張不舒適的板凳,這些板凳上的附加物對於無家可歸的人,卻有著比不舒適更深一層的涵義。

  • The United States is currently experiencing a decline in the overall homeless population.

    當前,美國整體無家可歸的人數已逐年下降。

  • But in New York city, the number of homeless people is growing.

    但在紐約,無家可歸的人數正在成長。

  • About 1800 people were found to have been sleeping in the subway.

    大約 1800 人曾經在地鐵站睡過。

  • That's because emergency shelter isn't always a viable option.

    那是因為緊急庇護所並不總是個可行的選擇。

  • There are several examples of hostile architecture that target people who are homeless.

    這裡有一些敵意建築的案例,為了防止無家可歸的人。

  • These designs imply that public space is not where homeless people should be.

    這些設計暗指公共空間不是無家可歸的人該待的地方。

  • As it goes, city planners have a dilemmahow do they design inclusive cities?

    正因如此,城市規劃者陷入兩難的局面,他們該如何設計一個具包容性的城市?

  • As for the enhanced subway initiative, the MTA's mock designs highlight new USB ports and electronic signage in stations.

    至於地鐵補強計畫,紐約大都會運輸署的模擬設計圖中,強調了車站中新的 USB 埠以及電子標示牌。

  • But you won't find any press materials highlighting this uncomfortable bench.

    但你不會在任何報導中看到他們強調這個不舒適的板凳。

  • Excuse me, the "leaning bar".

    抱歉,是「倚靠欄杆」。

  • That's because it makes for an uncomfortable discussion about who we design public space for and who gets left out.

    那是因為這會使我們開始討論,我們是為了誰設計這不舒適的公共空間,還有是誰被排除在外。

Why are cities full of uncomfortable benches?

為何城市中充滿了不舒適的板凳?

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為何城市中充滿了不舒適的板凳?(Why cities are full of uncomfortable benches)

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    Evangeline 發佈於 2021 年 03 月 04 日
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