Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz

    譯者: 易帆 余 審譯者: SF Huang

  • I was a new mother

    在 2004 年的春天,

  • and a young rabbi

    我成為一位新手媽媽,

  • in the spring of 2004

    也成為一位年輕的拉比,

  • and the world was in shambles.

    而當時全球正處於動盪不安的局勢。

  • Maybe you remember.

    各位可能還記得,

  • Every day, we heard devastating reports from the war in Iraq.

    我們每天都會聽到 伊拉克戰爭的災難報導,

  • There were waves of terror rolling across the globe.

    以及全球一波又一波的恐怖攻擊。

  • It seemed like humanity was spinning out of control.

    似乎人性已經失去了控制。

  • I remember the night that I read

    我仍記得那天晚上

  • about the series of coordinated bombings

    當我讀到在馬德里的地鐵系統

  • in the subway system in Madrid,

    發生的連環爆炸案時,

  • and I got up and I walked over to the crib

    我起床走向

  • where my six-month-old baby girl

    六個月大寶貝女兒的嬰兒床邊,

  • lay sleeping sweetly,

    當時她睡的很香甜,

  • and I heard the rhythm of her breath,

    聽著她呼吸的節奏……

  • and I felt this sense of urgency coursing through my body.

    身上感受到的卻是一股急迫感。

  • We were living through a time of tectonic shifts in ideologies,

    我們當時生活在 意識形態的結構轉變期,

  • in politics, in religion, in populations.

    無論是在政治、宗教還是人口方面。

  • Everything felt so precarious.

    每件事感覺都那麼的不穩定。

  • And I remember thinking,

    我記得當時在想,

  • "My God, what kind of world did we bring this child into?

    「我的天啊!我們把這孩子 帶到什麼樣的世界啊?」

  • And what was I as a mother and a religious leader

    「而身為一位母親與宗教領袖的我,

  • willing to do about it?

    願意貢獻出些什麼呢?」

  • Of course, I knew it was clear

    當然,我知道,

  • that religion would be a principle battlefield

    宗教是這個快速變化的

  • in this rapidly changing landscape,

    國際情勢裡的主戰場,

  • and it was already clear

    大家都明白,

  • that religion was a significant part of the problem.

    宗教就是問題的重要部分。

  • The question for me was,

    而我的疑問是:

  • could religion also be part of the solution?

    宗教有沒有可能也是 解決問題的辦法之一?

  • Now, throughout history,

    綜觀歷史,

  • people have committed horrible crimes and atrocities

    人們以宗教之名

  • in the name of religion.

    犯下了很多恐怖的暴力事蹟。

  • And as we entered the 21st century,

    而當我們來到了 21 世紀,

  • it was very clear that religious extremism was once again on the rise.

    宗教極端主義又開始盛行了。

  • Our studies now show

    我們的研究顯示,

  • that over the course of the past 15, 20 years,

    在過去的 15~20 年,

  • hostilities and religion-related violence

    與敵對及信仰有關的暴力事件

  • have been on the increase all over the world.

    在全球各地都有增加的趨勢。

  • But we don't even need the studies to prove it,

    我們甚至不需要研究報告 就能證明這一切,

  • because I ask you, how many of us are surprised today

    因為我來問一下就知道, 我們當中有多少人會感到驚訝,

  • when we hear the stories of a bombing or a shooting,

    當我們聽到某起 炸彈攻擊或槍擊事件,

  • when we later find out that the last word that was uttered

    那些惡徒在扣下板機 或引爆炸彈之前,

  • before the trigger is pulled or the bomb is detonated

    呼喊上帝之名?

  • is the name of God?

    現今這樣的訊息 已經吸引不了人們的關注了:

  • It barely raises an eyebrow today

    當我們聽到一個人

  • when we learn that yet another person

    藉著殺害上帝子民的性命

  • has decided to show his love of God

    來展現他對上帝的愛戴。

  • by taking the lives of God's children.

    在美國,宗教極端主義者

  • In America, religious extremism

    看起來像是一個反對墮胎的 白種極端基督教徒,

  • looks like a white, antiabortion Christian extremist

    走進科羅拉多州 溫泉市的計劃生育診所

  • walking into Planned Parenthood in Colorado Springs

    謀殺了三個人。

  • and murdering three people.

    也像是一對夫妻

  • It also looks like a couple

    受了伊斯蘭國的鼓動

  • inspired by the Islamic State

    走進聖貝納迪諾的 辦公部門派對中殺掉 14 個人。

  • walking into an office party in San Bernardino and killing 14.

    即使與信仰有關的極端主義 沒有導致暴力事件,

  • And even when religion-related extremism does not lead to violence,

    但也經常成為政治操弄的議題工具,

  • it is still used as a political wedge issue,

    憤世嫉俗地誘導民眾去合理化 女性的從屬地位、

  • cynically leading people to justify the subordination of women,

    汙名化同性戀、雙性戀與跨性別者,

  • the stigmatization of LGBT people,

    鼓吹種族歧視、伊斯蘭恐懼症、 反猶太主義。

  • racism, Islamophobia and anti-Semitism.

    這些議題值得我們這些關心宗教、

  • This ought to concern deeply

    關心信仰未來發展的人

  • those of us who care about the future of religion

    做深度地探討。

  • and the future of faith.

    我們可以稱這些現象為:

  • We need to call this what it is:

    信仰上的大失敗。

  • a great failure of religion.

    問題是,這並不是目前宗教 所面臨的唯一挑戰。

  • But the thing is, this isn't even the only challenge that religion faces today.

    與此同時,

  • At the very same time

    我們更需要宗教能成為一股 對抗極端主義的堅強力量,

  • that we need religion to be a strong force against extremism,

    雖然它目前正遭受著 第二波毀滅的趨勢,

  • it is suffering from a second pernicious trend,

    我稱之為「宗教例行化」。

  • what I call religious routine-ism.

    這也是我們的機構和領導人

  • This is when our institutions and our leaders

    被困在一個很草率、制式化、

  • are stuck in a paradigm that is rote and perfunctory,

    缺乏生命力、沒有願景、

  • devoid of life, devoid of vision

    沒有靈魂的典型框架中。

  • and devoid of soul.

    讓我來解釋一下我為什麽這樣說。

  • Let me explain what I mean like this.

    身為一位拉比,最開心的事就是,

  • One of the great blessings of being a rabbi

    站在結婚禮棚下,為一對新婚夫妻

  • is standing under the chuppah, under the wedding canopy, with a couple,

    做結婚的公證,

  • and helping them proclaim publicly

    聖潔他們彼此之間的愛。

  • and make holy the love that they found for one another.

    但我現在想請各位

  • I want to ask you now, though,

    就你個人經驗

  • to think maybe from your own experience

    或者就想像一下,

  • or maybe just imagine it

    下列兩組在感情的強列程度上 有多大的差距,

  • about the difference between the intensity of the experience

    一組是站在結婚禮棚下剛結婚的,

  • under the wedding canopy,

    另一組是結婚 6、7 周年的。

  • and maybe the experience of the sixth or seventh anniversary.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    如果你夠幸運, 可以慶祝第 16、17 年的紀念日,

  • And if you're lucky enough to make it 16 or 17 years,

    如果你跟大多數人一樣,

  • if you're like most people, you probably wake up in the morning

    早上醒來,發現自己 忘記預定了最愛的餐廳,

  • realizing that you forgot to make a reservation at your favorite restaurant

    忘記了祝福的卡片,

  • and you forgot so much as a card,

    然後你只希望或祈禱 你的另一半也忘了這件事。

  • and then you just hope and pray that your partner also forgot.

    傳統宗教的儀式與慣例

  • Well, religious ritual and rites

    基本上是為了 迎合周年紀念日而設計、

  • were essentially designed to serve the function of the anniversary,

    為了成為一個器皿, 能使我們堅守住

  • to be a container in which we would hold on to the remnants

    那神聖、具天啟、

  • of that sacred, revelatory encounter

    創造了宗教的遺風習俗而設計。

  • that birthed the religion in the first place.

    問題是,經過了幾世紀後,

  • The problem is that after a few centuries,

    日曆上仍有紀念日,

  • the date remains on the calendar,

    但愛慕之情已然消逝。

  • but the love affair is long dead.

    這時我們才發現自己 陷入在一種永無止境、

  • That's when we find ourselves in endless, mindless repetitions

    毫無意義的惡性循環中,

  • of words that don't mean anything to us,

    起立和坐下, 僅是因為有人要我們這麼做,

  • rising and being seated because someone has asked us to,

    小心地固守著那

  • holding onto jealously guarded doctrine

    完全與當今現實環境 脫節了的謹慎教條,

  • that's completely and wildly out of step with our contemporary reality,

    深陷在敷衍、老舊的儀式中,

  • engaging in perfunctory practice

    只因為長久以來,大家都這麼做。

  • simply because that's the way things have always been done.

    在美國,宗教正逐漸式微。

  • Religion is waning in the United States.

    世界各地的教會、猶太教會、清真寺

  • Across the board, churches and synagogues and mosques

    都在抱怨,

  • are all complaining

    要維持新世代年輕人

  • about how hard it is to maintain relevance

    對宗教的興趣有多麼困難,

  • for a generation of young people who seem completely uninterested,

    因為這些年輕人不僅對代表 傳統核心價值的宗教團體不感興趣,

  • not only in the institutions that stand at the heart of our traditions

    也對宗教本身不感興趣。

  • but even in religion itself.

    但這些教會裡的人需要明白的是,

  • And what they need to understand

    當今這世代有一群人,

  • is that there is today a generation of people

    他們厭惡宗教極端主義的殘暴,

  • who are as disgusted by the violence of religious extremism

    就如同他們排斥

  • as they are turned off

    一成不變的宗教例行儀式一樣。

  • by the lifelessness of religious routine-ism.

    當然這些事仍有轉機。

  • Of course there is a bright spot to this story.

    鑒於這兩種同時出現在 宗教史上的災難趨勢,

  • Given the crisis of these two concurrent trends in religious life,

    大約 12~13 年前,我決定開始

  • about 12 or 13 years ago, I set out to try to determine

    尋找方法重新恢復

  • if there was any way

    我所屬的猶太教的傳統核心,

  • that I could reclaim the heart of my own Jewish tradition,

    協助它在這個動蕩的世界上

  • to help make it meaningful and purposeful again

    重新找回意義。

  • in a world on fire.

    我開始在想,

  • I started to wonder,

    要是我們可以利用 我們這一代偉大的思想,

  • what if we could harness some of the great minds of our generation

    並以一個大膽、健全、 具豐富想像力的角度

  • and think in a bold and robust and imaginative way again

    去思考世代更迭過的 宗教生活會是怎樣的模式?

  • about what the next iteration of religious life would look like?

    我們沒有錢、沒有地方、沒有計劃,

  • Now, we had no money, no space, no game plan,

    但是我們有電子郵件。

  • but we did have email.

    於是我的朋友瑪莉薩和我

  • So my friend Melissa and I sat down and we wrote an email

    開始發一些電郵 給我們的朋友和同事。

  • which we sent out to a few friends and colleagues.

    基本內容就是:

  • It basically said this:

    「在你要放棄你的信仰之前,

  • "Before you bail on religion,

    何不讓我們在禮拜五晚上 小聚一下呢,

  • why don't we come together this Friday night

    看看我們還能為猶太的 文化遺產做些什麽?」

  • and see what we might make of our own Jewish inheritance?"

    我們原本以為頂多 20 個人會出席,

  • We hoped maybe 20 people would show up.

    結果來了 135 個人。

  • It turned out 135 people came.

    有憤世嫉俗的人、 有尋找生命意義的人,

  • They were cynics and seekers,

    還有無神論者及拉比們。

  • atheists and rabbis.

    很多人都說,那晚是他們有生以來,

  • Many people said that night that it was the first time

    第一次度過這麼有意義的宗教體驗。

  • that they had a meaningful religious experience in their entire lives.

    所以我去做了一般人在這情況下

  • And so I set out to do the only rational thing

    都會做的合理事情:

  • that someone would do in such a circumstance:

    我辭掉了工作, 嘗試去建立這個大膽、

  • I quit my job and tried to build this audacious dream,

    重新改造過、重新思考過的 宗教生活夢想,

  • a reinvented, rethought religious life

    我們稱這個計劃為《IKAR》

  • which we called "IKAR,"

    它是「本質精華或 事物之核心」的意思。

  • which means "the essence" or "the heart of the matter."

    《IKAR》在當今宗教局勢中

  • Now, IKAR is not alone

    並不孤單。

  • out there in the religious landscape today.

    有很多的猶太教、基督教、 穆斯林教和天主教領袖,

  • There are Jewish and Christian and Muslim and Catholic religious leaders,

    順道一提, 他們之中有很多都是女性,

  • many of them women, by the way,

    都開始重新定義傳統宗教的 核心價值意義了,

  • who have set out to reclaim the heart of our traditions,

    他們相信是時候讓宗教 成為問題的解決方案之一了。

  • who firmly believe that now is the time for religion to be part of the solution.

    我們要回到神聖的傳統,

  • We are going back into our sacred traditions

    並認知所有我們的傳統

  • and recognizing that all of our traditions

    有包含合理化 暴力和極端主義的素材、

  • contain the raw material to justify violence and extremism,

    也有包含發揚憐憫、

  • and also contain the raw material to justify compassion,

    共存、仁慈的素材——

  • coexistence and kindness --

    所以當他人從我們的文章中 讀出憎恨與復仇時,

  • that when others choose to read our texts as directives for hate and vengeance,

    我們可以選擇從同樣的文章中讀出

  • we can choose to read those same texts

    愛和寬容的指導方針。

  • as directives for love and for forgiveness.

    我發現

  • I have found now

    多元化的宗教團體, 如東西兩岸的猶太教獨立小教會,

  • in communities as varied as Jewish indie start-ups on the coasts

    比如女性的清真寺、

  • to a woman's mosque,

    比如紐約和北卡羅來納的黑人教會、

  • to black churches in New York and in North Carolina,

    比如滿載著修女的神聖巴士,

  • to a holy bus loaded with nuns

    她們在這個國家傳遞著 正義與和平的訊息,

  • that traverses this country with a message of justice and peace,

    都有著同樣的宗教價值觀,

  • that there is a shared religious ethos

    在國內正以宗教復興的態勢崛起。

  • that is now emerging in the form of revitalized religion in this country.

    雖然這些獨立機構彼此之間的

  • And while the theologies and the practices vary very much

    宗教理論與慣例相當不同,

  • between these independent communities,

    我們還是可以 看到其中的一些共同點。

  • what we can see are some common, consistent threads between them.

    接著我就跟大家分享這四個共同點。

  • I'm going to share with you four of those commitments now.

    第一個是覺醒。

  • The first is wakefulness.

    我們生活在一個年代,

  • We live in a time today

    一個可以透過史無前例的方式

  • in which we have unprecedented access

    獲知發生在世界各個角落的

  • to information about every global tragedy

    悲劇的年代。

  • that happens on every corner of this Earth.

    有二千萬人,在 12 小時內得知

  • Within 12 hours, 20 million people

    艾蘭·庫迪小朋友的身軀

  • saw that image of Aylan Kurdi's little body

    在土耳其的海岸邊 被海浪無情的沖刷。

  • washed up on the Turkish shore.

    我們也都看到了這張相片,

  • We all saw this picture.

    一位五歲男童,

  • We saw this picture of a five-year-old child

    在阿勒坡被人從 已成廢墟的家中救出來。

  • pulled out of the rubble of his building in Aleppo.

    而每當我們看到類似的景象,

  • And once we see these images,

    我們都會有所行動。

  • we are called to a certain kind of action.

    在我的傳統裡有這麼一個 旅人走在路上的故事,

  • My tradition tells a story of a traveler who is walking down a road

    有一天他看到了一間 漂亮的房子失火了,

  • when he sees a beautiful house on fire,

    他說:「為什麼 這麼漂亮的房子失火,

  • and he says, "How can it be that something so beautiful would burn,

    卻都沒有人看到或甚至關心?」

  • and nobody seems to even care?"

    同樣的,我們的世界也正在失火,

  • So too we learn that our world is on fire,

    我們應當敞開心扉,擦亮眼睛,

  • and it is our job to keep our hearts and our eyes open,

    並認知這其實這是我們的責任,

  • and to recognize that it's our responsibility

    我們要協助滅火,

  • to help put out the flames.

    這件事的確很困難,

  • This is extremely difficult to do.

    因為心理學家告訴我們,人們越是 了解造成這世界支離破碎的原因,

  • Psychologists tell us that the more we learn about what's broken in our world,

    就越會漠不關心。

  • the less likely we are to do anything.

    這就是所謂的心理麻木現象。

  • It's called psychic numbing.

    我們在某個時點,關閉了心門。

  • We just shut down at a certain point.

    然而,各宗教的領袖們似乎忘記了,

  • Well, somewhere along the way, our religious leaders forgot

    帶領人們離開舒適圈、

  • that it's our job to make people uncomfortable.

    讓人們覺醒是我們的責任,

  • It's our job to wake people up,

    把他們從冷默的深淵裡拉出來,

  • to pull them out of their apathy

    去感受改變的痛苦,

  • and into the anguish,

    去堅決要求我們 做原本不想做的事情,

  • and to insist that we do what we don't want to do

    去看我們選擇忽視的人事物。

  • and see what we do not want to see.

    因為我們知道社會的改變 永遠只發生在——

  • Because we know that social change only happens --

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    我們清醒地意識到需要改變的時候。

  • when we are awake enough to see that the house is on fire.

    第二個原則是希望,

  • The second principle is hope,

    我想說一下「希望」這件事,

  • and I want to say this about hope.

    希望不是天真,

  • Hope is not naive,

    也不是什麽麻醉劑。

  • and hope is not an opiate.

    「希望」可能是對抗悲觀的政治和

  • Hope may be the single greatest act of defiance

    絕望的文化

  • against a politics of pessimism

    唯一的最佳武器。

  • and against a culture of despair.

    因為希望能帶我們

  • Because what hope does for us

    走出那個

  • is it lifts us out of the container

    把我們與外在世界隔絕的 「容器」牢籠。

  • that holds us and constrains us from the outside,

    並且希望告訴了我們, 「你可以再次豁達地夢想與思考,

  • and says, "You can dream and think expansively again.

    它們是控制不了你的。」

  • That they cannot control in you."

    今年夏天,在芝加哥南部

  • I saw hope made manifest in an African-American church

    我看到希望已經在 美國非裔的教堂裡顯現,

  • in the South Side of Chicago this summer,

    我帶著

  • where I brought my little girl,

    13 歲的女兒,

  • who is now 13

    現在比我要高一點點,

  • and a few inches taller than me,

    去聽我朋友 歐提斯‧傌司牧師講道。

  • to hear my friend Rev. Otis Moss preach.

    今年夏天,從一月到七月

  • That summer, there had already been 3,000 people shot

    在芝加哥大約 已經有 3000 人被槍殺。

  • between January and July in Chicago.

    我們去教堂聽傌司牧師講道,

  • We went into that church and heard Rev. Moss preach,

    結束後,

  • and after he did,

    100 個優雅堅強的合唱團女成員

  • this choir of gorgeous women, 100 women strong,

    站起來開始合唱。

  • stood up and began to sing.

    「我需要你,你需要我,

  • "I need you. You need me.

    我愛你,我要你好好活著。」

  • I love you. I need you to survive."

    在那一瞬間我恍然大悟,

  • And I realized in that moment

    這就是宗教活動應有的樣子。

  • that this is what religion is supposed to be about.

    它應當給予人們生存的目的、