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  • Today I'm here, actually, to pose you a question.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: 易帆 余

  • What is life?

    今天我來這裡其實 是要問各位一個問題。

  • It has been really puzzling me for more than 25 years,

    生命是什麼?

  • and will probably continue doing so for the next 25 years.

    這個問題困惑了我 25 年,

  • This is the thesis I did when I was still in undergraduate school.

    可能在接下來的 25 年 繼續困惑著我。

  • While my colleagues still treated computers as big calculators,

    這是我在大學時做的論文。

  • I started to teach computers to learn.

    當我的同學仍然把電腦 視為是大型計算機時,

  • I built digital lady beetles

    我就開始教電腦學習了。

  • and tried to learn from real lady beetles, just to do one thing:

    我打造了數位瓢蟲,

  • search for food.

    試圖向真實的瓢蟲學習, 讓它們只做一件事:

  • And after very simple neural network --

    尋找食物。

  • genetic algorithms and so on --

    經過了非常簡單的神經網路──

  • look at the pattern.

    基因演算法等等──

  • They're almost identical to real life.

    看這個模型,

  • A very striking learning experience for a twenty-year-old.

    它們幾乎和真實的生命一模一樣。

  • Life is a learning program.

    對一個 20 歲的小伙子來說 這是很驚人的學習經驗。

  • When you look at all of this wonderful world,

    生命本身就是一個學習程式。

  • every species has its own learning program.

    這個大千世界,

  • The learning program is genome,

    每個物種都有自己的學習程式。

  • and the code of that program is DNA.

    這學習程式就是基因組,

  • The different genomes of each species represent different survival strategies.

    程式碼就是 DNA。

  • They represent hundreds of millions of years of evolution.

    每個物種的不同基因組 代表著不同的生存策略。

  • The interaction between every species' ancestor

    代表著數億年的進化演變,

  • and the environment.

    記錄了每個物種的祖先

  • I was really fascinated about the world,

    與環境之間的互動。

  • about the DNA,

    我完全迷上了這個世界,

  • about, you know, the language of life,

    迷上了 DNA,

  • the program of learning.

    迷上了,你知道的,生命的語言,

  • So I decided to co-found the institute to read them.

    學習的程式。

  • I read many of them.

    所以我決定找人共同創辦一個 讀取基因組的機構。

  • We probably read more than half of the prior animal genomes in the world.

    我讀了很多基因組。

  • I mean, up to date.

    我們可能解讀了 世界上超過一半的動物基因組。

  • We did learn a lot.

    我是指,與時俱進。

  • We did sequence, also, one species many, many times ...

    我們學到了很多。

  • human genome.

    我們對一個物種進行了 多次基因定序,做了許多次……

  • We sequenced the first Asian.

    即人類基因組。

  • I sequenced it myself many, many times,

    我們完成了第一個 亞洲人基因組的定序。

  • just to take advantage of that platform.

    剛好利用平台的優勢,

  • Look at all those repeating base pairs:

    我對自己的基因也進行了多次定序。

  • ATCG.

    看著所有那些重覆的鹼基對:

  • You don't understand anything there.

    ATCG。 (註:四種 DNA 鹼基)

  • But look at that one base pair.

    你幾乎無法從中讀懂任何含義。

  • Those five letters, the AGGAA.

    但看看這一組鹼基對。

  • These five SNPs represent a very specific haplotype

    AGGAA,這五個字母。

  • in the Tibetan population

    這五個 SNP(單核苷酸多態性) 代表了一種非常特別的單倍型,

  • around the gene called EPAS1.

    它們是藏族人的身體中

  • That gene has been proved --

    一種叫做 EPAS1 的基因。

  • it's highly selective --

    這個基因已被證明是──

  • it's the most significant signature of positive selection of Tibetans

    高度選擇性的結果──

  • for the higher altitude adaptation.

    這是藏族人對高海拔適應性 進行正向選擇的重要指標。

  • You know what?

    你知道嗎?

  • These five SNPs were the result of integration of Denisovans,

    這五個 SNP 是來自 滅絕的丹尼索瓦人,

  • or Denisovan-like individuals into humans.

    或與丹尼索瓦人有親緣關係的 個體 DNA 與人類雜交的結果。

  • This is the reason why we need to read those genomes.

    這就是為什麽我們需要 讀這些基因組的原因。

  • To understand history,

    它可以讓你了解歷史,

  • to understand what kind of learning process

    了解基因組這套學習程序

  • the genome has been through for the millions of years.

    在數百萬年中經歷了什麽樣的演變。

  • By reading a genome, it can give you a lot of information --

    透過閱讀基因組, 你能得到許多資訊──

  • tells you the bugs in the genome --

    它能告訴你基因組中的一些錯誤──

  • I mean, birth defects, monogenetic disorders.

    我指的是像天生缺陷、 單基因遺傳病。

  • Reading a drop of blood

    而僅僅需要一滴血的判讀,

  • could tell you why you got a fever,

    就能告訴你為什麼會發燒,

  • or it tells you which medicine and dosage needs to be used

    或告訴你在你生病,

  • when you're sick, especially for cancer.

    特別是得了癌症時, 需要服用什麼藥、多少劑量。

  • A lot of things could be studied, but look at that:

    可以研究的東西很多,但看看這個:

  • 30 years ago, we were still poor in China.

    三十年前,我們中國還很窮。

  • Only .67 percent of the Chinese adult population had diabetes.

    只有 0.67% 的 中國成年人有糖尿病。

  • Look at now: 11 percent.

    看看現在:11%。

  • Genetics cannot change over 30 years --

    遺傳學不會在三十年間改變──

  • only one generation.

    才一個世代而已。

  • It must be something different.

    一定有什麼其他原因。

  • Diet?

    飲食嗎?

  • The environment?

    環境嗎?

  • Lifestyle?

    生活方式嗎?

  • Even identical twins could develop totally differently.

    即使是同卵雙生的雙胞胎 也可能有完全不同的發展。

  • It could be one becomes very obese, the other is not.

    可能其中一個極肥胖, 另一個不會。

  • One develops a cancer and the other does not.

    其中一個得了癌症,另一個沒有。

  • Not mentioning living in a very stressed environment.

    更不用提處在壓力很大的環境中了。

  • I moved to Shenzhen 10 years ago ...

    我十年前搬到深圳…...

  • for some reason, people may know.

    有些人可能知道理由。

  • If the gene's under stress,

    如果基因在壓力下,

  • it behaves totally differently.

    它的行為會全然不同。

  • Life is a journey.

    人生是一趟旅程。

  • A gene is just a starting point,

    基因只是個起始點,

  • not the end.

    不是終點。

  • You have this statistical risk of certain diseases when you are born.

    在你出生時,就註定會有 某些疾病的風險。

  • But every day you make different choices,

    但,你每天做出不同的選擇,

  • and those choices will increase or decrease the risk of certain diseases.

    那些選擇會增加或滅少 某些疾病的風險。

  • But do you know where you are on the curve?

    但你知道你在曲線上的哪個點嗎?

  • What's the past curve look like?

    過去的曲線是什麼樣子的?

  • What kind of decisions are you facing every day?

    你每天在面對的是什麼樣的決策?

  • And what kind of decision is the right one

    什麼樣的決策才是對的,

  • to make your own right curve over your life journey?

    才能為你人生旅程產生出對的曲線?

  • What's that?

    那是什麼?

  • The only thing you cannot change,

    你唯一無法改變的,

  • you cannot reverse back,

    你無法逆轉的,

  • is time.

    就是時間。

  • Probably not yet; maybe in the future.

    目前還不能,但將來不一定。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Well, you cannot change the decision you've made,

    你無法改變你已做的決定,

  • but can we do something there?

    但我們能不能做點什麼?

  • Can we actually try to run multiple options on me,

    我們能否對自己測試多個選項,

  • and try to predict right on the consequence,

    試著預測正確的結果,

  • and be able to make the right choice?

    以做出正確的選擇?

  • After all,

    畢竟,

  • we are our choices.

    我們就是我們的選擇所決定的。

  • These lady beetles came to me afterwards.

    這些瓢蟲後來啟發了我。

  • 25 years ago, I made the digital lady beetles

    25 年前,我做了數位瓢蟲,

  • to try to simulate real lady beetles.

    試圖模擬自然界的真實瓢蟲。

  • Can I make a digital me ...

    我是否可以同樣做出數位化的我……

  • to simulate me?

    來模擬真實的我?

  • I understand the neural network could become

    我當然明白其中的神經網絡可能會

  • much more sophisticated and complicated there.

    更精密且複雜許多。

  • Can I make that one,

    但我能否做到,

  • and try to run multiple options on that digital me --

    然後試著用那個數位化的我 來測試多重選項……

  • to compute that?

    來計算出不同的選擇結果?

  • Then I could live in different universes,

    那樣一來,我就可以

  • in parallel, at the same time.

    同時活在不同的平行宇宙中。

  • Then I would choose whatever is good for me.

    我就可以選擇對我最好的選項。

  • I probably have the most comprehensive digital me on the planet.

    我的生命數據可能是 這個星球最全面的,

  • I've spent a lot of dollars on me, on myself.

    我花了很多錢在我自己身上。

  • And the digital me told me I have a genetic risk of gout

    這個數位化的我, 透過這些東西告訴我,

  • by all of those things there.

    我有痛風的基因風險。

  • You need different technology to do that.

    你需要不同的技術才能做到那樣。

  • You need the proteins, genes,

    你需要蛋白質、基因,

  • you need metabolized antibodies,

    你需要心陳代謝抗體,

  • you need to screen all your body

    你需要掃瞄你的整個身體,

  • about the bacterias and viruses covering you, or in you.

    來找出你身上或體內的細菌及病毒。

  • You need to have all the smart devices there --

    你需要各種智慧的儀器──

  • smart cars, smart house, smart tables,

    智慧車、智慧房屋、智慧桌子、

  • smart watch, smart phone to track all of your activities there.

    智慧手表、智慧手機, 才能追縱你所有的活動。

  • The environment is important --

    環境很重要──

  • everything's important --

    一切都很重要──

  • and don't forget the smart toilet.

    別忘了智慧馬桶。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • It's such a waste, right?

    這真的很浪費,對吧?

  • Every day, so much invaluable information just has been flushed into the water.

    每天有那麼多個人資訊 就這樣被水沖掉了。

  • And you need them.

    你需要這些資訊。

  • You need to measure all of them.

    你需要測量這些資訊。

  • You need to be able to measure everything around you

    你需要能夠測量你周遭的一切,

  • and compute them.

    並計算它們。

  • And the digital me told me I have a genetic defect.

    數位化的我告訴我,我有基因缺陷。

  • I have a very high risk of gout.

    我的痛風風險很高。

  • I don't feel anything now,

    我現在感覺不出來,

  • I'm still healthy.

    我仍然很健康。

  • But look at my uric acid level.

    但看看我的尿酸濃度。

  • It's double the normal range.

    是正常範圍的兩倍。

  • And the digital me searched all the medicine books,

    數位的我搜尋了所有的醫學書籍,

  • and it tells me, "OK, you could drink burdock tea" --

    它告訴我:「好, 你可以喝牛蒡茶」──

  • I cannot even pronounce it right --

    我甚至不會唸這個字──

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • That is from old Chinese wisdom.

    那是來自中國的古老智慧。

  • And I drank that tea for three months.

    我喝了那種茶三個月。

  • My uric acid has now gone back to normal.

    我的尿酸現在回到正常了。

  • I mean, it worked for me.

    我是說,它對我有效耶。

  • All those thousands of years of wisdom worked for me.

    數千年的智慧對我有用。

  • I was lucky.

    我很幸運。

  • But I'm probably not lucky for you.

    但可能對於你們來說就不一定了。

  • All of this existing knowledge in the world

    所有世界上既有的知識

  • cannot possibly be efficient enough or personalized enough for yourself.

    對你自己而言都不夠有效或個人化。

  • The only way to make that digital me work ...

    要讓這個數位化的我 有效的唯一方法,

  • is to learn from yourself.

    就是要向你自己學習。

  • You have to ask a lot of questions about yourself:

    你得要問很多關於你自己的問題:

  • "What if?" --

    「假如……?」

  • I'm being jet-lagged now here.

    我現在在這裡有時差。

  • You don't probably see it, but I do.

    你們可能看不出來,但確實有。

  • What if I eat less?

    如果我吃少一點呢?

  • When I took metformin, supposedly to live longer?

    如果我吃抗糖尿病藥, 會不會比較長壽?

  • What if I climb Mt. Everest?

    如果我去爬聖母峰呢?

  • It's not that easy.

    那並不容易。

  • Or run a marathon?

    或跑馬拉松呢?

  • What if I drink a bottle of mao-tai,

    如果我喝一瓶茅臺酒呢?

  • which is a Chinese liquor,

    那是種中國酒,

  • and I get really drunk?

    且喝得非常醉呢?

  • I was doing a video rehearsal last time with the folks here,

    上次我和這裡的人在做視訊排演,

  • when I was drunk,

    當時我醉了,

  • and I totally delivered a different speech.

    我的演說完全不一樣。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • What if I work less, right?

    如果我工作少一點呢?

  • I have been less stressed, right?

    我就會少點壓力,對吧?

  • So that probably never happened to me,

    那可能永遠不會發生在我身上,

  • I was really stressed every day,

    我每天都非常有壓力,

  • but I hope I could be less stressed.

    但我希望我能少點壓力。

  • These early studies told us,

    早先的研究告訴我們,

  • even with the same banana,

    即使是吃同樣的香蕉,

  • we have totally different glucose-level reactions

    不同的個體也會有全然不同的

  • over different individuals.

    葡萄糖濃度反應。

  • How about me?

    那我呢?

  • What is the right breakfast for me?

    一頓正確的早餐應該吃什麽?

  • I need to do two weeks of controlled experiments,

    我需要做兩週的對照實驗,

  • of testing all kinds of different food ingredients on me,

    測試各種不同食材的反應,

  • and check my body's reaction.

    並檢查我的身體反應。

  • And I don't know the precise nutrition for me,

    我不知道對我來說,精確的營養

  • for myself.

    到底應該包含什麽。

  • Then I wanted to search all the Chinese old wisdom

    接著我想要搜尋所有的中國古智慧,

  • about how I can live longer, and healthier.

    了解我要如何活得更久、更健康。

  • I did it.

    我去做了。

  • Some of them are really unachievable.

    有些真的無法達成。

  • I did this once last October,

    我是在去年十月做的,

  • by not eating for seven days.

    七天沒有吃東西。

  • I did a fast for seven days with six partners of mine.

    我和我的六個伙伴一同禁食七天。

  • Look at those people.

    看看那些人。

  • One smile.

    有一個人在笑。

  • You know why he smiled?

    猜猜為何他會笑?

  • He cheated.

    他作弊。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • He drank one cup of coffee at night,

    晚上他喝了一杯咖啡,

  • and we caught it from the data.

    我們從資料中抓到的。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • We measured everything from the data.

    我們從資料中測量一切。

  • We were able to track them,

    我們能夠追縱它們,

  • and we could really see --

    我們真的能看到──

  • for example, my immune system,

    比如,我的免疫系統,

  • just to give you a little hint there.

    給各位一點小暗示。

  • My immune system changed dramatically over 24 hours there.

    我的免疫系統在 24 小時 發生了巨大改變。

  • And my antibody regulates my proteins

    而我的抗體為了適應這樣的變化,

  • for that dramatic change.

    開始對我體內的蛋白質進行調節,

  • And everybody was doing that.

    所有參與體驗的人都是如此,

  • Even if we're essentially totally different at the very beginning.

    儘管每個人的免疫系統各不相同。

  • And that probably will be an interesting treatment in the future

    這很可能是將來治療癌症

  • for cancer and things like that.

    或類似疾病的一個有趣方法。

  • It becomes very, very interesting.

    這件事變得越來越有趣。

  • But something you probably don't want to try,

    但有些方法你可能未必想嘗試,

  • like drinking fecal water from a healthier individual,

    比如去喝健康人的尿

  • which will make you feel healthier.

    會讓你更健康。

  • This is from old Chinese wisdom.

    這是來自古老中國的智慧。

  • Look at that, right?

    你看,是吧?

  • Like 1,700 years ago,

    大約 1700 年前,

  • it's already there, in the book.

    書籍上就有這樣的記載了。

  • But I still hate the smell.

    但我仍然很討厭那味道。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I want to find out the true way to do it,

    我想要找一種真正的方式來做它,

  • maybe find a combination of cocktails of bacterias and drink it,

    也許用雞尾酒和細菌 來合成,再喝下去,

  • it probably will make me better.

    也許會讓我感覺好些。

  • So I'm trying to do that.

    我在試著這麼做。

  • Even though I'm trying this hard,

    雖然我非常努力在試,

  • it's so difficult to test out all possible conditions.

    但是要測試出所有可能的方法 是非常困難的,

  • It's not possible to do all kinds of experiments at all ...

    完全不可能去做所有各種實驗……

  • but we do have seven billion learning programs on this planet.

    但在地球上我們仍然有 七十億個學習程式。

  • Seven billion.

    七十億。

  • And every program is running in different conditions

    每個程式都以不同的條件在執行,

  • and doing different experiments.

    做著不同的實驗。

  • Can we all measure them?

    我們能不能把它們全部都量測出來?

  • Seven years ago, I wrote an essay in "Science"

    七年前我在《科學》期刊中 寫了一篇短文,

  • to celebrate the human genome's 10-year anniversary.

    來讚頌人類基因組的十週年紀念。