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  • The informal markets of Africa are stereotypically seen

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: bian hao

  • as chaotic and lackadaisical.

    非洲的非正式市場

  • The downside of hearing the word "informal"

    被很刻板印象地認為是混亂且懶散的。

  • is this automatic grand association we have,

    聽到「非正式」這個詞的缺點就是

  • which is very negative,

    會讓我們自動產生聯想,

  • and it's had significant consequences and economic losses,

    且是很負面的聯想。

  • easily adding -- or subtracting -- 40 to 60 percent of the profit margin

    它會有嚴重的後果和經濟上的損失,

  • for the informal markets alone.

    很容易就會增加或減少 40%~60% 的毛利率,

  • As part of a task of mapping the informal trade ecosystem,

    這僅是非正式市場的數據。

  • we've done an extensive literature review

    為了對映非正式貿易生態系統,

  • of all the reports and research on cross-border trade in East Africa,

    我們的部分工作是大量探討文獻,

  • going back 20 years.

    包括所有關於東非 跨境貿易的報告和研究,

  • This was to prepare us for fieldwork to understand what was the problem,

    共回溯了二十年。

  • what was holding back informal trade in the informal sector.

    讓我們準備好田野調查工作, 去實際了解問題,

  • What we discovered over the last 20 years was,

    到底是什麼讓非正式貿易 一直留在非正式部門中。

  • nobody had distinguished between illicit --

    我們發現過去二十年來,

  • which is like smuggling or contraband in the informal sector --

    沒有人去區分「非法」,

  • from the legal but unrecorded,

    像是非正式部門中的 走私或非法買賣,

  • such as tomatoes, oranges, fruit.

    與「合法但沒被記錄的貿易」,

  • This criminalization --

    比如蕃茄、橘子、水果。

  • what in Swahili refers to as "biashara," which is the trade or the commerce,

    這種犯罪化──

  • versus "magendo," which is the smuggling or contraband --

    斯華西里語的「biashara」 意思是貿易或商業,

  • this criminalization of the informal sector,

    相對於表示走私或非法買賣的 「magendo」──

  • in English, by not distinguishing between these aspects,

    這種把非正式部門犯罪化的現象──

  • easily can cost each African economy between 60 to 80 percent addition

    在英文中並沒有區別這些面向──

  • on the annual GDP growth rate,

    很容易就會讓每個非洲經濟體

  • because we are not recognizing the engine

    在每年的 GDP 成長率上 增加了 60%~80% 的成本,

  • of what keeps the economies running.

    因為我們沒有認清

  • The informal sector is growing jobs at four times the rate

    什麼是讓經濟持續運行和成長的引擎。

  • of the traditional formal economy,

    非正式部門增加的工作機會

  • or "modern" economy, as many call it.

    是傳統「正式」經濟──

  • It offers employment and income generation opportunities

    有時被許多人稱為 「現代」經濟──的四倍。

  • to the most "unskilled" in conventional disciplines.

    它提供就業機會和金錢收入

  • But can you make a french fry machine out of an old car?

    給傳統產業中最沒技術的人。

  • So, this, ladies and gentlemen,

    但你能用一台老車子 來做一台炸薯條機器嗎?

  • is what so desperately needs to be recognized.

    所以,各位先生女士,

  • As long as the current assumptions hold that this is criminal,

    這就是迫切需要被認清的事情。

  • this is shadow,

    只要目前的假設仍然認為這是犯罪、

  • this is illegal,

    這是陰影、

  • there will be no attempt at integrating the informal economic ecosystem

    這是非法的,

  • with the formal or even the global one.

    就不會有人嘗試將 非正式經濟生態系統

  • I'm going to tell you a story of Teresia,

    和正式或甚至全球 經濟生態系統做整合。

  • a trader who overturned all our assumptions,

    我要告訴各位關於泰瑞西雅的故事,

  • made us question all the stereotypes that we'd gone in on,

    她是個推翻我們所有假設的商人,

  • based on 20 years of literature review.

    她讓我們質疑根據過去二十年文獻探討

  • Teresia sells clothes under a tree in a town called Malaba,

    產生出的所有刻板印象。

  • on the border of Uganda and Kenya.

    在一個叫馬拉巴的鎮上, 泰瑞西雅在樹下販售衣服,

  • You think it's very simple, don't you?

    馬拉巴位在烏干達與肯亞的交界。

  • We'll go hang up new clothes from the branches,

    你認為這很簡單,是嗎?

  • put out the tarp, settle down, wait for customers,

    我們只要把新衣服掛在樹枝上,

  • and there we have it.

    準備好防水布, 安頓好,等客人上門,

  • She was everything we were expecting according to the literature,

    這樣就好了。

  • to the research,

    她完全是我們根據文獻及研究

  • right down to she was a single mom driven to trade,

    所期待的樣子,

  • supporting her kids.

    包括她是單親媽媽,被迫去做生意,

  • So what overturned our assumptions?

    以供養孩子。

  • What surprised us?

    是什麼推翻了我們的假設?

  • First, Teresia paid the county government market fees

    什麼讓我們吃驚?

  • every single working day

    首先,泰瑞西雅每個工作日

  • for the privilege of setting up shop under her tree.

    都支付郡政府市場費,

  • She's been doing it for seven years,

    才被允許在她的樹下設立商店。

  • and she's been getting receipts.

    她七年來都這麼做,

  • She keeps records.

    且她一直有拿收據。

  • We're seeing not a marginal,

    她都有做記錄。

  • underprivileged,

    我們看到的並不是邊緣的、

  • vulnerable African woman trader by the side of the road -- no.

    弱勢的、

  • We were seeing somebody who's keeping sales records for years;

    脆弱的非洲路邊女商人──不是。

  • somebody who had an entire ecosystem of retail that comes in from Uganda

    我們看到的是數年來 都保有銷售記錄的人;

  • to pick up inventory;

    她有完整的零售生態系統,包括:

  • someone who's got handcarts bringing the goods in,

    來自烏干達的回收存貨零售商,

  • or the mobile money agent who comes to collect cash

    用以進貨的手推車,

  • at the end of the evening.

    以及晚上收攤後來收款的 行動貨幣代理人。

  • Can you guess how much Teresia spends, on average,

    猜猜看泰瑞西雅

  • each month on inventory --

    每個月在存貨上平均花多少錢?

  • stocks of new clothes that she gets from Nairobi?

    也就是她花多少錢 從奈洛比買進新的衣服?

  • One thousand five hundred US dollars.

    $1,500 美金。

  • That's around 20,000 US dollars invested in trade goods and services

    換算出來是每年投資 美金兩萬元在貿易商品

  • every year.

    以及服務上。

  • This is Teresia,

    這就是泰瑞西雅,

  • the invisible one,

    隱形人,

  • the hidden middle.

    隱藏的中間部份。

  • And she's only the first rung of the small entrepreneurs,

    她只是這些市場小鎮中找得到的

  • the micro-businesses that can be found in these market towns.

    小型創業家、微企業的第一線而已。

  • At least in the larger Malaba border, she's at the first rung.

    至少她在更大的馬拉布邊境是第一線。

  • The people further up the value chain

    在價值鏈更上方的人

  • are easily running three lines of business,

    輕易就能經營三種行業,

  • investing 2,500 to 3,000 US dollars every month.

    每月投資 $2,500~$3,000 美金。

  • So the problem turned out that it wasn't the criminalization;

    結果發現了問題並不在於犯罪化;

  • you can't really criminalize someone you're charging receipts from.

    你不能把你收了費 還給了收據的對象犯罪化。

  • It's the lack of recognition of their skilled occupations.

    問題在於缺乏 對於他們擅長之職業的認知。

  • The bank systems and structures have no means to recognize them

    銀行制度和結構

  • as micro-businesses,

    無法將它們認可為微企業,

  • much less the fact that, you know,

    更不用說,你們知道的,

  • her tree doesn't have a forwarding address.

    她的樹沒有轉交地址。

  • So she's trapped in the middle.

    所以她被困在中間。

  • She's falling through the cracks of our assumptions.

    她落入我們假設間的裂縫。

  • You know all those microloans to help African women traders?

    你們知道有微貸款可以 協助非洲女商人吧?

  • They're going to loan her 50 dollars or 100 dollars.

    這些貸款可以借她 $50 或 $100。

  • What's she going to do with it?

    用這些錢她能做什麼?

  • She spends 10 times that amount every month

    她每個月的花費是十倍之多;

  • just on inventory --

    而且只是存貨的花費而已,

  • we're not talking about the additional services

    我們還沒談到額外的服務

  • or the support ecosystem.

    或是支援生態系統。

  • These are the ones who fit neither the policy stereotype

    這些人既不符合

  • of the low-skilled and the marginalized,

    低技能、被邊緣化的政策刻板印象,

  • nor the white-collar, salaried office worker

    也不是坐辦公桌的白領薪水階級

  • or civil servant with a pension

    或領退休金的公職人員,

  • that the middle classes are allegedly composed of.

    那些所謂的中產階級。

  • Instead, what we have here are the proto-SMEs

    我們有的反而是中小型企業的雛形,

  • these are the fertile seeds of businesses and enterprises

    是富饒的公司、企業種子,

  • that keep the engines running.

    它們能保持經濟的引擎運作,

  • They put food on your table.

    讓你能溫飽。

  • Even here in this hotel, the invisible ones --

    即使在這個飯店中,隱形人──

  • the butchers, the bakers the candlestick makers --

    屠夫、麵包師、做蠟燭的人──

  • they make the machines that make your french fries

    他們製做你的炸薯條機器、

  • and they make your beds.

    製做你的床。

  • These are the invisible businesswomen trading across borders,

    她們是隱形的女商人,做跨境貿易,

  • all on the side of the road,

    都在路邊做生意,

  • and so they're invisible to data gatherers.

    所以對於資料收集者而言 他們是隱形的。

  • And they're mashed together with the vast informal sector

    而他們被算在廣大的 非正式部門當中,

  • that doesn't bother to distinguish between smugglers and tax evaders

    這個部門不願花心力去 把走私者、避稅者、

  • and those running illegal whatnot,

    非法經營者,

  • and the ladies who trade,

    與做貿易的女子、

  • and who put food on the table and send their kids to university.

    為家計和送孩子上大學 而工作的女子給區別開來。

  • So that's really what I'm asking here.

    所以,這是我在此要請求的。

  • That's all that we need to start by doing.

    我們需要開始有所行動。

  • Can we start by recognizing the skills, the occupations?

    我們能否從認可 這些技能、職業開始?

  • We could transform the informal economy by beginning with this recognition

    從認可開始, 我們能轉換非正式經濟,

  • and then designing the customized doorways for them to enter

    接著設計出客製化的門徑讓他們進入,

  • or integrate with the formal,

    或和正式經濟、

  • with the global,

    全球經濟、

  • with the entire system.

    整個系統做整合。

  • Thank you, ladies and gentlemen.

    各位先生女士,謝謝你們。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

The informal markets of Africa are stereotypically seen

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: bian hao

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 貿易 經濟 部門 生態 商人

【TED】Niti Bhan:非正規經濟的隱藏機會(The hidden opportunities of the informal economy | Niti Bhan)。 (【TED】Niti Bhan: The hidden opportunities of the informal economy (The hidden opportunities of the informal economy | Niti Bhan))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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