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  • So many of us who care about sustainable development

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: 潘 可儿

  • and the livelihood of local people

    很多人關注永續發展 以及當地人民的生計,

  • do so for deeply personal reasons.

    是出於非常個人的理由。

  • I grew up in Cameroon,

    我在喀麥隆長大,

  • a country of enchanting beauty and rich biodiversity,

    那是個迷人美麗、物種豐富的國家,

  • but plagued by poor governance, environmental destruction, and poverty.

    卻困於糟糕的治理、環境破壞、貧困。

  • As a child, like we see with most children in sub-Saharan Africa today,

    小時候,就像現今非洲撒哈拉以南 大部分孩子一樣,

  • I regularly suffered from malaria.

    我常常遭受瘧疾折磨。

  • To this day, more than one million people die from malaria every year,

    至今,每年有超過 一百萬人死於瘧疾,

  • mostly children under the age of five,

    大部分是五歲以下的孩子,

  • with 90 percent occurring in sub-Saharan Africa.

    90% 的病例都發生在撒哈拉以南非洲。

  • When I was 18, I left Cameroon

    我十八歲時離開了喀麥隆,

  • in search of better educational opportunities.

    去尋找更好的教育機會。

  • At the time, there was just one university in Cameroon,

    那時,在喀麥隆只有一所大學,

  • but Nigeria next door offered some opportunities

    但鄰國奈及利亞,

  • for Cameroonians of English extraction to be trained in various fields.

    給受過英語教育的喀麥隆人 提供接受不同領域訓練的機會。

  • So I moved there,

    所以我去了那裡。

  • but practicing my trade,

    但畢業之後,在奈及利亞 以生態學家的身份從事我的行業

  • upon graduation as an ecologist in Nigeria,

    卻是更大的挑戰。

  • was an even bigger challenge.

    所以當波士頓大學 提供博士學位的獎學金時,

  • So I left the continent

    我離開了非洲大陸。

  • when I was offered a scholarship to Boston University for my PhD.

    讓人沮喪的是,在面臨艱巨挑戰時,

  • It is disheartening to see that,

    儘管我們非洲大陸有人才、有技術。

  • with all our challenges,

    但在解決自己的問題時,

  • with all the talents,

    我們卻傾向用空降到非洲 做短期停留的西方專家,

  • with all the skills we have in Africa as a continent,

    而把非洲最好、最聰明的人才 出口到其他國家,

  • we tend to solve our problems

    然後把非洲視為是一塊 永遠需要施捨的大陸。

  • by parachuting in experts from the West for short stays,

    我在波士頓大學畢業之後,

  • exporting the best and brightest out of Africa,

    我加入的研究團隊隸屬於 加州大學環境及永續研究所。

  • and treating Africa as a continent in perpetual need of handouts.

    因為它在開創性研究 以及政策和專案的開發上享有盛名,

  • After my training at Boston University,

    並拯救了全世界數百萬的人,

  • I joined a research team

    包括發展中國家。

  • at the University of California's

    目前已知的是,

  • Institute of the Environment and Sustainability

    每當一個有技能的非洲人返鄉,

  • because of its reputation for groundbreaking research

    平均就會創造出 九個正式和非正式的工作。

  • and the development of policies and programs

    因此,我們專案的一部分 是要建立一個永續的非洲,

  • that save the lives of millions of people the world over,

    我們發起了一個多重計畫, 要開發剛果盆地學院,

  • including in the developing world.

    它是個永久的基地。

  • And it has been shown

    非洲人可在這裡和國際研究者合作

  • that for every skilled African that returns home,

    自行解決本地的問題。

  • nine new jobs are created in the formal and informal sectors.

    我們用自己的跨學科方法

  • So as part of our program, therefore, to build a sustainable Africa together,

    來展現大學、非政府組織 以及私人企業

  • we are leading a multi-initiative to develop the Congo Basin Institute,

    如何共同進行國際開發。

  • a permanent base

    所以,與其讓來自西方的專家 空降之後短暫停留,

  • where Africans can work in partnership with international researchers,

    如今我們建立在非洲的會永久存在,

  • but working out their own solutions to their own problems.

    提供一站式服務,包括物流、住房,

  • We are using our interdisciplinary approach to show how universities,

    以及非洲與國際學者的合作項目的發展。

  • NGOs and private business

    這讓像米歇爾這樣的學生 能在非洲接受高品質的教育。

  • can partner in international development.

    米歇爾目前在我們的實驗室工作,

  • So instead of parachuting in experts from the West for short stays,

    探究氣候變遷對於昆蟲的影響, 這是他的博士論文,

  • we are building a permanent presence in Africa,

    且他已經得而了他的 博士後研究員資格,

  • a one-stop shop for logistics, housing

    讓他能夠繼續留在非洲大陸。

  • and development of collaborative projects

    此外,透過我們的當地協助計畫,

  • between Africans and international researchers.

    班加艾比歐登博士, 一位年輕的奈及利亞科學家,

  • So this has allowed students like Michel

    能夠以後博士研究員的身份,

  • to receive high-quality training in Africa.

    為南非的西開普大學的 專業發展基金會工作,

  • Michel is currently working in our labs

    同時也在加州大學研究,

  • to investigate the effects of climate change on insects, for his PhD,

    研究氣候變遷對非洲瘧疾傳染的影響。

  • and has already secured his post-doctorate fellowship

    的確,班加目前正開發的模型

  • that will enable him to stay on the continent.

    將被用來預警非洲的瘧疾傳染。

  • Also through our local help program,

    所以,我們不再把非洲最好、 最聰明的人才出口到其他國家,

  • Dr. Gbenga Abiodun, a young Nigerian scientist,

    而是在非洲培養和支持當地的人才。

  • can work as a post-doctoral fellow

    以我為例,

  • with the Foundation for Professional Development

    艾瑞克佛康博士是在美國受教育的。

  • in the University of Western Cape in South Africa

    他回到家鄉喀麥隆工作, 但卻缺少必要的科研資助。

  • and the University of California at the same time,

    他發現在這種情況下, 儘管自己有能力進行科研和學習,

  • investigating the effects of climate variability and change

    但現實卻難於登天。

  • on malaria transmission in Africa.

    當我遇到艾瑞克時

  • Indeed, Gbenga is currently developing models

    他已經打算要回美國了。

  • that will be used as an early warning system

    但我們說服他 與剛果盆地學院展開合作。

  • to predict malaria transmission in Africa.

    現今他在布埃亞的實驗室

  • So rather than exporting our best and brightest out of Africa,

    有超過六項經費合作的計畫

  • we are nurturing and supporting local talent in Africa.

    與美國和歐洲的研究者一起進行,

  • For example, like me,

    資助十四名研究生, 其中九名是女性。

  • Dr. Eric Fokam was trained in the US.

    他們全都在進行開創性的研究,

  • He returned home to Cameroon, but couldn't secure the necessary grants,

    探究在氣候變遷下的生物多樣性、

  • and he found it incredibly challenging

    人類健康,以及營養。

  • to practice and learn the science he knew he could.

    (掌聲)

  • So when I met Eric,

    所以,不用再持有 非洲需要施捨的想法,

  • he was on the verge of returning to the US.

    我們用我們的跨學科方法,

  • But we convinced him to start collaborating

    讓非洲人也有能力 找到自己的解決方案。

  • with the Congo Basin Institute.

    現在,我們在和當地社區及學生、

  • Today, his lab in Buea has over half a dozen collaborative grants

    一位美國企業家,

  • with researchers from the US and Europe

    及來自美國和非洲的科學家合作,

  • supporting 14 graduate students, nine of them women,

    試圖找出永續的方法來種植 黑檀木,非洲的代表性硬木。

  • all carrying out groundbreaking research

    黑檀木和大部分的非洲硬木一樣, 被拿來當木材使用,

  • understanding biodiversity under climate change,

    但我們不是很了解它們的生態特性。

  • human health and nutrition.

    它們是如何散播的,

  • (Applause)

    以及它們如何在我們的森林中 生存 80 到 200 年。

  • So rather than buy into the ideas of Africa taking handouts,

    這位是雅文,

  • we are using our interdisciplinary approach

    我們的實驗室一位年輕的博士生。

  • to empower Africans to find their own solutions.

    正在進行最先進的組織培養研究。

  • Right now, we are working with local communities and students,

    在雅文手中的

  • a US entrepreneur,

    是第一株完全從組織 培育出來的黑檀木。

  • scientists from the US and Africa

    這在非洲是獨一無二的。

  • to find a way to sustainably grow ebony, the iconic African hardwood.

    現在我們能夠從不同的植物組織 培育出非洲的樹木,

  • Ebonies, like most African hardwood, are exploited for timber,

    用葉、莖、根,

  • but we know very little about their ecology,

    而不只是從種子來培育。

  • what disperses them,

    這是個非常艱難的任務。

  • how they survive in our forest 80 to 200 years.

    (掌聲)

  • This is Arvin,

    其他的學生將用雅文在我們實驗室 所鑒定的黑檀木品種

  • a young PhD student working in our labs,

    接枝成樹苗,

  • conducting what is turning out to be some cutting-edge tissue culture work.

    並與當地社區合作

  • Arvin is holding in her hands

    生產黑檀木和當地種類的水果,

  • the first ebony tree that was produced entirely from tissues.

    種在各地的農場裡,

  • This is unique in Africa.

    用我們自己的種樹農法。

  • We can now show that you can produce African timber

    我們藉此邀請所有的農夫,

  • from different plant tissues --

    選擇他們想種在自己農場的樹種。

  • leaves, stems, roots --

    所以,除了黑檀木,

  • in addition from generating them from seeds,

    農夫們自己選擇樹種,

  • which is a very difficult task.

    也能用我們的現代技術培育,

  • (Applause)

    整合到他們的土地使用系統中,

  • So other students will take the varieties of ebony

    這樣他們就能開始從這些產物獲利,

  • which Arvin identifies in our lab,

    同時等候黑檀木成熟。

  • graft them to produce saplings,

    現今,我們在喀麥隆種植了 一萬五千株黑檀木。

  • and work with local communities to co-produce ebony

    這是頭一回

  • with local fruit tree species in their various farms

    黑檀木不是從原始森林中取得的。

  • using our own tree farm approach,

    這是為我們的 非洲硬木所做的模型,

  • whereby we invite all the farmers

    我們延伸模型,

  • to choose their own tree species they want in their farms.

    納入薩佩萊木和古夷蘇木都,

  • So in addition to the ebony,

    這些都是高價格的硬木。

  • the species which the farmers choose themselves

    如果我十八歲時已有這些例子,

  • will be produced using our modern techniques

    我就不會離開非洲了,

  • and incorporated into their land-use systems,

    但因為剛果盆地學院的計畫,

  • so that they start benefiting from these products

    我回來了。

  • while waiting for the ebony to mature.

    但我並非獨自歸來,

  • Today we are planting 15,000 ebony trees in Cameroon,

    我還帶著西方的科學家、 企業家和學生,

  • and for the first time,

    以及世界頂尖大學的頂尖科研成果,

  • ebony won't be harvested from the middle of a pristine forest.

    來非洲工作和居住。

  • This is the model for our African hardwoods,

    我們得再發揚光大 這本土、強大又賦能的方法。

  • and we are extending this to include sapele and bubinga,

    目前,我們的合作夥伴包括 六間大學和非政府組織。

  • other highly prized hardwoods.

    我們打算要建立一間綠色機構,

  • So if these examples existed when I was 18,

    從我們既有的實驗室空間來擴充,

  • I would never have left,

    再加上更多的住房以及會議設施,

  • but because of initiatives by the Congo Basin Institute,

    來推動長期的學科研究。

  • I am coming back,

    我希望它能給年輕非洲學者 提供更多機會,

  • but I'm not coming back alone.

    並通過在撒哈拉以南非洲 擁有十七個研究站的

  • I'm bringing with me Western scientists,

    國際熱帶農業研究所的 既存網路擴大規模。

  • entrepreneurs and students,

    形勢開始被翻轉了,

  • the best science from the best universities in the world,

    我希望能繼續翻轉下去。

  • to work and to live in Africa.

    希望能延伸到數個非洲國家,

  • But we all need to scale up this local, powerful and empowering approach.

    像是象牙海岸、 坦尚尼亞,與塞內加爾,

  • So far we have half a dozen universities and NGOs as partners.

    這些都是最快速成長的經濟體,

  • We are planning to build

    能吸引不少私營部門投資的機會。

  • a green facility that will expand on our existing laboratory space

    我們希望能給非洲學者更多機會,

  • and add more housing and conference facilities

    我渴望能看見有一天

  • to promote a long-term disciplinary approach.

    最聰明的非洲人會待在這塊大陸上,

  • I want it to offer more opportunities to young African scholars,

    並能透過像剛果盆地學院這類計畫,

  • and would scale it up by leveraging

    接受到高品質的教育,

  • the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture's existing network

    當這點能夠實現時,

  • of 17 research stations across sub-Saharan Africa.

    非洲將會朝向解決非洲 自身問題的方向邁進。

  • The tables are starting to turn ...

    我希望五十年後 會有人來 TED 演講,

  • and I hope they keep turning,

    談如何阻止西方人 離開家鄉的人才外流,

  • to reach several African nations

    到非洲工作並居住。

  • likete d'Ivoire, Tanzania and Senegal,

    (掌聲)

  • among the top fastest growing economies

    謝謝你們。

  • that can attract several opportunities for private-sector investment.

    (掌聲)

  • We want to give more opportunities to African scholars,

  • and I long to see a day

  • when the most intelligent Africans will stay on this continent

  • and receive high-quality education

  • through initiatives like the Congo Basin Institute,

  • and when that happens,

  • Africa will be on the way to solving Africa's problems.

  • And in 50 years, I hope someone will be giving a TED Talk

  • on how to stop the brain drain of Westerners leaving your homes

  • to work and live in Africa.

  • (Applause)

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

So many of us who care about sustainable development

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: 潘 可儿

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 非洲 黑檀木 喀麥隆 硬木 大學

【TED】凱文-恩賈博。我們如何阻止非洲的科學人才流失(How we can stop Africa's scientific brain drain | Kevin Njabo)。 (【TED】Kevin Njabo: How we can stop Africa's scientific brain drain (How we can stop Africa's scientific brain drain | Kevin Njabo))

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    Zenn   發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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