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  • Hi, this is Dr. Sofia Pineda Ochoa with Meat Your Future. Are humans

    嗨,我是”遇見你的未來”的蘇菲亞。皮內達。奧喬亞博士

  • herbivores, carnivores or omnivores? It's very important for a given animal to eat what

    人類是草食性,肉食性還是雜食性動物呢? 對一個動物來說,

  • they are physiologically and anatomically designed to eat, to improve the chances of

    依照自己本身的生理和身體結構上的設計來吃,而提高生存的機率和增進健康

  • survival and health. So, what are humans designed to eat? When looking at a

    是非常重要的。所以(根據這個原則),人類是設計來吃什麼的呢?當我們觀察一個

  • species to determine what they are in terms of carnivore, omnivore or herbivore, we can

    物種來決定這個物種是否為草食性,肉食性或是雜食性動物時,我們可以

  • look at their behavior or we can look their biology. From a behavioral

    由這個物種的行為或是從生物學的角度來作決定。從行為方面的

  • standpoint, humans behave as omnivores because we observe many humans in their behavior eating

    立場來看,人類表現得像雜食性動物,我們從很多人的飲食行為進而觀察到人類吃的食物相當廣泛,

  • a wide variety of both animal and plant-based foods. Biologically, however, from

    包括肉食和植物性食物。但是若以

  • a physiologic and anatomic standpoint, it's a different story.

    生物學,生理和身體結構的角度來看, 解讀就會有所不同。

  • Dr. William C. Roberts from the National Institutes of Health and Baylor

    於國立衛生研究院和貝勒大學高就的威廉斯。羅伯特醫師,

  • Universitywho is the editor-in-chief of the American Journal of Cardiology and one

    同時也是美國心臟病學期刊的總編輯,更是

  • of the most prominent cardiologists in the world, with over 1,500 publications

    一位在同儕評閱的醫學期刊中發表超過一千五百篇刊物,

  • in peer-reviewed medical journalssummarized our answer very nicely. He wrote:

    世界聞名的傑出心臟病學專家,已經給我們一個很好的總結。他寫道:

  • Although most of conduct our lives as omnivores, in that we eat flesh

    雖然大多數人過著像雜食性動物的生活,在生活中我們以肉,

  • as well as vegetables and fruits, human beings have characteristics of

    蔬菜和水果為食,但人類具有草食性動物的特徵

  • herbivores, not carnivores. The appendages of carnivores are claws; those of herbivores

    而非肉食性動物的特徵。肉食性動物的附肢帶有爪子,而草食性動物

  • are hands or hooves. The teeth of carnivores are sharp; those of herbivores are mainly flat (for grinding).

    的附肢是手或是蹄。肉食性動物的牙齒是尖銳地,而草食性動物的牙齒多為平坦的(為了磨碎食物)

  • The intestinal tract of carnivores is short (3 times body length); that of herbivores is

    肉食性動物的腸道是短的(身體長度的三倍),草食性動物

  • long (12 times body length). Body cooling of carnivores is done by panting;

    的腸道則是較長的(身體長度的十二倍);肉食性動物的身體降溫是靠哈氣

  • herbivores, by sweating. Carnivores drink

    而草食性動物是靠出汗來降溫; 肉食性動物是以

  • fluids by lapping; herbivores by sipping Carnivores produce their own vitamin C,

    舔舐的方式喝水,草食性動物是以吸吮的方式喝水; 肉食性動物自己本身能夠生產出維他命C,

  • whereas herbivores obtain it from their diet

    而草食性動物則需從飲食中來攝取維他命C;

  • Thus, humans have characteristics of herbivores, not carnivores."

    由此可知,人類具有草食性動物的特徵而非肉食性動物

  • That's right.

    這就對啦

  • Humans have characteristics of herbivores, not carnivores or omnivoresbecause omnivores,

    人類擁有草食性動物的特徵,並非肉食性動物,也非雜食性動物; 因為雜食性動物

  • like bears raccoons, actually retain most of the carnivorous

    像是熊和狸,幾乎擁有肉食性動物所有的

  • characteristics, so that they are still able to digest and hunt their prey, and do so

    特徵,所以它們才有效率的捕捉和消化獵物

  • effectively. Although we behave like omnivores, our digestive system actually resembles

    雖然我們表現得像雜食性動物,但我們的消化系統和

  • that of the chimpanzees and other great apes, who eat mostly plants. The percentage of

    以植物為主食的人猿及體型較大的猩猩其實是較類似的,

  • animal foods that chimpanzees do eat is very low, if any, about 2 to 3%

    人猿吃動物性食物的百分比相當低,如果有的話大約是百分之2到3之間

  • and mainly termites and other insects. Regarding the gastrointestinal system --

    而且主要是白蟻和其他昆蟲類; 關於消化系統的部分,

  • humans, like herbivores, have a relatively smaller opening of the oral cavity

    人類和草食性動物一樣,有著相較於頭部大小來說,嘴巴可張開的幅度比頭部小

  • compared to the head size. Carnivores have a wide mouth in relation to the head size, and their

    肉食性動物嘴巴可張開的幅度則是比頭部大,且它們

  • jaw joint is a hinge joint, very strong and stable lying in the same plane as the teeth; the

    的頜關節是屬於樞接式關節(下頜關節突與上頜的關節窩緊密相接),十分堅固與牙齒平行

  • lower jaw of a carnivore doesn't move forward and there's very limited side-to-side

    肉食性動物的下頜無法前後,左右移動也有限

  • motion. Like herbivores, our jaw joint is positioned above the level of the teeth, and because it

    如同草食性動物一般,我們的頜關節位於牙齒上方,

  • has an expanded angle, the lower jaw has more sideways motion and more lateral and

    且因為我們的頜關節角度寬闊,我們的下頜能夠做出前後和左右

  • complex motion for chewing plant foods. Our jaw joints are less stable and strong

    這類複雜的運動來咀嚼食物; 我們的頜關節不如

  • than those of carnivores therefore, and could be easily dislocated if we

    肉食性動物來的堅固,因此如果我們真的嘗試去捕捉獵物的話,頜關節會容易脫節,如果我們

  • actually tried to prey on an animal. On the other hand,

    真的嘗試去捕捉獵物的話,頜關節會容易脫節; 另一方面,

  • if a carnivore had our more unstable jaws, and dislocated their jaw, they would probably starve and die, or be preyed upon; so, it would be

    如果肉食性動物有著跟我們一樣不穩固的頜骨,然後頜骨(在捕捉獵物時)脫節了,它們就很有可能會因此而餓死或是被其它們肉食性動物捕食;

  • very disadvantages to a carnivore to have jaws like ours. Herbivores chew food to disrupt

    對於肉食性動物來說,若他們有像我們這樣的頜骨,會是相當不利的。草食性動物咀嚼食物以磨碎

  • plant cell walls for better digestion and to mix it with saliva, because unlike carnivores,

    植物的細胞壁,以唾液和食物混在一起,使食物好消化,反之肉食性動物

  • who mostly swallow the food without chewing and mixing it with saliva, herbivores and humans

    多以吞食不咀嚼食物的進食方式,且他們也不以唾液和食物混在一起; 草食性動物和人類

  • have saliva that contains digestive enzymes. So, our digestion starts in the chewing process.

    具有含消化酶的唾液,因此我們消化食物的過程就從咀嚼開始;

  • The saliva of carnivorous animals does not contain any enzymes for digestion.

    肉食性動物的唾液內不含消化酶

  • Teeth are strikingly different as well.

    牙齒(的構造)上也有極大的差異

  • Our canines are flattened, blunt and small, shaped like a spade and non-serrated; unlike

    我們的犬齒是平鈍且小,狀似鏟子非鋸齒狀

  • carnivores, who have them elongated and dagger-like, which are often serrated for killing and

    反之肉食性動物的牙齒就長很多且狀似尖刀,他們通常有著鋸齒狀的牙齒,為的就是能夠殺死

  • tearing their pray. Our molars and premolars are squared and flattened for grinding and crushing;

    和撕裂獵物; 我們方狀且平坦的臼齒和前臼齒是為了用來磨碎食物

  • unlike carnivores, who have them sharp, jagged and shaped like a blade.

    反之肉食性動物則是有尖銳且狀似鋸齒的牙齒

  • If we humans tried to kill a giraffe, for example, with our teeth,

    假如我們人類試著去用牙齒去殺死一隻長頸鹿

  • we'd sooner get kicked by the animal. Or, if we successfully snuck-up and

    我們很快就會被這隻長頸鹿狠踹一腳; 或是假如我們成功的進攻了

  • actually tried to really bite into the live animal, it could could easily result in

    然後嘗試去啃食這隻活生生的動物,結果非常可能就是

  • some of our teeth falling out or our jaw dislocating. We would for sure end up

    我們的牙齒會掉落或著是我們的頜關節鬆脫了,最後我們也很肯定

  • with a very annoyed giraffe, but not a dead one to prey upon. And on to the stomach. Our stomach

    會惹火了這隻長頸鹿,也就不可能捕捉到一隻死掉的長頸鹿啦; 接下來要講的是胃部

  • volume is, like herbivores, about 25% of our gastrointestinal tract; unlike carnivores,

    我們胃容量大約是我們胃腸道的四分之一; 不像肉食性動物

  • who have a very large stomach volume with twice as much capacity, about 60 to

    它們擁有相當大也是兩倍大的胃容量,佔了它們整個胃腸道的百分之六十

  • 70% of their total G.I. tract volume, which allows them to kill maybe once a

    到七十之間,如此的胃容量也使它們能夠一個星期

  • week, gorge on large amounts of meat, and digest later.

    只狩獵一次,每次都能夠吞下大量的肉,之後才做消化

  • The pH of our stomach is about 4 to 5, with food;

    我們的胃酸值在進食後大約是4到5之間,

  • unlike carnivores who secrete a lot more hydrochloric acid

    反之,肉食性動物會自己分泌出鹽酸

  • and have a stomach pH that is a lot more acidic (their pH is usually one or less,

    它們的胃酸值就相當的低(胃酸值通常在進食後是1

  • with food). The more acidic stomach of a carnivore is advantageous to kill bacteria found in

    或少於1); 肉食性動物較低的胃酸值比較有利於殺死在

  • decaying flesh. As Dr. Roberts mentioned, humans, like herbivores, have a very long small intestine,

    胃中的腐屍所產生出來的細菌; 就如羅伯特醫生所提到的,人類跟草食性動物一樣有很窄長的腸子

  • about 10 times the length of our body; unlike the intestines in carnivorous animals, which are

    腸子的長度約是我們的身體的10倍左右,反之肉食性動物的腸子

  • short, only about 3 to 5 times their body length. The long intestines in

    是短的,大約只有身體的3到5倍;長形狀的腸子

  • humans and herbivores is necessary for the fibers in plants, which require

    對於人類和草食性動物消化植物裡的纖維是必要的

  • longer and more elaborate guts, sometimes even sacculated like the human gut.

    消化植物裡的纖維需要較長和縝密的腸子,有時甚至像人類囊狀的腸子

  • And, there are some striking physiologic differences as well. Just like other herbivores,

    (草食性和肉食性動物)生理上的差異也是相當的大;跟其他草食性動物一樣

  • humans require vitamin C from plants. If we don't eat vitamin C, we get a disease

    人類需要從植物內來攝取維他命C,如果我們不攝取維他命C,會得到

  • called scurvy where we are unable to make collagen, which is

    壞血病,因而無法產生膠原,這也是

  • the building substance of mostly everything in our body (so, lack of vitamin C can

    建構幾乎我們身體每一個部分的重要元素,所以缺乏維他命C會

  • result in problems in our bones, bleeding gums, problems with healing, etc.).

    導致骨骼,牙齦出血和自我癒療功能等等的問題

  • And vitamin C is found exclusively in plants. Mammals that are primarily carnivorous do

    維他命C只存在植物裡,肉食性哺乳類動物不

  • not need to eat vitamin C from their diets. They make their own vitamin C. Also, vitamin A

    需要從飲食種攝取維他命C,它們本身就能夠製造維他命C; 維他命A也有

  • is telling. There are two types of vitamin A: (1) preformed vitamin A, like retinol, found in animal

    被提到,維他命A分為兩種,第一種是預成形的維他命A,像是視黃醇,可以在動物性相關產品

  • products like meat, liver, dairy products, eggs and fish; and (2) pro-vitamin A,

    像是肉,肝臟,奶製品,蛋和魚中找到; 第二種是後形成的維他命A

  • carotenoids, found in plant foods. The form of vitamin A that comes from

    也是類胡蘿蔔素,能在植物性食物中找的到

  • animals can be toxic to humans in large quantities. The livers of animals that

    大量攝取來自於動物的這種維他命A對人類是有毒性的

  • are primarily carnivorous have the capacity to detoxify vitamin A.

    肉食性動物的肝臟有解維他命A毒性的能耐

  • However, our livers are unable to do this. In this paper published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,

    但我們的肝臟無法做到這點; 在這篇刊登在美國臨床營養學期刊

  • scientists expressed concern that excess of the vitamin A that comes from animals is

    的文章內有提到,科學家對於動物性產品中超標的維他命A

  • not always identified and can cause serious problems. They say, “excessive

    並未都能被鑒定出來表示擔憂,這會導致嚴重的問題,他們說

  • vitamin A intake may be a growing but underappreciated problem.” And apparently

    ”攝取過多的維他命A也許是一個正在成長但卻未被意識到的問題”,而且很明顯的

  • this problem is nothing new. The scientists reported that: “Fossilized skeletal

    這個不是一個最近才開始發生的問題,這些科學家在報告中指出”早期人類的化石骨骼

  • remains of early humans suggest that bone abnormalities may

    建議了我們當時的骨骼異常有可能

  • have been caused by hypervitaminosis A [which means excess of vitamin A]. From these

    就是(攝取)過量的維他命A所造成的,從這些

  • and other reports, vitamin A toxicity is known to be an ancient phenomenon.”

    和其他報告可以得知,維他命A毒性是一個已知的古現象

  • So, it looks like have been behavior omnivores for quite some time now, notwithstanding our biology.

    所以,這樣看來,雖與生物學相違背,但至今我們已經當了”行為上的雜食性動物”已經有好一段時間了

  • The last thing I want to point out is actually a very sad thing. A characteristic that is unique to

    我想要指出最後一件真的令人難過的事情,(那就是一個特徵)這個特徵是草食性

  • herbivores and not in carnivores, and it's a problem in humans. It's something that

    動物特有的且不存在於肉食性動物,這是人類的一個問題

  • Dr. Roberts pointed out as well: “Atherosclerosis affects only herbivores.

    這也是羅伯特醫生曾指出的一件事情: “動脈硬化症只對草食性動物有影響,

  • Dogs, cats, tigers, and lions can be saturated with fat and cholesterol,

    狗,貓,老虎和獅子能夠以自身的脂肪和膽固醇來做飽和,

  • and atherosclerotic plaques do not develop.”

    如此動脈硬化斑塊便無法衍生出來

  • That's right. Carnivores and omnivoresanimals who are designed to eat other animalscan eat all the

    這就對啦,天生被設計吃其他動物的肉食性動物和雜食性動物

  • animals and animal products they want and they never develop atherosclerosis,

    可以吃所有動物和其產物而絕對不會衍生出動脈硬化症

  • which are plaques of cholesterol coating our vessels that can occlude the blood flow that goes

    這個症狀是這樣的: 膽固醇的斑塊使我們的血管變厚因而阻礙血管輸送

  • to our heart and brain [and] cause heart attacks and strokes. Cholesterol in our

    到我們的心臟和大腦,然後進而造成心臟病發作和中風,在我們的

  • diet is only present in animal products, and we don't need to consume any of it,

    飲食中,膽固醇只存在於動物性產品中,而且我們不需要攝取任何的膽固醇

  • because our body synthesizes already all of the cholesterol that we need for all of our biologic needs.

    因為我們的身體已經綜合了所有我們生理所需的膽固醇

  • Animals that are not designed to eat meat, like herbivores, including humans, do develop atherosclerosis. We do develop

    不是設計來吃肉的動物,像是草食性動物包括人類,會衍生出動脈硬化症,我們的動脈

  • this problematic coating of cholesterol in our arteries, and we do it big time. Atherosclerosis is ubiquitous on

    確實會衍生出有問題性的厚膽固醇層,而且發生率很高;動脈硬化症狀在

  • a Western diet with animal products since very early in our lives. We really do end up

    西方飲食裡,我們很早就開始以動物性產品為食的生活中,可說是普及的; 我們最後

  • paying a price for behaving like omnivores, when we are biologically designed as herbivores.

    真的會為表現得像雜食性動物而付出代價的; 當我們在生物學上是設計成草食性動物。

  • Thanks you very much.

    非常謝謝您的收看。

Hi, this is Dr. Sofia Pineda Ochoa with Meat Your Future. Are humans

嗨,我是”遇見你的未來”的蘇菲亞。皮內達。奧喬亞博士

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C1 高級 中文 肉食性 動物 維他命 人類 牙齒 動脈

人類到底屬於雜食性、肉食性還是草食性動物? (Are humans omnivores, carnivores or herbivores?)

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    羊奶 發佈於 2018 年 03 月 29 日
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