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  • So I come from the tallest people on the planet --

    譯者: Hao-Ming Chang 審譯者: Wink Wong

  • the Dutch.

    我來自地球最高人種的國家--

  • It hasn't always been this way.

    荷蘭。

  • In fact, all across the globe, people have been gaining height.

    但不是只有荷蘭這樣。

  • In the last 150 years,

    事實上,全世界的人都在長高。

  • in developed countries,

    過去的 150 年,

  • on average, we have gotten 10 centimeters taller.

    在已開發國家中,

  • And scientists have a lot of theories about why this is,

    我們身高平均已經多了 10 公分。

  • but almost all of them involve nutrition,

    而科學家有很多有關於這方面的理論,

  • namely the increase of dairy and meat.

    但它們大部分都與營養有關,

  • In the last 50 years,

    換句話說就是奶類與肉類。

  • global meat consumption has more than quadrupled,

    在過去的 50 年,

  • from 71 million tons to 310 million tons.

    全球肉類的消費增長已經超過 4 倍,

  • Something similar has been going on with milk and eggs.

    從七千一百萬萬噸 上升到三億一千萬噸。

  • In every society where incomes have risen, so has protein consumption.

    牛奶和雞蛋也有相同的情況。

  • And we know that globally, we are getting richer.

    在每個收入增加的社會, 蛋白質的消耗量也跟著增加。

  • And as the middle class is on the rise, so is our global population,

    我們知道全世界的人越來越有錢。

  • from 7 billion of us today to 9.7 billion by 2050,

    當中產階級人口上升, 全球的人口也跟著上升,

  • which means that by 2050,

    到2050年之前,全球人口會從 70 億增加到 97 億。

  • we are going to need at least 70 percent more protein

    也就是說,在 2050 年前,

  • than what is available to humankind today.

    我們需要的蛋白質

  • And the latest prediction of the UN puts that population number,

    比現在供應給全人類的至少多出70%。

  • by the end of this century, at 11 billion,

    根據聯合國的最新預測,

  • which means that we are going to need a lot more protein.

    到這個世紀末,人口數量會來到110億,

  • This challenge is staggering --

    意思就是我們會需要 相當多的蛋白質。

  • so much so, that recently,

    這個挑戰很驚人--

  • a team at Anglia Ruskin Global Sustainability Institute suggested

    這麼的多,所以最近,

  • that if we don't change our global policies

    安格利亞魯斯金的 全球可持續發展研究所的一個小組表示,

  • and food production systems,

    如果我們不改變

  • our societies might actually collapse in the next 30 years.

    我們全球食物生產的政策,

  • Currently, our ocean serves as the main source of animal protein.

    我們的社會在下一個 30 年 也許真的會崩潰。

  • Over 2.6 billion people depend on it every single day.

    目前,我們的海洋是 動物性蛋白質的主要來源。

  • At the same time,

    超過 26 億人口,每天都要依賴它生活。

  • our global fisheries are two-and-a-half times larger

    與此同時,

  • than what our oceans can sustainably support,

    我們目前的全球漁穫

  • meaning that humans take far more fish from the ocean

    是我們海洋可持續 供應量的兩倍半。

  • than the oceans can naturally replace.

    意思就是,人類從海洋取得的漁穫

  • WWF recently published a report showing that just in the last 40 years,

    遠遠超過 海洋本身的自然替換量。

  • our global marine life has been slashed in half.

    WWF 世界野生動物基金會 最近發表一篇報告指出近 40 年,

  • And another recent report suggests that of our largest predatory species,

    全球海洋生物數量已經被削減了一半。

  • such as swordfish and bluefin tuna,

    另外最新一份報告表示, 我們最大的捕食性魚類,

  • over 90 percent has disappeared since the 1950s.

    像是劍魚和藍鰭鮪魚,

  • And there are a lot of great, sustainable fishing initiatives across the planet

    從1950年代以來,超過 90% 已經消失。

  • working towards better practices and better-managed fisheries.

    全球有很多規模很大, 可持續水產創業家

  • But ultimately,

    正朝更好的實務經驗與漁業管理邁進。

  • all of these initiatives are working towards keeping current catch constant.

    但最終,

  • It's unlikely,

    這些業者若一直 保持不變的漁獲量繼續捕撈,

  • even with the best-managed fisheries,

    那麼,

  • that we are going to be able to take much more from the ocean

    即使有最好的漁業管理,

  • than we do today.

    我們也不太可能從海洋捕獲

  • We have to stop plundering our oceans the way we have.

    比現今更多的漁獲量。

  • We need to alleviate the pressure on it.

    我們必須停止用同樣的方式 掠奪我們的海洋,

  • And we are at a point

    我們必須減輕海洋的壓力。

  • where if we push much harder for more produce,

    我們現在正在一個轉捩點上,

  • we might face total collapse.

    如果我們為了更多的魚獲量 而拼命捕獲,

  • Our current systems are not going to feed a growing global population.

    可能會面臨全面性的崩盤。

  • So how do we fix this?

    我們目前的系統無法滿足 全球持續成長的人口。

  • What's the world going to look like in just 35 short years

    所以,我們要如何修正呢?

  • when there's 2.7 billion more of us sharing the same resources?

    如果多出的 27 億人口, 享用同樣的資源,

  • We could all become vegan.

    那麼往後的35年,世界會變怎麼樣?

  • Sounds like a great idea,

    我們可以都變成素食者。

  • but it's not realistic

    聽起來這主意不錯,

  • and it's impossibly hard to mandate globally.

    但不實際,

  • People are eating animal protein whether we like it or not.

    而且根本不可能命令全世界人食素。

  • And suppose we fail to change our ways

    不管我們喜不喜歡, 人們仍舊食用動物性蛋白。

  • and continue on the current path,

    假設我們不改變我們的方式,

  • failing to meet demands.

    繼續走原路,

  • The World Health Organization recently reported

    那肯定無法滿足需求。

  • that 800 million people are suffering from malnutrition and food shortage,

    WHO 全球衛生組織最近報告,

  • which is due to that same growing, global population

    目前有 8 億人口正苦於 營養不良與食物短缺。

  • and the declining access to resources like water, energy and land.

    原因就是不斷成長的全球人口,

  • It takes very little imagination

    及可用資源的下降, 像是水、能源、土地。

  • to picture a world of global unrest, riots and further malnutrition.

    用點想像力,就可以描繪出,

  • People are hungry,

    一個動盪、暴亂和更多營養不良的世界。

  • and we are running dangerously low on natural resources.

    人們受飢餓,

  • For so, so many reasons,

    而且,我們的自然資源快要用完。

  • we need to change our global food production systems.

    因此,這麼多的原因,

  • We must do better

    我們必須改變全球的食物生產系統。

  • and there is a solution.

    我們必須做得更好,

  • And that solution lies in aquaculture --

    而且有一個解決方案。

  • the farming of fish, plants like seaweed, shellfish and crustaceans.

    而這個解決方案就是水產養殖--

  • As the great ocean hero Jacques Cousteau once said,

    養殖魚類、像海藻植物、 貝類和甲殼類動物。

  • "We must start using the ocean as farmers instead of hunters.

    偉大的海洋英雄 Jacques Cousteau 曾經說過,

  • That's what civilization is all about -- farming instead of hunting."

    「我們現在對待海洋必須像個 農夫一樣,而不是獵人。

  • Fish is the last food that we hunt.

    這是身為公民應該做的事-- 養殖取代捕撈。」

  • And why is it that we keep hearing phrases like,

    魚類是我們最後才能獵殺的食物。

  • "Life's too short for farmed fish,"

    而為什麼我們一直聽到這些話,像是,

  • or, "Wild-caught, of course!"

    " 生命如此短促,不值得去養魚。"

  • over fish that we know virtually nothing about?

    或者 " 當然要野生捕捉!"

  • We don't know what it ate during its lifetime,

    魚的一生,我們幾乎都不懂吧?

  • and we don't know what pollution it encounters.

    我們不知道它這一生中,吃了甚麼,

  • And if it was a large predatory species,

    我們也不知道,它受到了甚麼污染,

  • it might have gone through the coast of Fukushima yesterday.

    如果它是大型的肉食種類,

  • We don't know.

    它很有可能昨天才剛經過 日本福島的海岸。

  • Very few people realize

    我們不知道,

  • the traceability in fisheries never goes beyond the hunter

    很少人知道

  • that caught the wild animal.

    漁業的追蹤技術永遠追不上

  • But let's back up for a second

    獵人打獵的技術技術。

  • and talk about why fish is the best food choice.

    讓我們回到剛剛提到的話題,

  • It's healthy,

    並講一下為甚麼魚是最好的食物選擇?

  • it prevents heart disease,

    它對人類身體健康有益,

  • it provides key amino acids

    可以避免心臟疾病,

  • and key fatty acids like Omega-3s,

    也是提供氨基酸的主要主要來源,

  • which is very different from almost any other type of meat.

    和主要脂肪酸 例如Omega-3 ,

  • And aside from being healthy,

    與其他種類的肉非常不一樣,

  • it's also a lot more exciting and diverse.

    更不用說吃了會健康,

  • Think about it -- most animal farming is pretty monotonous.

    而且它種類繁多,生氣勃勃。

  • Cow is cow, sheep is sheep, pig's pig,

    思考一下--大部分畜牧業 都非常雷同單調乏味,

  • and poultry -- turkey, duck, chicken -- pretty much sums it up.

    牛就是牛、羊就是羊、豬就是豬,

  • And then there's 500 species of fish being farmed currently.

    和家禽--火雞、鴨、雞-- 幾乎就是這幾樣而已。

  • not that Western supermarkets reflect that on their shelves,

    但目前大約有500種魚類被養殖著。

  • but that's beside that point.

    並非西方社會超級市場架上 展示的那一些產品,

  • And you can farm fish in a very healthy manner

    但這不是重點。

  • that's good for us, good for the planet and good for the fish.

    你可以用非常健康的方式養殖魚類,

  • I know I sound fish-obsessed --

    這對我們是有益的、 對地球跟魚類都是好的。

  • (Laughter)

    我知道我聽起來像個魚痴--

  • Let me explain:

    (笑聲)

  • My brilliant partner and wife, Amy Novograntz, and I got involved

    讓我解釋一下:

  • in aquaculture a couple of years ago.

    我聰明的太太,Amy Novograntz 和我,

  • We were inspired by Sylvia Earle,

    幾年前一起踏入水產養殖業。

  • who won the TED Prize in 2009.

    我們是受 Sylvia Earle 啟發,

  • We actually met on Mission Blue I in the Galapagos.

    她是 2009 年TED的年度獲獎者。

  • Amy was there as the TED Prize Director;

    我們實際是在 Galapagos 的 藍色 1 號任務相識。

  • me, an entrepreneur from the Netherlands and concerned citizen,

    Amy是 TED 獎項的負責人;

  • love to dive, passion for the oceans.

    我,一個來自荷蘭的企業家,關心社會的公民,

  • Mission Blue truly changed our lives.

    喜歡潛水、熱愛海洋。

  • We fell in love,

    藍色任務真的改變了我們的生命,

  • got married

    我們相戀、

  • and we came away really inspired,

    結婚,

  • thinking we really want to do something about ocean conservation --

    一路走來我們備受鼓舞,

  • something that was meant to last,

    並很想為 海洋保護做點事情,

  • that could make a real difference

    一些可足夠維持、

  • and something that we could do together.

    能真正改變的事情,

  • Little did we expect that that would lead us to fish farming.

    一些我們可以一起做的事情。

  • But a few months after we got off the boat,

    沒想到這會引領 我們來到魚類養殖的領域。

  • we got to a meeting at Conservation International,

    但我們下船後幾個月,

  • where the Director General of WorldFish was talking about aquaculture,

    出席國際保護協會的一個聚會,

  • asking a room full of environmentalists to stop turning from it,

    會上世界漁業總局的局長進行一次有關水產養殖的演講,

  • realize what was going on

    要求場內眾多的環保人仕不要迴避這個議題,

  • and to really get involved

    先了解發生了甚麼事,

  • because aquaculture has the potential

    然後再投入參與,

  • to be just what our oceans and populations need.

    因為水產養殖有潛力

  • We were stunned when we heard the stats

    同時滿足大海與人類的需求。

  • that we didn't know more about this industry already

    當我們聽到數字時,嚇了一跳,

  • and excited about the chance to help get it right.

    我們不知道這個產業 已經到達這種種況,

  • And to talk about stats --

    而且對幫助這個產業 扶正感到相當興奮。

  • right now, the amount of fish consumed globally,

    談到統計數字--

  • wild catch and farmed combined,

    目前,全球魚類的消費,

  • is twice the tonnage of the total amount of beef

    包括野生獵捕與養殖的,

  • produced on planet earth last year.

    去年全球的總噸數是牛肉的兩倍,

  • Every single fishing vessel combined,

    全球的捕漁船, 不管小的、大的加總起來

  • small and large, across the globe,

    每年共要捕撈野生海鮮 6500 萬噸供全人類消費。

  • together produce about 65 million tons of wild-caught seafood

    養殖漁業今年的產量,

  • for human consumption.

    從有歷史紀錄以來,

  • Aquaculture this year,

    第一次突破我們從海洋捕撈的總量。

  • for the first time in history,

    但現在是這樣:

  • actually produces more than what we catch from the wild.

    需求一直上升,

  • But now this:

    在未來的 35 年,

  • Demand is going to go up.

    我們還需要額外的 8500 萬公噸來滿足需求,

  • In the next 35 years,

    差不多是 1.5 倍於

  • we are going to need an additional 85 million tons to meet demand,

    我們從全球海洋捕撈的總重量,

  • which is one-and-a-half times as much, almost,

    相當大的數字,

  • as what we catch globally out of our oceans.

    可以肯定這些捕撈量不可能全部來自海洋。

  • An enormous number.

    它需要來自養殖。

  • It's safe to assume that that's not going to come from the ocean.

    而談到養殖業--

  • It needs to come from farming.

    養殖也需要資源。

  • And talk about farming --

    就像人類,需要每天吃東西 長大維持生命一樣,

  • for farming you need resources.

    所以動物也一樣。

  • As a human needs to eat to grow and stay alive,

    一隻牛需要吃 8~9 磅 的飼料,

  • so does an animal.

    以及 8000 公升的水,

  • A cow needs to eat eight to nine pounds of feed

    才能產出 1 磅的肉。

  • and drink almost 8,000 liters of water

    專家同意

  • to create just one pound of meat.

    利用養牛的方式來滿足全球的需求是不可能的。

  • Experts agree that it's impossible

    我們根本沒有足夠的飼料與水源。

  • to farm cows for every inhabitant on this planet.

    而且我們不能因此而砍掉 雨林來滿足這個需求。

  • We just don't have enough feed or water.

    還有新鮮的水-- 地球能提供的量相當有限。

  • And we can't keep cutting down rain forests for it.

    我們需要更高效率的東西

  • And fresh water -- planet earth has a very limited supply.

    來讓地球的人類生存。

  • We need something more efficient

    現在,讓我們用這個 與水產養殖做比較。

  • to keep humankind alive on this planet.

    你養殖一磅的魚只需要一磅的飼料,

  • And now let's compare that with fish farming.

    視乎不同的種類,有的甚至需要更少。

  • You can farm one pound of fish with just one pound of feed,

    為什麼會這樣?

  • and depending on species, even less.

    嗯,因為魚畢竟是用飄浮的。

  • And why is that?

    不用整天像我們一樣站立,需要對抗地心引力。

  • Well, that's because fish, first of all, float.

    而且大部分的魚屬於冷血動物--

  • They don't need to stand around all day resisting gravity like we do.

    牠們不需要自己䐘起來。

  • And most fish are cold-blooded --

    魚~冷!

  • they don't need to heat themselves.

    (笑聲)

  • Fish chills.

    而它只要非常少量的水,

  • (Laughter)

    這是違反常理,

  • And it needs very little water,

    但如我們所說的,

  • which is counterintuitive,

    它在水裡游,幾乎不喝水的。

  • but as we say,

    除了昆蟲,

  • it swims in it but it hardly drinks it.

    魚也是人類攝取蛋白質 最有資源效率的食物。

  • Fish are the most resource-efficient animal protein available to humankind,

    我們目前了解多少?

  • aside from insects.

    例如,除了每年有6500萬噸的捕撈

  • How much we've learned since.

    供人類食用㚈

  • For example, on top of that 65 million tons that's annually caught

    還有另外300萬噸的捕撈供動物飼料,

  • for human consumption,

    大部分的沙丁魚和鳳尾魚, 是供水產養殖業用的,

  • there's an additional 30 million tons caught for animal feed,

    但現在轉變成魚粉和魚油。

  • mostly sardines and anchovies for the aquaculture industry

    這太瘋狂了。

  • that's turned into fish meal and fish oil.

    全球 65% 的這些補魚業者, 大部分都管理不好。

  • This is madness.

    我們這世代最糟糕的事件都與他們有關。

  • Sixty-five percent of these fisheries, globally, are badly managed.

    他們會毀掉我們的海洋。

  • Some of the worst issues of our time are connected to it.

    想像到的最駭人的 奴工事件都與他們有關。

  • It's destroying our oceans.

    最近,一篇來自史丹福大學的文章

  • The worst slavery issues imaginable are connected to it.

    指出,如果 50% 的全球水產養殖業者

  • Recently, an article came out of Stanford

    可以停止使用魚粉,

  • saying that if 50 percent of the world's aquaculture industry

    我們的海洋就有救了。

  • would stop using fish meal,

    現在,思考一下。

  • our oceans would be saved.

    我們知道海洋有一大堆問題--

  • Now think about that for a minute.

    有污染、有酸化、

  • Now, we know that the oceans have far more problems --

    珊瑚礁破壞...等等。

  • they have pollution, there's acidification,

    但它突顯了對我們漁業的影響、

  • coral reef destruction and so on.

    它也突顯了對每件事 相互牽連的的影響。

  • But it underlines the impact of our fisheries,

    漁業、水產養殖、森林濫伐、

  • and it underlines how interconnected everything is.

    氣候變化、食物安全...等等。

  • Fisheries, aquaculture, deforestation,

    魚產業為了尋找替代品,

  • climate change, food security and so on.

    大規模地

  • In the search for alternatives,

    已經恢復到以植物為基礎的替代品,

  • the industry, on a massive scale,

    像是大豆、產業雞糞、

  • has reverted to plant-based alternatives

    來自屠宰場的血粉

  • like soy, industrial chicken waste,

    ...等等。

  • blood meal from slaughterhouses

    而我們知道這些選擇來自哪裡,

  • and so on.

    但這不是正確的方法,

  • And we understand where these choices come from,

    這樣不穩定。

  • but this is not the right approach.

    不健康。

  • It's not sustainable,

    你有看過雞在海底的嗎?

  • it's not healthy.

    當然沒有,

  • Have you ever seen a chicken at the bottom of the ocean?

    如果你只餵大豆給鮭魚吃,

  • Of course not.

    它會直接爆炸。

  • If you feed salmon soy with nothing else,

    因為鮭魚是肉食性動物,

  • it literally explodes.

    他沒有辦法消化大豆。

  • Salmon is a carnivore,

    目前為止,魚類養殖是人類

  • it has no way to digest soy.

    最佳的動物養殖方式。

  • Now, fish farming is by far

    但是聲譽欠佳,

  • the best animal farming available to humankind.

    過量使用化學品,

  • But it's had a really bad reputation.

    已經把病毒和疾病傳染給野生的動種、

  • There's been excessive use of chemicals,

    做成生態破壞和污染,

  • there's been virus and disease transfered to wild populations,

    逃避使用野生物種進行餵食

  • ecosystem destruction and pollution,

    改變了整體的基因庫、

  • escaped fish breeding with wild populations,

    然後,當然,如剛剛提的,

  • altering the overall genetic pool,

    不穩定的餵食成分。