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  • For me, it was not being invited to a friend's wedding.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Melody Tang

  • At first, I didn't really mind.

    對我來說,是沒有 被邀請參加朋友的婚禮。

  • I thought he was having a small reception.

    一開始,我其實不介意。

  • But then I kept meeting people who were going to the same wedding,

    我以為他只想辦個小型宴會。

  • and they weren't as close to the groom as I was ...

    但接著,我不斷遇到 有參加這場婚禮的人,

  • and I felt left out.

    但他們不比我和新郎更親近......

  • That really sucked.

    我感覺被遺漏了。

  • It felt really unfair.

    那真的讓我很沮喪。

  • For my daughters, Lipsi and Greta, it was last week.

    我感覺很不公平。

  • They were taking turns massaging their mom's back

    對我的女兒莉普西 和葛蕾塔而言,則是上星期。

  • with a toy for back rubs,

    她們輪流按摩她們母親的背,

  • and then one of the girls felt that the other girl had a longer go.

    用的是個揉搓背部的玩具。

  • That's when I walk into the room

    接著,兩人之一覺得 另一人按摩的時間比較長。

  • to find Greta in a rage, shouting, "That's not fair!"

    那時,我走進房間,

  • and Lipsi in tears,

    發現葛蕾塔生氣地大叫: 「那不公平!」

  • and my wife holding a stopwatch

    而莉普西在流淚。

  • to make sure that each girl had precisely one minute on the toy.

    而我太太拿著一隻計時器,

  • So if you're anything like me or my girls,

    以確保每個女兒使用玩具的 時間是恰好一分鐘。

  • the last thing that upset you

    所以,如果你像我 或是我的女兒一樣,

  • probably also had to do with unfairness.

    最近一次讓你沮喪的事

  • That's because unfairness triggers us so strongly

    很可能也和不公平有關。

  • that we can't think straight.

    那是因為不公平 很強烈地影響我們,

  • We become afraid and suspicious.

    導致我們無法想清楚。

  • Our unfairness antennae stick up.

    我們變得害怕且有疑心。

  • We feel pain, and we walk away.

    我們偵測不公平的天線伸了出來。

  • Unfairness is one of the defining issues of our society,

    我們感到痛苦,我們一走了之。

  • it's one of the root causes of polarization,

    不公平是我們社會的關鍵議題之一。

  • and it's bad news for business.

    它是社會兩極化的根本原因之一,

  • At work, unfairness makes people defensive and disengaged.

    而且它對於商業的影響很不好。

  • A study shows that 70 percent of workers in the US are disengaged,

    在工作上,不公平會讓人 起防禦心且不願投入。

  • and this is costing the companies

    一份研究顯示,美國有 70% 的工作者 沒有真正投入工作。

  • 550 billion dollars a year every year.

    這個現象造成公司

  • This is, like, half the total spent on education in the US.

    每年損失達 5500 億美元。

  • This is the size of the GDP of a country like Austria.

    這差不多等於美國每年 在教育上的一半花費。

  • So removing unfairness and promoting fairness

    相當於奧地利這種大小國家的 國內生產總值(GDP)。

  • should be our priority.

    因此,消除不公平和推動公平

  • But what does it mean in practice?

    應是我們的首要任務。

  • Is it about more rules? Is it about systems?

    但是在實際操作上,要如何做呢?

  • Is it about equality?

    需要更多的規則嗎? 還是和體制有關嗎?

  • Well, partly, but fairness is more interesting than rules and equality.

    它和平等有關嗎?

  • Fairness works in surprising ways.

    部分是,但公平比 規則和平等有趣得多。

  • 15 years ago, I left a US investment bank

    公平的運作很讓人驚奇。

  • to join a large Italian state-owned oil company.

    十五年前, 我離開了一間美國投資銀行,

  • It was a different world.

    加入一間義大利 國有的大型石油公司。

  • I thought the key to getting the best performance

    那是個不同的世界。

  • was a risk-reward system

    我那時以為,帶來最佳表現的關鍵

  • where you could give the high performers bonuses and promotions

    取決於一個風險回報的體制。

  • and give the underperformers something to worry about.

    以這個體制,你可以給予 表現好的員工獎金和升遷,

  • But in this company, we had fixed salaries

    讓表現不佳的員工提心吊膽。

  • and lifelong jobs.

    但在這間公司, 我們的薪水是固定的,

  • Careers were set,

    而工作是終身職。

  • so my toolkit wasn't very effective,

    職涯就這樣定了,

  • and I was frustrated.

    所以我的慣用工具不是很有效,

  • But then I saw that this company was producing some pockets of excellence,

    我感到很挫折。

  • areas in which they beat the competition

    然後我看見這間公司裡 有些部門有非常優越的表現。

  • in very tough, competitive sectors.

    在一些領域中他們打敗競爭對手,

  • This was true in trading,

    且是在非常棘手且競爭激烈的領域。

  • in project management --

    在貿易上是如此,

  • it was very true in exploration.

    在專案管理上也是如此,

  • Our exploration team was finding more oil and gas

    在探勘上更是如此。

  • than any other company in the world.

    我們的探勘團隊 找到的石油和天然氣

  • It was a phenomenon.

    比世界上任何其他公司都還要多。

  • Everyone was trying to figure out how this was possible.

    那是個很不尋常的現象。

  • I thought it was luck,

    每個人都想要知道這怎麼有可能。

  • but after each new discovery, that became less and less likely.

    我那時以為是好運,

  • So did we have a special tool? No.

    但在每一次新發現之後, 越來越覺得不可能只是運氣。

  • Did we have a killer application that no one else had? No.

    我們有特別的工具嗎?

  • Was it one genius who was finding oil for the whole team?

    沒有。

  • No, we hadn't hired a senior guy in years.

    我們有別人沒有的 殺手級應用程式嗎?

  • So what was our secret sauce?

    沒有。

  • I started looking at them really carefully.

    我們有一個天才在為 整個團隊找到石油嗎?

  • I looked at my friend,

    不是,我們已經許多年 沒有僱用過資深的人。

  • who drilled seven dry wells,

    所以我們的秘密武器是什麼?

  • writing off more than a billion dollars for the company,

    我開始非常仔細地研究他們。

  • and found oil on the eighth.

    我研究我的朋友,

  • I was nervous for him ...

    他鑽了七座乾油井。

  • but he was so relaxed.

    花了公司超過十億元,

  • I mean, these guys knew what they were doing.

    在第八座井挖到了石油。

  • And then it hit me: it was about fairness.

    我一直很替他緊張......

  • These guys were working in a company

    然而他很放鬆。

  • where they didn't need to worry about short-term results.

    這些人知道他們在做什麼。

  • They weren't going to be penalized for bad luck or for an honest mistake.

    然後,我突然靈光一現: 這和公平有關。

  • They knew they were valued for what they were trying to do,

    這些人在這間公司工作,

  • not the outcome.

    他們不需要擔心短期的績效。

  • They were valued as human beings. They were part of a community.

    他們不會因為運氣不好 或是無心之過而受罰。

  • Whatever happened, the company would stand by them.

    他們知道,公司珍視 他們嘗試著在做的事情,

  • And for me, this is the definition of fairness.

    而非結果。

  • It's when you can lower those unfairness antennae, put them at rest.

    他們被當做人來珍視。 他們是這個共同體的一部分。

  • Then great things follow.

    不論發生什麼事, 公司會站在他們這一邊。

  • These guys could be true to their purpose, which was finding oil and gas.

    對我來說,這就是公平的定義。

  • They didn't have to worry about company politics or greed or fear.

    當你可以收起偵測 不公平的天線,讓它們休息。

  • They could be good risk-takers,

    好事就會隨之而來。

  • because they weren't too defensive

    他們忠於他們的目標, 也就是找到石油和天然氣。

  • and they weren't gambling to take huge rewards.

    他們不用擔心公司政治、 貪婪,或恐懼。

  • And they were excellent team workers.

    他們可以大膽地冒險,

  • They could trust their colleagues.

    因為他們沒有很強的防禦心,

  • They didn't need to look behind their backs.

    而且他們不會為了大獎賞而冒險。

  • And they were basically having fun.

    同時,他們是出色的團隊工作者。

  • They were having so much fun,

    他們信任他們的同事。

  • one guy even confessed

    他們不用擔心同事的背叛。

  • that he was having more fun at the company Christmas dinner

    基本上,他們工作時很開心。

  • than at his own Christmas dinner.

    他們開心到

  • (Laughter)

    有個人甚至承認,

  • But these guys, essentially, were working in a fair system

    他在公司的聖誕節晚餐

  • where they could do what they felt was right

    遠比他自己家裡的 聖誕節晚餐更開心。

  • instead of what's selfish, what's quick, what's convenient,

    (笑聲)

  • and to be able to do what we feel is right

    基本上,這些人是在 一個公平的體制下工作,

  • is a key ingredient for fairness, but it is also a great motivator.

    在這裡他們能做他們覺得對的事,

  • And it wasn't just explorers who were doing the right thing.

    而不是去做自私的、 快速的、方便的事。

  • There was an HR director who proposed that I hire someone internally

    能夠去做我們認為對的事,

  • and give him a managerial job.

    就是公平的關鍵要素, 同時也是強大的動因。

  • This guy was very good, but he didn't finish high school,

    不只是探勘者在做對的事。

  • so formally, he had no qualifications.

    有位人力資源的主任, 提議要我在內部僱用某個人,

  • But he was so good, it made sense, and so we gave him the job.

    給他一個管理職位。

  • Or the other guy, who asked me for a budget to build a cheese factory

    這個人很優秀,但他沒讀完高中,

  • next to our plant in Ecuador, in the village.

    正式來說,他不符合資格。

  • It didn't make any sense: no one ever built a cheese factory.

    但他真的很優秀,很適合這個工作, 所以我們給了他那個職位。

  • But this is what the village wanted, because the milk they had would spoil

    還有另一個人,他向我 要建造一間起司工廠的預算,

  • before they could sell it, so that's what they needed.

    位於我們厄瓜多工廠 旁邊的一間村落中。

  • And so we built it.

    這個要求很難讓人理解: 公司裡沒有人曾經建過起司工廠。

  • So in these examples and many others,

    但那是那個村落想要的, 因為他們的牛奶在賣出之前就壞了,

  • I learned that to be fair,

    所以他們需要起司工廠。

  • my colleagues and I, we needed to take a risk and stick our head out,

    所以我們就建了。

  • but in a fair system, you can do that.

    從這些例子以及許多其他例子,

  • You can dare to be fair.

    我學到:若要公平,

  • So I realized that these guys and other colleagues

    我的同事和我得要冒風險 並把我們的頭伸出去,

  • were achieving great results, doing great things,

    但在一個公平的體制下,

  • in a way that no bonus could buy.

    你敢做公平的事。

  • So I was fascinated.

    所以,我了解到 這些人以及其他同事

  • I wanted to learn how this thing really worked,

    所達成的極佳結果 並做出了不起的事,

  • and I wanted to learn it also for myself, to become a better leader.

    不是任何獎金能買到的。

  • So I started talking to colleagues, to coaches,

    所以,我很著迷。

  • to headhunters and neuroscientists,

    我想要知道 實際上這是如何運作。

  • and what I discovered

    我自己也想學這些, 以成為更好的領導者。

  • is that what these guys were up to and the way they worked

    所以,我開始和同事、教練、

  • is really supported by recent brain science.

    人才仲介,以及神經科學家交談。

  • And I've also discovered that this can work at all levels

    我發現的是,

  • in any type of company.

    這些人熱衷的事 以及他們工作的方式,

  • You don't need the fixed salaries or the stable careers.

    其實與近期的大腦科學發現相符合。

  • This is because science shows

    我也發現,這在任何層級、任何公司

  • that humans have an innate sense of fairness.

    都能行得通。

  • We know what is right and what is wrong

    你不需要有固定的薪水 或穩定的職涯。

  • before we can talk or think about it.

    這是因為,科學研究顯示

  • My favorite experiment

    人類有與生俱來的公平感。

  • has six-month old babies

    我們都知道什麼是對的、 什麼是錯的。

  • watching a ball trying to struggle up a hill.

    在我們說出來 或思考以前就知道了。

  • And there's a helpful, friendly square that pushes the ball up the hill,

    我最愛的實驗,

  • and then a mean triangle pushes the ball back down.

    是讓六個月大的寶寶

  • After watching this several times,

    看著一顆球努力地爬上山丘。

  • they ask the babies to pick,

    有一個熱心助人又友善的方形, 幫忙推著球上山丘,

  • to choose what to play with.

    然後有個卑鄙的三角形 把球推下去。

  • They can pick a ball, a square or a triangle.

    在看了這影片好幾遍之後,

  • They never pick up the triangle.

    他們要求寶寶去挑選,

  • All the babies want to be the square.

    選擇要玩什麼。

  • And science also shows

    他們可以挑的有球、 方形,以及三角形。

  • that when we see or perceive fairness,

    從來沒有寶寶選三角形。

  • our brain releases a substance that gives us pleasure,

    所有的寶寶都想要成為方形。

  • proper joy.

    科學也顯示,

  • But when we perceive unfairness, we feel pain ...

    當我們看見或感知到公平時,

  • even greater pain

    我們的大腦會釋放一種物質, 使我們覺得愉快,

  • than the same type of pain as if I really hurt myself.

    和適量的喜悅感。

  • That's because unfairness triggers the primitive, reptile part of our brain,

    但當我們感知到不公平時, 我們感到痛苦......

  • the part that deals with threats and survival,

    甚至比我們傷害自己 那類型的痛苦更痛。

  • and when unfairness triggers a threat, that's all we can think about.

    那是因為不公平觸發了我們大腦中 原始的,與爬蟲類的腦一樣的部分。

  • Motivation, creativity, teamwork,

    這部分處理我們受到威脅時 有關存亡的情況。

  • they all go way back.

    當不公平感觸發了受威脅感, 我們就無法釋懷。

  • And it makes sense that we're wired this way,

    動機、創意、團隊合作,

  • because we're social animals.

    都被拋到腦後。

  • We need to be part of a community to survive.

    我們天生如此,這是可以理解的,

  • We're born so helpless

    因為我們是社交動物。

  • that someone needs to look after us until we're maybe 10 years old,

    我們得要是共同體的 一部分,才能生存。

  • so our brain evolves towards food.

    我們生出來時很無助,

  • We need to be in that community.

    需要有人來照顧我們, 直到大約十歲。

  • So whether I like it or not,

    所以我們的大腦根據食物來演化。

  • not being invited to the friend's wedding,

    我們得要在那共同體中生存。

  • my lizard brain is generating the same response

    所以,不管我喜不喜歡,

  • as if I'm about to be pushed out from my community.

    沒被邀請參加朋友的婚禮,

  • So science explains quite nicely why fairness is good

    我的蜥蜴大腦會產生出

  • and why unfairness makes us really defensive,

    如同我將被趕出我的共同體的反應。

  • but science also shows that in a fair environment,

    所以,科學很合理地解釋了 為什麼公平是個好事,

  • not only do we all want to be the square,

    以及為什麼公平會 讓我們生起防禦心。

  • but we tend to be the square,

    但科學也顯示, 在一個公平的環境中,

  • and this allows other people to be fair in turn.

    我們不僅都想要當方形,

  • This creates a beautiful fairness circle.

    我們也傾向去當方形。

  • But while we start off fair ...

    接著其他人也會對我們公平對待,

  • one drop of unfairness contaminates the whole pool,

    因而創造出一個美麗的公平循環。

  • and unfortunately, there's plenty of drops in that pool.

    但,雖然我們一開始是公平的。。。

  • So our effort should be to filter out

    一滴不公平就能污染整池水。

  • as much unfairness as we can from everywhere,

    不幸的是,在那池水中 有很多不公平的水滴。

  • starting from our communities, starting from our companies.

    所以,我們該努力做的 是要盡我們所能

  • I worry about this a lot because I lead a team of 3,000 excellent people,

    去過濾掉來自各處的不公平。

  • and the difference between 3,000 happy, motivated team workers

    從我們的共同體開始, 從我們的公司開始。

  • and 3,000 clock-watchers is everything.

    我很擔心這一點,因為我領導的團隊 有三千名出色的成員。

  • So the first thing I try to do in my fairness crusade

    三千名快樂、有動機的團隊工作者

  • is to try to take myself out of the equation.

    和三千名看著時鐘等下班的人, 兩者之間的差別極為重要。

  • That means being aware of my own biases.

    所以,在我的促進公平的努力中, 我首先嘗試去做的事情

  • For example, I really like people who say yes

    是試著把我自己從方程式中抽掉。

  • to whatever I suggest.

    那就是我必須意識到我自己的偏見。

  • (Laughter)

    比如,我真的很喜歡

  • But that's not very good for the company

    贊同我的所有建議的人。

  • and not very good for anyone who has different ideas.

    (笑聲)

  • So we try to actively promote a culture of diversity of opinions

    但那樣對公司並不是很好,

  • and diversity of character.

    對有不同想法的人也不是很好。

  • The second thing we do is a little more procedural.

    所以,我們試著積極推動 一種有著意見多樣性

  • We look at all the rules, the processes, the systems in the company,

    和性格多樣性的文化。

  • the ones we use to take decisions and allocate resources,

    我們做的第二件事比較程序性的。

  • and we try to get rid of anything that's not very clear,

    我們檢視公司所有做決策和分配資源

  • not very rational, doesn't make sense,

    所根據的規則、程序和體制。

  • and we also try to fix anything that's limiting

    我們嘗試捨棄任何不太清楚的、

  • the transfer of information within the company.

    不太理性的、不合理的。

  • We then look at the culture and the motivation for the same reasons.

    我們也試著使 公司內部的資訊轉移

  • But my point is that however hard you look at the rules,

    盡量不受到限制。

  • the processes, the systems -- and we have to do that --

    接著,基於同樣的理由, 我們檢視公司裡的文化和動機。

  • but however hard we look,

    但是我的重點是, 不論你如何努力檢視規則、

  • we're never going to do enough to get to the real essence of fairness.

    程序、體制——我們得要那麼做——

  • That's because the last mile of fairness requires something else.

    但不論我們多努力檢視,

  • It's about what people's emotions are,

    我們做的永遠無法 觸及公平的真正本質。

  • what their needs are,

    那是因為,公平的最後一哩路 需要的是其他的東西。

  • what's going on in their private lives,

    那就是人們的情緒為何、

  • what society needs.

    他們的需求為何、

  • These are all questions and elements

    他們的私人生活中發生了什麼事,

  • that are very hard to put into a spreadsheet, into an algorithm.

    以及社會需要的是什麼。

  • It's very hard to make them part of our rational decision.

    這些都是很難放入試算表、

  • But if we miss these, we're missing key important points,

    放入演算法的問題以及元素。

  • and the outcome is likely to feel unfair.

    很難把它們變成我們 理性決策的一部分。

  • So we should cross-check our decisions with our fairness center switched on.

    但如果我們忽略這些, 我們就是忽略了關鍵重點,

  • Is it right that this guy should get the job he's really hoping to get?

    而結果很可能會讓人感覺不公平。

  • Is it right that this guy should be fired?

    所以我們應該在將公平中心打開的 情況下交叉檢查我們的決策。

  • Is it right that we should be charging so much for this product?

    讓這個人得到他真的 很想要的工作,是對的嗎?

  • These are tough questions.

    這個人應該被開除,是對的嗎?

  • But if we take the time to ask ourselves

    我們這個產品的收費這麼高, 是對的嗎?

  • whether the rational answer is the right one ...

    這些問題很難回答。

  • we all know deep inside what the answer is.

    但如果我們花時間問問自己,

  • We've known since we were babies.

    理性的答案是否是對的答案?

  • And to know what the right answer is

    我們內心深處都知道答案是什麼。

  • is pretty cool for decision-making.

    我們還是寶寶的時候就知道了。

  • And if we turn on our hearts,

    知道對的答案是什麼,