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  • I want to introduce you to my badass friends.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Riky Liang

  • Meet Thelma and Louise.

    我想跟各位介紹我狠角色朋友。

  • (Laughter)

    見見塞爾瑪跟路易絲。 (註:《末路狂花》的主角)

  • I'm passionate about cows.

    (笑聲)

  • And although they've been getting a lot of crap lately

    我對牛充滿熱情。

  • due to methane emissions and climate change,

    雖然牠們近期遇到許多鳥事,

  • I hope that I can redeem their reputation in part

    因為甲烷排放以及氣候變遷,

  • by showing you how incredibly important they are

    我希望我能挽救牠們部分的名聲,

  • in solving one of the world's biggest problems: food security.

    讓各位了解牠們是多麼重要,

  • But more importantly, for Africa --

    能協助解決世界上最大的 問題之一:食物保障。

  • it's resultant childhood stunting.

    但,更重要的,對非洲而言,

  • Nutritional stunting manifests itself

    缺乏食物造成兒時發育遲緩。

  • in a reduction of growth rate in human development.

    營養造成的發展遲緩呈現的方式

  • And according to UNICEF,

    是人類發展的成長率下降。

  • stunting doesn't come easy.

    根據聯合國兒童基金會,

  • It doesn't come quickly.

    發育遲緩不容易發生。

  • It happens over a long period of time

    發育遲緩不會很快發生。

  • during which a child endures painful and debilitating cycles of illness,

    它橫跨很長的一段時間,

  • depressed appetite,

    在這期間孩子要忍受 痛苦和虛弱的疾病循環、

  • insufficient nutrition

    胃口不好、

  • and inadequate care.

    營養不良,

  • And most kids simply can't endure such rigors.

    以及不當的照護。

  • But those that do survive,

    大部分的孩子實在 無法忍受這樣的艱苦。

  • they carry forward long-term cognitive problems

    但,存活下來的孩子,

  • as well as losses of stature.

    他們會帶著長期的認知問題,

  • The numbers of stunted children under the age of five,

    伴隨著身體發育不良。

  • in most regions of the world,

    五歲以下發展遲緩的孩子數目,

  • has been declining.

    在世界大部分的區域,

  • And I really hate to say this,

    都在下降中。

  • but the only place where they haven't been declining is here,

    我很不想這麼說,

  • in Africa.

    但,唯一人數沒有 下降的地方,就是這裡,

  • Here, 59 million children,

    非洲。

  • three in 10 in that age group,

    在這裡,5900 萬孩童,

  • struggle to meet their genetic potential --

    在那個年齡層中,十個就有三個,

  • their full genetic potential.

    要非常努力才能達到 他們基因上的潛能,

  • Protein is one of our most important dietary requirements,

    他們完整的潛能。

  • and evidence shows that lack of essential amino acids,

    蛋白質是我們最重要的 飲食需求之一,

  • the building blocks of proteins, in young children's diets,

    有證據顯示,若孩童的飲食

  • can result in stunting.

    缺乏必要的氨基酸, 即蛋白質的基礎成份,

  • Essential amino acids are called essential

    就可能造成發展遲緩。

  • because we can't synthesize them in our bodies.

    必要的氨基酸之所以必要,

  • We have to get them from our foods

    是因為我們自體無法合成它們。

  • and the best sources are animal-derived:

    我們得要從食物中攝取,

  • milk, meat and eggs.

    而最好的來源是動物源食品:

  • Most protein consumed on the African continent is crop-based.

    牛奶、肉、蛋。

  • And although we have millions of smallholder farmers rearing animals,

    在非洲大陸,大部分被吃下的 蛋白質都是以作物為基礎的。

  • livestock production is not as easy as we think.

    雖然我們有數百萬名 小佃農在飼養動物,

  • The big livestock gaps between rich countries and poor countries

    家畜生產沒有我們想的那麼容易。

  • are due to poor animal health.

    富國和窮國之間有很大的家畜落差,

  • Endemic livestock diseases,

    原因是動物的健康很差。

  • some of them transmissible to humans,

    地方性的家畜疾病,

  • threaten not only livestock producers in those poor countries,

    有些可以傳染給人類,

  • but all human health across all countries.

    這些疾病威脅的不只是 窮國的家畜生產者,

  • This is a global pathogens network.

    還包括所有國家所有人類的健康。

  • It shows the pathogens found across the world

    這是全球的病原體網路。

  • according to the Enhanced Infectious Diseases database.

    它顯示在全世界發現的病原體,

  • And it shows those pathogens that share hosts.

    資料來自強化傳染病資料庫。

  • In a nutshell,

    它能顯示出有共同宿主的病原體。

  • we share pathogens, and thus diseases,

    在一個小封閉空間中,

  • with the species we live closest to:

    我們共享病原體 進而共享疾病的對象,

  • our livestock.

    就是和我們居住地相近的物種:

  • And we call these zoonotic diseases.

    我們的家畜。

  • Recent reports show

    我們稱之為人畜共通病。

  • that the deadly dozen zoonotic diseases kill 2.2 million people

    近期的報告指出,

  • and sicken 2.4 billion people annually.

    十多種致命的人畜共通病, 每年會奪走 220 萬條人命,

  • And Jimmy says,

    並讓 24 億人生病。

  • "The greatest burden of zoonoses

    吉米說:

  • falls on one billion poor livestock keepers."

    「人畜共通病最沉重的擔子,

  • We totally underestimate the importance of our smallholder farmers.

    落在十億貧窮的家畜飼養者肩上。」

  • We're beginning to recognize how important they are

    我們完全低估了小佃農的重要性。

  • and how they influence our medical health,

    我們開始認可他們的重要性,

  • our biosafety

    以及他們如何影響我們的醫療健康、

  • and more recently, our cognitive and our physical health.

    我們的生物安全性,

  • They stand at the frontline of zoonotic epidemics.

    以及更近期的, 我們的認知與身體健康。

  • They pretty much underpin our existence.

    他們站在人畜共通病 流行傳播的前線。

  • And they need to know so much,

    他們可說是支撐著我們的生存。

  • yet most lack knowledge

    他們需要知道很多知識,

  • on livestock disease prevention and treatment.

    卻又最缺乏那些知識,

  • So how do they learn?

    關於家畜疾病預防和治療的知識。

  • Apart from shared experiences,

    所以,他們要如何學習?

  • trial and error,

    除了分享共同的經驗

  • conventional farming extension services are boots on the ground and radio --

    和反覆試驗外,

  • expensive and hard to scale in the face of population growth.

    傳統農業的發展依靠人力和電台,

  • Sounds pretty gloomy, doesn't it?

    在人口增長的情況下 既昂貴又難以普及。

  • But we're at an interesting point in Africa.

    聽起來挺沮喪的,是嗎?

  • We're changing that narrative using innovative solutions,

    但,現在的非洲 有個契機。

  • riding across scalable technologies.

    我們可以用創新的解決方案 來改變現狀,

  • Knowledge doesn't have to be expensive.

    橫跨可擴充的技術。

  • My company developed an agricultural platform called iCow.

    知識不見得要很昂貴。

  • We teach farmers best livestock practices using SMS

    我的公司發展出了一個 農業平台 iCow(i 乳牛)。

  • over simple, low-end phones.

    通過傳簡訊,用簡單 易操作的手機教授農民們

  • Farmers receive three SMSs a week on best livestock practices,

    最好的牲畜養殖方法。

  • and those that execute the messages go on to see increases in productivity

    農場主每周會收到三則簡訊, 內容就是最好的家畜實做方式,

  • within as short a time as three months.

    照著訊息去做的人,會在三個月的

  • The first increases in productivity, of course, are improved animal health.

    短時間內看到生產力增加。

  • We use SMS because it is retentive.

    當然,要增加生產力, 第一件事是改善動物健康。

  • Farmers store their messages,

    我們用簡訊是因為它可以保存。

  • they write them down in books,

    農場主會把訊息存起來,

  • and in effect,

    他們會寫在筆記上,

  • we're drip-feeding agricultural manuals into the fields.

    實際上,

  • We recognize that we are all part of the global food network:

    我們是把農業手冊的內容 注入到田野實做中。

  • producers and consumers,

    我們了解到,我們都是 全球食物網路的一部分:

  • you and me, and every farmer.

    生產者與消費者,

  • We're focusing now on trying to bring together producers and consumers

    你、我,和每一個農場主。

  • to take action and take responsibility for not only food security,

    現在,我們的重點在試圖將 生產者與消費者結合起來,

  • but for food safety.

    以採取行動和負起責任, 不單單是為了食物保障,

  • This beautiful animal is an African-Asian Sahiwal crossed with a Dutch Fleckvieh.

    也為了食物安全。

  • She's milkier than her Sahiwal mom,

    這隻美麗的動物是非亞的 沙希華牛與荷蘭的西門特牛混種。

  • and she's sturdier and more resistant to disease than her Fleckvieh father.

    她比她的沙希華母親更能產乳,

  • In Ethiopia and Tanzania,

    比她的西門特父親 更強健更能抵抗疾病。

  • the African Dairy Genetic Gains program is using SMS and cutting-edge genomics

    在衣索比亞和坦尚尼亞,

  • and pioneering Africa's first tropically adapted dairy breeding centers

    「非洲乳牛遺傳增益」 (ADGG)計畫

  • and dairy performance recording centers.

    使用簡訊和最先進的 染色體雜交品種,

  • Farmers contribute their production data --

    開拓非洲第一批能適應 熱帶的乳牛繁殖中心,

  • milking records,

    以及乳牛表現記錄中心。

  • breeding records and feeding records --

    農場主會貢獻他們的生產資料──

  • to the ADGG platform.

    擠奶記錄、

  • This stage is synthesized through algorithms

    繁殖記錄,以及餵食記錄──

  • from some of the top livestock institutions in the world

    提供給 ADGG 平台。

  • before it lands back in the farmers' hands

    在這個階段,會用世界頂尖

  • in actionable SMSs.

    家畜機構提供的演算法把資料整合,

  • Customized data,

    轉為可以實行的簡訊,

  • customized responses

    送回到農場主手上。

  • all aimed at increasing productivity

    客製化的資料,

  • based on the potential on the ground.

    客製化的回應,

  • We're at a very interesting place in agriculture in Africa.

    目標都是要根據一般潛能

  • By the end of this year,

    來增加生產力。

  • we'll have almost one billion mobile phone subscriptions.

    我們正處在非洲農業 一個很有意思的地方。

  • We have the power in our hands

    今年年底,

  • to ensure that livestock production systems are not only healthy,

    我們將會有接近十億筆的 行動電話訂閱。

  • productive and profitable,

    我們手中就握有力量,

  • but that farmers are knowledgeable,

    能夠確保家畜生產體制不僅健康、

  • and more importantly,

    有生產力、能獲利,

  • that our farmers are safe.

    而且農場主也有相關知識;

  • Working with smallholder farmers

    更重要的是,

  • is one of the best ways to guarantee food security.

    我們的農場主是安全的。

  • Working with smallholder farmers is one of the best ways

    和小佃農合作,

  • to guarantee each and every child their full opportunity

    是確保食物安全的最佳方式之一。

  • and ability to reach their full genetic potential.

    和小佃農合作,也是個極佳的方式,

  • And harnessing the power of millions of smallholder farmers

    能保障每一個孩童 都有完整的機會與能力,

  • and their badass cows like mine,

    來發揮他們的遺傳的潛力。

  • we should be able to bring a halt to stunting in Africa.

    利用數百萬名小佃農的力量

  • Thank you.

    以及他們那些狠角色牛隻, 就像我的一樣,

  • (Applause)

    我們應該能夠終止非洲的發展遲緩。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

I want to introduce you to my badass friends.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Riky Liang

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED 非洲 乳牛 簡訊 病原體 發育

【TED】蘇卡洪布:我們如何幫助飢餓的孩子,一次一文(我們如何幫助飢餓的孩子,一次一文|蘇卡洪布) (【TED】Su Kahumbu: How we can help hungry kids, one text at a time (How we can help hungry kids, one text at a time | Su Kahumbu))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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