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  • Who here is fascinated by life under the sea?

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: SF Huang

  • Fantastic.

    在座有誰覺得海中的生命很迷人?

  • Now, what did we just do?

    好極了。

  • Let's dissect this for a second.

    我們剛剛做了什麼?

  • The simple action of an individual raising a hand

    咱們先來分析一下這件事。

  • led many others to do the same.

    一個人舉起手的這種簡單動作,

  • Now, it's true that when individuals in a social network

    讓許多其他人都跟著做。

  • have common priorities,

    的確,若在社交網路中的個人

  • it's often beneficial to copy one another.

    有共同的優先順序,

  • Think back to grade school and dressing like the cool kids made you "cool."

    仿效彼此通常是有益處的。

  • But copying behavior is also common in wild animals.

    回想小學時代,跟那些酷孩子 穿得很像就能讓你「很酷」。

  • For example, some birds copy the alarm calls of other birds

    但,仿效行為在野生動物中 也是很常見的。

  • to spread information about approaching predators.

    比如,有些鳥會仿效 其他鳥的警告叫聲,

  • But could copying behavior in wild animals

    來散播關於食肉動物靠近的警訊。

  • affect entire ecosystems that we humans depend on?

    但,野生動物的仿效行為有沒有可能

  • I was led to this question while studying coral reefs,

    影響我們人類仰賴的整個生態系統?

  • which support millions of people through fisheries and tourism

    當我在研究珊瑚礁時, 這個問題浮現出來,

  • here in Africa and around the world.

    數百萬人賴以為生的珊瑚礁, 從漁業到旅遊業,

  • But coral reefs depend on fish

    在非洲這裡以及全世界都是如此。

  • that perform a critical job by eating algae.

    但,珊瑚礁要仰賴魚類

  • Because if left unchecked,

    執行極重要的工作:吃掉水藻。

  • these algae can kill coral and take over entire coral reefs,

    因為若不受約束,

  • a costly change that is difficult or impossible to reverse.

    這些水藻會害死珊瑚, 且佔據整個珊瑚礁,

  • So to understand how fish may prevent this,

    造成很難改變 或無法逆轉的高昂代價。

  • I spy on them

    所以,為了了解 魚類如何預防這現象,

  • while they're eating algae,

    我監視牠們,

  • which can be difficult for them to do

    觀察牠們吃水藻,

  • in open parts of the reef exposed to predators,

    這對牠們來說可能蠻困難的,

  • some of which, on rare occasion,

    因為當牠們在珊瑚礁的開放區域時, 會暴露在食肉動物的危機下,

  • appear to realize I'm watching them.

    極罕見地,有些食肉動物

  • (Laughter)

    顯然知道我在看牠們。

  • So clearly, clearly, for reef fish,

    (笑聲)

  • dining out can be scary.

    所以,很顯然,對珊瑚礁魚類而言,

  • But I wanted to understand how these fish do their job

    外出用餐是挺可怕的。

  • in risky situations.

    但我想要了解這些魚類如何在危險的

  • So my colleagues and I put massive video camera stands

    情境中進行這項工作。

  • in a coral reef

    所以我和同事架設了 巨大的攝影機腳架,

  • to remotely monitor entire feeding grounds

    架在一個珊瑚礁上,

  • that produce a lot of algae

    讓我們從遠端監視整片就食地,

  • but are exposed to predators.

    這裡有許多水藻,

  • And this perspective from above

    但也暴露在食肉動物的危險中。

  • shows us the feeding behavior and precise movements

    從上面看的這個視角,

  • of many different fish,

    能呈現出多種不同魚類的就食行為

  • shown here with colored dots.

    及精確的移動路線,

  • And by analyzing thousands of fish movements

    這些有顏色的點表示魚類。

  • to and from feeding grounds,

    藉由分析數千筆魚類移動的資料,

  • we discovered a pattern.

    包括前往就食地以及在該處的移動,

  • These fish, despite being from different species

    我們發現了一個模式。

  • and not swimming in schools,

    這些魚類,儘管是不同種,

  • were copying one another,

    且沒有成群移動,

  • such that one fish entering these dangerous feeding grounds

    牠們仍然會仿效彼此,

  • could lead many others to do the same.

    當一條魚進入了危險的就食地時,

  • And fish stayed for longer and ate more algae

    可能會造成其他魚類跟進。

  • when they were surrounded by more feeding fish.

    且當被更多來就食的魚類圍繞時,

  • Now, this could be happening

    牠們就會待得更久、吃得更多。

  • because even simple movements by individual fish

    會發生這種現象,

  • can inadvertently communicate vital information.

    可能是因為單一條魚的簡單動作

  • For example, if even one fish sees a predator and flees,

    會不經意地傳遞出重要資訊。

  • this can alert many others to danger.

    比如,即使是一條魚 看見食肉動物並逃跑,

  • And a fish safely entering feeding grounds can show others that the coast is clear.

    這動作就會警告其他魚有危險出現。

  • So it turns out that even when these fish are different species,

    而一條魚安全地進入就食地, 就能讓其他魚知道這裡沒有危險。

  • they are connected within social networks

    所以,結果發現, 即使這些魚類屬於不同種,

  • which can provide information on when it's safe to eat.

    牠們仍然在社交網路中連結在一起,

  • And our analyses indicate that fish simply copying other fish in their social network

    這個網路能提供何時 可以安心去就食的資訊。

  • could account for over 60 percent of the algae eaten by the fish community,

    我們的分析指出,被魚群吃掉的 水藻中,超過六成都是被

  • and thus could be critical to the flow of energy and resources

    在魚類的社交網路中單純仿效 其他魚的那些魚給吃掉的,

  • through coral reef ecosystems.

    因此,對於珊瑚礁生態系統中的 能量與資源的流動,

  • But these findings also suggest that overfishing,

    這些魚是很重要的。

  • a common problem in coral reefs,

    但這些發現也顯示出,過度捕撈是

  • not only removes fish,

    珊瑚礁的常見問題,

  • but it could break up the social network of remaining fish,

    不僅會造成魚類消失,

  • which may hide more and eat less algae

    也會破壞剩下魚類的社交網路,

  • because they're missing critical information.

    導致牠們更常隱藏起來, 吃的水藻更少,

  • And this would make coral reefs more vulnerable than we currently predict.

    因為牠們得不到重要的資訊。

  • So remarkably, fish social networks

    這會讓珊瑚礁比我們 目前所預測的更脆弱。

  • allow the actions of one to spread to many

    所以,顯然魚類社交網路

  • and could affect entire coral reefs,

    能將一條魚的行為散播給許多條魚,

  • which feed millions of us

    且可能影響到整個珊瑚礁,

  • and support the global economy

    這個餵養數百萬人、

  • for all of us.

    全球經濟都賴以為生的珊瑚礁。

  • Now, our discovery points us towards better ways

    我們的發現,為我們 指出了更好的方式,

  • to sustainably manage coral reefs,

    來永續地管理珊瑚礁,

  • but it also shows us,

    但也讓我們知道,

  • we humans are not just affected by the actions of other humans,

    我們人類並不只受到 其他人的行為所影響,

  • but we could be affected by the actions of individual fish

    連遠方珊瑚礁上的一條魚所做的

  • on a distant coral reef

    簡單仿效行為,也可能影響我們。

  • through their simple copying behavior.

    謝謝。

  • Thank you.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

Who here is fascinated by life under the sea?

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: SF Huang

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED 珊瑚礁 魚類 動物 社交 網路

【TED】邁克-吉爾:魚類社交網絡能幫助我們拯救珊瑚礁嗎?(Could fish social networks help us save coral reefs? | Mike Gil) (【TED】Mike Gil: Could fish social networks help us save coral reefs? (Could fish social networks help us save coral reefs? | Mike Gil))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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