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  • I'll never forget the sound

    譯者: Crystal Yip 審譯者: 易帆 余

  • of laughing with my friends.

    我永遠忘不了

  • I'll never forget the sound

    與朋友相聚時的歡笑聲。

  • of my mother's voice right before I fell asleep.

    我永遠忘不了

  • And I'll never forget the comforting sound of water

    入睡前媽媽的聲音。

  • trickling down a stream.

    我永遠不會忘記

  • Imagine my fear, pure fear,

    那讓人寬心涓涓而下的溪流聲音。

  • when, at the age of 10,

    想像一下,我十歲那年的恐懼、 純然的恐懼。

  • I was told I was going to lose my hearing.

    我被告知將會失去聽覺。

  • And over the next five years,

    在往後五年,

  • it progressed until I was classified as profoundly deaf.

    我的聽力漸漸減弱, 最後被分類為極度嚴重的聽障。

  • But I believe that losing my hearing

    但我相信,失去了聽覺

  • was one of the greatest gifts I've ever received.

    是我這一生最好的禮物。

  • You see, I get to experience the world in a unique way.

    你看,我得用 獨特的方式來體驗世界。

  • And I believe that these unique experiences

    而我相信, 這些殘障人士的獨特經驗

  • that people with disabilities have

    可以幫助我們創造並 設計出更美好的世界,

  • is what's going to help us make and design a better world

    讓所有人,不論健全或殘障 都能受益。

  • for everyone -- both for people with and without disabilities.

    我曾是一位殘障人士的權利律師,

  • I used to be a disability rights lawyer,

    長時間在執業,

  • and I spent a lot of my time focused on enforcing the law,

    確保殘障人士的需要得到滿足。

  • ensuring that accommodations were made.

    然後我必須迅速學習國際政策,

  • And then I had to quickly learn international policy,

    因為我受邀從事有關於 《聯合國殘障人士權利公約》的工作。

  • because I was asked to work on the UN Convention

    身為非政府組織的領袖,

  • that protects people with disabilities.

    我花費大部分精力去說服別人

  • As the leader of the NGO there,

    認同殘疾人士的各種能力。

  • I spent most of my energy trying to convince people

    但這一路來,

  • about the capabilities of people with disabilities.

    換了很多不同的工作,

  • But somewhere along the way,

    我爸媽並不太開心我這樣換 ——

  • and after many career transitions

    (笑聲)

  • that my parents weren't so happy about --

    我無意中找到了答案,

  • (Laughter)

    我相信這也許是更有效的工具

  • I stumbled upon a solution

    可以解決世上一些重要的問題,

  • that I believe may be an even more powerful tool

    不論問題是否關於殘障人士。

  • to solve some of the world's greatest problems,

    這工具叫做「設計思考」。

  • disability or not.

    設計思考是一個 創新和解決問題的過程,

  • And that tool is called design thinking.

    總共有五個步驟。

  • Design thinking is a process for innovation and problem solving.

    第一、定義問題並了解它的限制。

  • There are five steps.

    第二、觀察人們 在真實生活中的情況,

  • The first is defining the problem

    並感同身受他們的處境。

  • and understanding its constraints.

    第三、激盪出各種想法 —— 愈多愈好、

  • The second is observing people in real-life situations

    愈瘋狂愈好。

  • and empathizing with them.

    第四、形成雛形: 盡可能收集你能找到的方案

  • Third, throwing out hundreds of ideas -- the more the better,

    去模擬、測試,

  • the wilder the better.

    並作改善。

  • Fourth, prototyping: gathering whatever you can,

    最後是實踐計劃,

  • whatever you can find,

    確保你得出的方案是 持續可行的。

  • to mimic your solution, to test it

    華倫·柏格說,「設計思考」 教導我們從旁觀察、

  • and to refine it.

    重新構築、改善、試驗,

  • And finally, implementation:

    以及可能是最重要的:

  • ensuring that the solution you came up with is sustainable.

    要學會問蠢問題。

  • Warren Berger says that design thinking teaches us to look sideways,

    設計思考者相信 每個人都有創意。

  • to reframe, to refine, to experiment

    他們相信,集合不同專業的人,

  • and, probably most importantly,

    分享不同的觀點,

  • ask those stupid questions.

    可以把這些觀點聚集起來,

  • Design thinkers believe that everyone is creative.

    形成一種新的架構。

  • They believe in bringing people from multiple disciplines together,

    設計思考是如此有效 和多功能的工具,

  • because they want to share multiple perspectives

    它適用於各個行業。

  • and bring them together and ultimately merge them

    我看出,它有解決 我當時所面對的問題的潛力,

  • to form something new.

    因此我決定重回校園,

  • Design thinking is such a successful and versatile tool

    取得社會設計碩士。

  • that it has been applied in almost every industry.

    這是一門研究如何透過設計 來改善世界的學問。

  • I saw the potential that it had for the issues I faced,

    我在攻讀碩士時,

  • so I decided to go back to school

    愛上了木工工藝。

  • and get my master's in social design.

    但我很快發現,

  • This looks at how to use design to create positive change in the world.

    我欠缺了一些能力。

  • While I was there,

    就是,當你在使用工具時,

  • I fell in love with woodworking.

    在它踫到你之前,

  • But what I quickly realized

    就是當木材或工具卡住, 跳起來打到你之前,

  • was that I was missing out on something.

    會發出聲響。

  • As you're working with a tool,

    但我聽不到聲音。

  • right before it's about to kick back at you --

    因此我決定,

  • which means the piece or the tool jumps back at you --

    何不嘗試解決這個問題?

  • it makes a sound.

    我的解決方法是一副安全眼鏡,

  • And I couldn't hear this sound.

    它在工具產生高音變化時,

  • So I decided,

    會用視覺提示的方式 來警告使用者,

  • why not try and solve it?

    讓使用者在聽到之前 就能覺察到。

  • My solution was a pair of safety glasses

    為甚麼之前的工具設計者 從未想過?

  • that were engineered to visually alert the user

    (笑聲)

  • to pitch changes in the tool,

    有兩個原因:一、我是個新手,

  • before the human ear could pick it up.

    未受專門技術或傳統觀念限制。

  • Why hadn't tool designers thought of this before?

    二、我失聰。

  • (Laughter)

    我對世界的獨特體驗 有助於我解決問題。

  • Two reasons: one, I was a beginner.

    而當我投入時, 我會不斷地為殘疾人士

  • I wasn't weighed down by expertise or conventional wisdom.

    尋找更多的解決方法,

  • The second is: I was Deaf.

    最後受到主流大眾的 擁戴的喜愛,

  • My unique experience of the world helped inform my solution.

    不論他們殘疾與否。

  • And as I went on, I kept running into more and more solutions

    這是個 OXO 馬鈴薯削皮器。

  • that were originally made for people with disabilities,

    它原本是為 關節炎患者所設計,

  • and that ended up being picked up,

    但因為手感舒服,人人都愛用。

  • embraced and loved by the mainstream,

    簡訊:這功能原本是為 失聰人士所設計的。

  • disability or not.

    結果,大家都超愛傳簡訊的。

  • This is an OXO potato peeler.

    (笑聲)

  • It was originally designed for people with arthritis,

    我開始思考:

  • but it was so comfortable, everybody loved it.

    如果我們能把頭腦 轉換個方向?

  • Text messaging: that was originally designed for people who are Deaf.

    若我們反常道而行, 先為殘疾人士設計會怎樣?

  • And as you know, everybody loves that, too.

    如你所見, 當我們先為殘障人士設計時,

  • (Laughter)

    我們經常會無意中發現

  • I started thinking:

    這些設計不但適合不同的人,

  • What if we changed our mindset?

    而且比一般設計還要優秀。

  • What if we started designing for disability first --

    這讓我備受鼓舞,

  • not the norm?

    因為這意味著,

  • As you see, when we design for disability first,

    為殘疾人士所花費的心思 和設計上的調整

  • we often stumble upon solutions that are not only inclusive,

    可以為創意及創新

  • but also are often better than when we design for the norm.

    帶來更多的動力。

  • And this excites me,

    這可以驅使我們的思維,

  • because this means that the energy it takes to accommodate someone

    從心的改變及包容力不足的情況,

  • with a disability

    轉變成能解決世上最大問題的 煉金魔術師。

  • can be leveraged, molded and played with

    現在我也相信,

  • as a force for creativity and innovation.

    殘障人士在設計思考的過程中, 很有潛質能成為設計師。

  • This moves us from the mindset of trying to change the hearts

    我根本不知道,我從很小的時候

  • and the deficiency mindset of tolerance,

    就已經是一位不斷地在 磨練自己技能的設計思考者,

  • to becoming an alchemist,

    設計思考者 天生就是問題解決者。

  • the type of magician that this world so desperately needs

    想像一下,你正在聆聽一段對話,

  • to solve some of its greatest problems.

    而你只能理解 50% 的內容,

  • Now, I also believe

    你不能請他們重複每個字,

  • that people with disabilities have great potential to be designers

    否則他們會對你感到不耐煩。

  • within this design-thinking process.

    所以幾乎在聽不懂的情況下,

  • Without knowing it, from a very early age,

    我的解決方法就是, 把那些模糊不清的聲音,

  • I've been a design thinker, fine-tuning my skills.

    也就是說話的節奏,

  • Design thinkers are, by nature, problem solvers.

    轉變成為旋律,再加上 我讀到的唇語來綜合理解它們。

  • So imagine listening to a conversation

    多年後,某人說 我的文章中有節奏,

  • and only understanding 50 percent of what is said.

    那是因為我是用旋律 在體會對話。

  • You can't ask them to repeat every single word.

    我也變得很會處理 失敗時的挫折。

  • They would just get frustrated with you.

    (笑聲)

  • So without even realizing it,

    這是說真的。

  • my solution was to take the muffled sound I heard,

    我西班牙文的第一學期 取得 D 級,

  • that was the beat,

    但我學到的是 當我重新站起來,

  • and turn it into a rhythm and place it with the lips I read.

    重新調整過後,

  • Years later, someone commented that my writing had a rhythm to it.

    最後還是可以成功的。

  • Well, this is because I experience conversations as rhythms.

    同樣地,設計思考鼓勵人們失敗,

  • I also became really, really good at failing.

    並且經常失敗,

  • (Laughter)

    因為最後,你會成功的。

  • Quite literally.

    世上很少偉大的發明創新

  • My first semester in Spanish, I got a D.

    第一次就能成功。

  • But what I learned was that when I picked myself up

    我在體育運動上也得到相同的教訓。

  • and changed a few things around,

    我永遠不會忘記教練跟我媽媽說:

  • eventually, I succeeded.

    「如果她沒有失去聽覺能力,

  • Similarly, design thinking encourages people to fail

    她會入選國家隊。」

  • and fail often,

    但教練和當時的我也不知道,

  • because eventually, you will succeed.

    其實我失去聽力, 反倒幫助我擅長於運動。

  • Very few great innovations in this world

    你想想,當你失去聽力, 你不單要調適你的行為,

  • have come from someone succeeding on the first try.

    你也要調適你的感官。

  • I also experienced this lesson in sports.

    舉個例子,

  • I'll never forget my coach saying to my mom,

    我的視覺專注範圍增加了。

  • "If she just didn't have her hearing loss,

    想像有一位足球員,向左側過來,

  • she would be on the national team."

    而你就是我當時擔任的守門員,

  • But what my coach, and what I didn't even know at the time,

    球向左側翼過來。

  • was that my hearing loss actually helped me excel at sports.

    聽力正常的人差不多 有這樣的視線範圍。

  • You see, when you lose your hearing, not only do you adapt your behavior,

    而我的優勢就是, 視線範圍比他們廣。

  • but you also adapt your physical senses.

    所以我可以注意到那邊的球員,

  • One example of this

    正不斷地移動過來。

  • is that my visual attention span increased.

    我可以比較快注意到他們, 所以一旦傳球,

  • Imagine a soccer player, coming down the left flank.

    我能調整位置,準備迎接射門。

  • Imagine being goalkeeper, like I was,

    如你所見,

  • and the ball is coming down the left flank.

    我幾乎這一生都在當 設計思考者。

  • A person with normal hearing would have the visual perspective of this.

    我的觀察力經年累月地磨練, 能覺察其他人未能發現的東西。

  • I had the benefit of a spectrum this wide.

    我需要不斷適應, 這使我擅於想像和解決問題。

  • So I picked up the players over here,

    我經常必須在 受限的條件下完成工作。

  • that were moving about and coming down the field.

    這也是設計師 經常要處理的問題。

  • And I picked them up quicker, so that if the ball was passed,

    我最近到海地工作,

  • I could reposition myself and be ready for that shot.

    設計思考者經常在 尋找極端情況,

  • So as you can see,

    因為這樣可以激發出他們 設計出最好的作品。

  • I've been a design thinker for nearly all my life.

    而海地—— 就像一場完美的風暴。

  • My observation skills have been honed so that I pick up on things

    我和 300 位失聰人士 一起生活工作。

  • that others would never pick up on.

    他們是在 2010 年地震後 遷居至此。

  • My constant need to adapt has made me a great ideator

    但五年半後,

  • and problem solver.

    那裡仍然沒有電力供應,

  • And I've often had to do this within limitations and constraints.

    仍然沒有安全的用水,

  • This is something that designers also have to deal with frequently.

    仍然沒有工作機會,

  • My work most recently took me to Haiti.

    犯罪仍然猖獗,但無人被懲處。

  • Design thinkers often seek out extreme situations,

    國際援助機構接續而來。

  • because that often informs some of their best designs.

    但他們到來時

  • And Haiti -- it was like a perfect storm.

    已有預定的解決方案,

  • I lived and worked with 300 Deaf individuals

    他們並不打算實地觀察, 按照社區需求來提供服務。

  • that were relocated after the 2010 earthquake.

    有一個組織提供他們山羊和小雞。

  • But five and a half years later,

    但他們沒有意識到

  • there still was no electricity;

    社區中的飢餓問題如此嚴重。

  • there still was no safe drinking water;

    當失聰人士夜晚入睡時, 他們聽不到聲音。

  • there were still no job opportunities;

    小偷會潛入他們的院子,

  • there was still rampant crime, and it went unpunished.

    偷走這些小雞和山羊,

  • International aid organizations came one by one.

    最後一隻也不剩。

  • But they came

    現在,如果那個機構花時間

  • with pre-determined solutions.

    觀察失聰人士,觀察他們的社群,

  • They didn't come ready to observe and to adapt

    那機構便能意識到其問題。

  • based on the community's needs.

    或許,他們就會得到解決方法,

  • One organization gave them goats and chickens.

    例如提供類似太陽能燈的東西,

  • But they didn't realize

    能照亮晚間圈養動物的地方,

  • that there was so much hunger in that community,

    來確保牠們的安全。

  • that when the Deaf went to sleep at night and couldn't hear,

    你不用成為設計思考者,

  • people broke into their yards and their homes

    才能分享我今天跟各位分享的概念。

  • and stole these chickens and goats,

    你有創作力。

  • and eventually they were all gone.

    你就是個設計師 ——

  • Now, if that organization had taken the time

    每一個人都是。

  • to observe Deaf people, to observe the community,

    讓我們這些人幫助你。

  • they would have realized their problem

    讓殘疾人士幫你看前顧後,

  • and perhaps they would have come up with a solution,

    並在過程中,

  • something like a solar light,

    解決重要的問題。

  • lighting up a secure pen to put them in at night

    就這樣。謝謝各位。

  • to ensure their safety.

    (掌聲)

  • You don't have to be a design thinker

  • to insert the ideas I've shared with you today.

  • You are creative.

  • You are a designer --

  • everyone is.

  • Let people like me help you.

  • Let people with disabilities help you look sideways,

  • and in the process,

  • solve some of the greatest problems.

  • That's it. Thank you.

  • (Applause)

I'll never forget the sound

譯者: Crystal Yip 審譯者: 易帆 余

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 設計 人士 殘障 解決 思考

【TED】Elise Roy:當我們為殘疾而設計時,我們都會受益(當我們為殘疾而設計時,我們都會受益|Elise Roy)。 (【TED】Elise Roy: When we design for disability, we all benefit (When we design for disability, we all benefit | Elise Roy))

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