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  • [On April 3, 2016 we saw the largest data leak in history.]

    譯者: 易帆 余 審譯者: Harry Chen

  • [The Panama Papers exposed rich and powerful people]

    [ 2016 年 4 月 3 號我們看到了 史上最大宗的資料檔案洩密]

  • [hiding vast amounts of money in offshore accounts.]

    [ 巴拿馬文件揭穿了權貴者們 一直隱藏在海外帳戶的巨款 ]

  • [What does this mean?]

    [ 這有什麼涵意呢?]

  • [We called Robert Palmer of Global Witness to explain.]

    [我們找來「全球見證」的 羅伯特.帕爾默為我們說明]

  • This week, there have been a whole slew and deluge of stories

    本周從巴拿馬的 莫薩克.馮塞卡律師事務所

  • coming out from the leak of 11 million documents

    外洩出的 1,100 萬份文件,

  • from a Panamanian-based law firm called Mossack Fonseca.

    為我們帶來了整體大量的驚人故事。

  • The release of these papers from Panama lifts the veil on a tiny piece

    這些巴拉拿文件的公布

  • of the secretive offshore world.

    揭開了鮮為人知之 離岸公司世界的滄海一粟

  • We get an insight into how clients and banks and lawyers

    我們見識到委託人、銀行以及律師們

  • go to companies like Mossack Fonseca

    如何找上像莫薩克.馮塞卡這種公司,

  • and say, "OK, we want an anonymous company,

    開口說:「我們要開一間不記名公司,

  • can you give us one?"

    可以幫我們搞一個嗎?」

  • So you actually get to see the emails,

    所以你一定要去看看這些電子郵件、

  • you get to see the exchanges of messages,

    一定要去看看他們往來的信息、

  • you get to see the mechanics of how this works,

    一定要去了解這個機制是 如何進行、如何運作的。

  • how this operates.

    如今這事已經開始有了噩耗影響──

  • Now, this has already started to have pretty immediate repercussions.

    冰島總理已經引辭。

  • The Prime Minister of Iceland has resigned.

    我們也已經有了消息指出

  • We've also had news

    敘利亞獨裁者 巴沙爾.阿薩德的一名同夥

  • that an ally of the brutal Syrian dictator Bashar Al-Assad

    也有好幾間離岸公司。

  • has also got offshore companies.

    也有指控說 20 億美金的金流

  • There's been allegations of a $2 billion money trail

    透過俄羅斯總統 普丁的 兒時密友回流給他,

  • that leads back to President Vladimir Putin of Russia

    該玩伴後來變成了頂尖的大提琴家。

  • via his close childhood friend,

    而且將會有很多除此其外的 富豪和其他人等

  • who happens to be a top cellist.

    將要開始擔心下一波新聞

  • And there will be a lot of rich individuals out there

    和下一批外洩檔案。

  • and others who will be nervous about the next set of stories

    這現在聽起來像是間諜小說的故事,

  • and the next set of leaked documents.

    或是約翰.葛里遜的小說,

  • Now, this sounds like the plot of a spy thriller

    聽起來對你、我和一般大眾 好像非常遙不可及的。

  • or a John Grisham novel.

    為何我們應該在意呢?

  • It seems very distant from you, me, ordinary people.

    真相是因為如果權貴者們 得以把錢滯留在海外,

  • Why should we care about this?

    而不繳交他們應付的稅金,

  • But the truth is that if rich and powerful individuals

    這就代表用來做必要之 公共服務的錢比較少了──

  • are able to keep their money offshore

    像是醫療、教育、修橋鋪路,

  • and not pay the taxes that they should,

    而那樣就影響到我們所有人了。

  • it means that there is less money for vital public services

    在我們「全球見證」裡面,

  • like healthcare, education, roads.

    這件大爆料是不得了的。

  • And that affects all of us.

    我們找來各國媒體與政治領袖

  • Now, for my organization Global Witness,

    談論關於私人如何使用離岸公司的保密性

  • this exposé has been phenomenal.

    來藏匿和粉飾他們的資產──

  • We have the world's media and political leaders

    我們已經不停談論並揭發長達十年了。

  • talking about how individuals can use offshore secrecy

    現在很多人發現到這整個境外天地 是猜不透和令人困惑的,

  • to hide and disguise their assets --

    而且很難理解這種境外天地如何運作;

  • something we have been talking about and exposing for a decade.

    我喜歡把它們想成有點像俄羅斯娃娃,

  • Now, I think a lot of people find this entire world baffling and confusing,

    所以你可以把一間公司 完好收進另一間公司裡,

  • and hard to understand how this sort of offshore world works.

    再完好收進另一家公司裡,

  • I like to think of it a bit like a Russian doll.

    讓它幾乎無法讓人理解, 究竟幕後真正的黑手是誰。

  • So you can have one company stacked inside another company,

    對執法單位、稅務機關、 記者、公民團體而言

  • stacked inside another company,

    要了解究竟怎麼回事真的是很困難。

  • making it almost impossible to really understand

    另外我也覺得有趣的是──

  • who is behind these structures.

    在美國這個議題的報導很少,

  • It can be very difficult for law enforcement

    可能是因為一些有頭臉的美國人

  • or tax authorities, journalists, civil society

    僅僅還沒在這個大爆料、 醜聞裡被點到名。

  • to really understand what's going on.

    並不是因為沒有美國的富人

  • I also think it's interesting

    不斷大量藏匿資產在海外,

  • that there's been less coverage of this issue in the United States.

    只是因為境外天地運作的該管道──

  • And that's perhaps because some prominent US people

    莫薩克.馮賽卡有著 較少的美國委託人。

  • just haven't figured in this exposé, in this scandal.

    我認為如果我們去看來自開曼群島、

  • Now, that's not because there are no rich Americans

    甚或德拉瓦、懷俄明、 內華達州的洩密案件,

  • who are stashing their assets offshore.

    你會看到多許多的案例 背後牽扯上美國人。

  • It's just because of the way in which offshore works,

    事實上美國有幾個州 你只需提供一點點資料,

  • Mossack Fonseca has fewer American clients.

    比申請圖書館證還要少的資料, 你就可以申請到一家公司。

  • I think if we saw leaks from the Cayman Islands

    在美國的這種黑箱已經放任 學區的職員欺詐學生,

  • or even from Delaware or Wyoming or Nevada,

    甚至還放任詐騙集團 詐騙易受騙的投資人。

  • you would see many more cases and examples linking back to Americans.

    這類行為影響到我們全部人。

  • In fact, in a number of US states you need less information,

    我們「全球見證」想要知道 在實務面這個到底是什麼樣貌?

  • you need to provide less information to get a company

    這究竟是如何運作的?

  • than you do to get a library card.

    我們當時做的就是 把一名持假身分的調查員

  • That sort of secrecy in America has allowed employees of school districts

    送到曼哈頓的13 間律師事務所裡,

  • to rip off schoolchildren.

    我們的調查員喬裝成一名非洲高官,

  • It has allowed scammers to rip off vulnerable investors.

    想把來路不明的資金移到美國的,

  • This is the sort of behavior that affects all of us.

    來購買房子、遊艇、噴射機;

  • Now, at Global Witness,

    讓我們真正震驚的是 所有律師中竟有一位

  • we wanted to see what this actually looked like in practice.

    給我們的調查員一個 如何移動這筆資金的建議。

  • How does this actually work?

    這些全都只是初來乍到的會面,

  • So what we did

    而且都沒有律師把我們 視為委託人承接案件,

  • is we sent in an undercover investigator to 13 Manhattan law firms.

    當然也就沒有錢轉手了,

  • Our investigator posed as an African minister

    但是確實顯示出這個體系有了問題。

  • who wanted to move suspect funds into the United States

    同樣重要的是不要把 這件事當成不過就是私人個案,

  • to buy a house, a yacht, a jet.

    這不光是單獨一位律師跟 我們調查員洽談跟給建言有關,

  • Now, what was truly shocking was that all but one of those lawyers

    也不光是特定的資深政治人物 在醜聞中被抓到了;

  • provided our investigator with suggestions

    這是關於我們的系統如何運行

  • on how to move those suspect funds.

    加深了腐敗、逃漏稅、 貧窮、社會的不安定。

  • These were all preliminary meetings,

    為了解決掉這件事,

  • and none of the lawyers took us on as a client

    我們必須改變遊戲,

  • and of course no money moved hands,

    我們必須改變遊戲規則,

  • but it really shows the problem with the system.

    來讓這種行為更為困難。

  • It's also important

    這看起來好像沒甚麼希望,

  • to not just think about this as individual cases.

    好像我們都沒轍一樣,

  • This is not just about an individual lawyer

    好像沒有事情會改變一樣,

  • who's spoken to our undercover investigator and provided suggestions.

    好像永遠都會有權貴者在。

  • It's not just about a particular senior politician

    但身為一位天生的樂觀主義者,

  • who's been caught up in a scandal.

    我真的看到了我們正開始要改變。

  • This is about how a system works,

    最近這幾年來

  • that entrenches corruption, tax evasion, poverty and instability.

    提到公司的持有人時我們已經看到 公司更加透明化的實質推動。

  • And in order to tackle this,

    這件事情被英國首相 大衛.卡麥隆

  • we need to change the game.

    在 2013 年北愛爾蘭舉行的 G8 高峰會放在政治議題上。

  • We need to change the rules of the game

    自此歐盟打算建立 國家層級的中央註冊中心,

  • to make this sort of behavior harder.

    說明清楚是誰真正持有、 控制這些歐洲境內的公司。

  • This may seem like doom and gloom,

    但令人難過的事是美國實際上 還在後面托拖拉拉。

  • like there's nothing we can do about it,

    兩黨共推的法案已經 被提案進參、眾兩院,

  • like nothing has ever changed,

    但是並沒有做出我們想要看到的進展。

  • like there will always be rich and powerful individuals.

    所以我們真的很想看到巴拿馬文件,

  • But as a natural optimist,

    被用來作為公佈在美國 和世界各處的黑箱,

  • I do see that we are starting to get some change.

    這個對離岸公司世界的大肆窺探。

  • Over the last couple of years,

    對「全球見證」的我們來說 現在是求取改變的時刻,

  • we've seen a real push towards greater transparency

    我們需要小老百姓對有人可以在 黑箱公司背後隱藏身份的方法感到生氣。

  • when it comes to company ownership.

    我們想要商業領袖站出來說:

  • This issue was put on the political agenda

    「這樣做生意的方式是不對的」;

  • by the UK Prime Minister David Cameron

    我們需要政治領袖們體認到這個問題,

  • at a big G8 Summit that was held in Northern Ireland in 2013.

    並承諾修改法律來打開這些黑箱。

  • And since then, the European Union is going to be creating

    我們一起來就能終止這個黑箱-

  • central registers at a national level

    目前正放任逃漏稅、貪汙、 洗錢蓬勃滋生。

  • of who really owns and controls companies across Europe.

  • One of the things that is sad is that, actually, the US is lagging behind.

  • There's bipartisan legislation that had been introduced

  • in the House and the Senate,

  • but it isn't making as much progress as we'd like to see.

  • So we'd really want to see the Panama leaks,

  • this huge peek into the offshore world,

  • be used as a way of opening up in the US and around the world.

  • For us at Global Witness, this is a moment for change.

  • We need ordinary people to get angry

  • at the way in which people can hide their identity

  • behind secret companies.

  • We need business leaders to stand up and say,

  • "Secrecy like this is not good for business."

  • We need political leaders to recognize the problem,

  • and to commit to changing the law to open up this sort of secrecy.

  • Together, we can end the secrecy

  • that is currently allowing tax evasion,

  • corruption, money laundering to flourish.

[On April 3, 2016 we saw the largest data leak in history.]

譯者: 易帆 余 審譯者: Harry Chen

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 公司 律師 巴拿馬 文件 見證

【TED】羅伯特-帕爾默:巴拿馬文件暴露了一個巨大的全球問題。下一步是什麼?(巴拿馬文件暴露了一個巨大的全球問題。下一步是什麼?| 羅伯特-帕爾默)。) (【TED】Robert Palmer: The Panama Papers exposed a huge global problem. What's next? (The Panama Papers exposed a huge global problem. What's next? | Robert Palmer))

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