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  • So, I have an overlooked but potentially lucrative

    譯者: 易帆 余 審譯者: Allen Kuo

  • investment opportunity for you.

    我有一個被人們忽視,

  • Over the past 10 years in the UK,

    但很有搞頭的投資機會 要介紹給你們。

  • the return on burial plots has outperformed the UK property market

    過去10年,在英國

  • by a ratio of around three to one.

    墓地的投資報酬率比 英國的房地產還要好,

  • There are private cemeteries being set up with plots for sale to investors,

    兩者的比例大致為 3:1

  • and they start at around 3,900 pounds.

    有些私人的墓園被開發出來 提供給投資者購買,

  • And they're projected to achieve about 40 percent growth.

    價格從大約3900英鎊起跳。

  • The biggest advantage is that this is a market with continuous demand.

    他們預估可達到百分之四十的成長率。

  • Now, this is a real proposition,

    最大的優點是...

  • and there are companies out there that really are offering this investment,

    這是一個有持續性需求的市場.....(笑聲)

  • but my interest in it is quite different.

    現在,這真的是一門生意

  • I'm an architect and urban designer,

    而且真有公司提供 這樣的投資標的,

  • and for the past year and a half,

    但是,我對它有個很不一樣的興趣。

  • I've been looking at approaches to death and dying

    我是一個建築師和城市設計師,

  • and at how they've shaped our cities and the buildings within them.

    而在過去的一年半,

  • So in the summer, I did my first exhibition

    我都在研究死亡和臨終的方法,

  • on death and architecture in Venice,

    以及研究墓地是如何塑造 我們的城市和裡面的建築物。

  • and it was called "Death in Venice."

    今年夏天,我在威尼斯舉辦了我的第一個

  • And because death is a subject

    有關死亡和建築的展覽會。

  • that many of us find quite uncomfortable to talk about,

    展覽的名字是「 威尼斯之死 」

  • the exhibition was designed to be quite playful,

    因為死亡是一個

  • so that people would literally engage with it.

    我們許多人很不喜歡談的主題,

  • So one of our exhibits was an interactive map of London

    展覽會設計得很俏皮,

  • which showed just how much of the real estate in the city

    來使人們真正願意參與。

  • is given over to death.

    我們的展出其中一項是倫敦的互動地圖,

  • As you wave your hand across the map,

    顯示倫敦有多少房地產

  • the name of the piece of real estate -- the building or the cemetery --

    是提供給死亡這件事情。

  • is revealed.

    當你在地圖上揮揮手,

  • And those white shapes that you can see,

    這些房地產 - 大樓或是墓地的名字 就會顯示出來。

  • they're all of the hospitals and hospices

    你們看到的白色形狀的

  • and mortuaries and cemeteries in the city.

    是市區內的醫院和臨終關懷院

  • In fact, the majority are cemeteries.

    以及太平間和墓地。

  • We wanted to show that, even though death and burial are things

    事實上,大多數都是墓地。

  • that we might not think about,

    我們想證明,即使死亡和埋葬

  • they're all around us, and they're important parts of our cities.

    可能是我們平常不會去想的事情,

  • So about half a million people die in the UK each year,

    但它們環繞著我們, 而且是我們城市中很重要的部分。

  • and of those, around a quarter will want to be buried.

    英國每年大約有50萬人死亡,

  • But the UK, like many Western European countries,

    其中,大約四分之一的人希望被土葬。

  • is running out of burial space,

    但是在英國,和許多西歐的國家一樣,

  • especially in the major cities.

    都快要沒有埋葬的土地。

  • And the Greater London Authority has been aware of this for a while,

    特別是在各大主要城市。

  • and the main causes are population growth,

    大倫敦當權者早就 意識到這一點了,

  • the fact that existing cemeteries are almost full.

    主要的原因是人口成長,

  • There's a custom in the UK that graves are considered to be occupied forever,

    以及現存墓地容量幾乎全滿。

  • and there's also development pressure -- people want to use that same land

    英國有一個不成文慣例, 墳墓被認為是可永久佔有的,

  • to build houses or offices or shops.

    但是也有發展的壓力 - 人們也想利用同樣的地

  • So they came up with a few solutions.

    來蓋房子,辦公室,或店面。

  • They were like, well, maybe we can reuse those graves after 50 years.

    所以,他們想出幾個辦法。

  • Or maybe we can bury people, like, four deep,

    一個是,或許我們可以重新使用 已經埋了50年以上的墳墓。

  • so that four people can be buried in the same plot,

    或者,或許我們在同一塊地

  • and we can make more efficient use of the land that way,

    的四個不同深度埋四個人,

  • and in that way, hopefully London will still have space to bury people

    這樣就可以更有效率地使用那塊地,

  • in the near future.

    這樣做之後,希望倫敦在短期內

  • But, traditionally, cemeteries haven't been taken care of

    還擁有足夠的墓地來埋葬人。

  • by the local authority.

    但是,傳統上,墓地從來沒有

  • In fact, the surprising thing is that there's no legal obligation

    被地方當權者重視過。

  • on anyone in the UK to provide burial space.

    事實上,令人意想不到的是,

  • Traditionally, it's been done by private and religious organizations,

    在英國任何人都沒有法律義務 必須要提供安葬空間。

  • like churches and mosques and synagogues.

    傳統上,都是私人和宗教組織在提供,

  • But there's also occasionally been a for-profit group

    比如教堂、清真寺以及猶太會堂,

  • who has wanted to get in on the act.

    但偶爾也會有盈利組織 想要插花搞一下。

  • And, you know, they look at the small size of a burial plot

    他們專注在小尺寸、

  • and that high cost,

    高單價的墓地,

  • and it looks like there's serious money to be made.

    這看起來似乎真的很有搞頭。

  • So, actually, if you want to go out and start your own cemetery,

    所以,事實上, 如果你想開始經營自己的墳場,

  • you kind of can.

    你是可以辦到的。

  • There was this couple in South Wales,

    有這麼一對南威爾士的夫妻,

  • and they had a farmhouse and a load of fields next to it,

    他們有一個農舍,旁邊還有一大片地,

  • and they wanted to develop the land.

    他們想要開發這塊地。

  • They had a load of ideas.

    他們有很多的想法,

  • They first thought about making a caravan park,

    他們第一個想法是 做一個露營車公園,

  • but the council said no.

    但是地方議會說不行。

  • And then they wanted to make a fish farm

    然後他們想弄一個養魚場,

  • and again the council said no.

    地方議會還是說不行。

  • Then they hit on the idea of making a cemetery

    然後他們想到了蓋墳場的主意,

  • and they calculated that by doing this,

    他們計算過,如果這樣做

  • they could increase the value of their land

    可以提升他們的土地價值。

  • from about 95,000 pounds to over one million pounds.

    大概從 9.5萬英磅提升到 超過100萬英磅。

  • But just to come back to this idea of making profit from cemeteries,

    但....回過頭來想想, 這個透過墳場來獲利的主意

  • like, it's kind of ludicrous, right?

    好像有點荒唐可笑,對吧?

  • The thing is that the high cost of those burial plots

    事情是這樣的,這些墓地的高單價

  • is actually very misleading.

    其實非常誤導人。

  • They look like they're expensive,

    它們看起來似乎很貴,

  • but that cost reflects the fact that you need to maintain the burial plot --

    但這個價格也反映出一個事實 --你需要去維護這些墓地,

  • like, someone has to cut the grass for the next 50 years.

    比如說,在接下來的50年裡 需要有人去除草。

  • That means it's very difficult to make money from cemeteries.

    那就意味著很難從墓園中賺到錢。

  • And it's the reason that normally they're run by the council

    這也是為什麼通常 這些墓園是被地方議會

  • or by a not-for-profit group.

    或者非盈利組織經營。

  • But anyway, the council granted these people permission,

    但不管怎麼說, 這些人獲得了地方議會的批准,

  • and they're now trying to build their cemetery.

    他們正在試著建造他們的墓園。

  • So just to explain to you kind of how this works:

    跟你們解釋一下這件事是如何操作的:

  • If I want to build something in the UK,

    在英國,如果我想蓋個什麼東西,

  • like a cemetery for example,

    比如說一個墓園,

  • then I have to apply for planning permission first.

    那麼我首先得申請規劃許可,

  • So if I want to build a new office building for a client

    因此如果我想幫客戶 蓋一棟新的辦公大樓

  • or if I want to extend my home

    或是擴建自己的房屋,

  • or, you know, if I have a shop and I want to convert it into an office,

    或者,如果我有一個商店, 想把它改成辦公室,

  • I have to do a load of drawings,

    我得畫很多圖,

  • and I submit them to the council for permission.

    然後提交到地方議會去批准,

  • And they'll look at things like how it fits in the surroundings.

    然後他們會調查它與 周圍的環境是否搭配,

  • So they'll look at what it looks like.

    所以他們會仔細看 這個規劃長什麼樣子。

  • But they'll also think about things like what impact is it going to have

    但他們也會考慮 這將來會給當地環境

  • on the local environment?

    帶來什麼樣的影響?

  • And they'll be thinking about things like,

    他們也會考慮,比如說

  • is this thing going to cause pollution

    這個規劃會導致污染嗎?

  • or is there going to be a lot of traffic

    或者會不會有很大的交通流量

  • that wants to go to this thing that I've built?

    湧向我蓋好的標的物?

  • But also good things.

    但也會考慮正面的影響,

  • Is it going to add local services like shops to the neighborhood

    它附近是否會增加像是商店這類

  • that local people would like to use?

    本地居民會想使用的服務設施?

  • And they'll weigh up the advantages and the disadvantages

    之後他們會權衡利弊,

  • and they'll make a decision.

    然後做出決定。

  • So that's how it works if I want to build a large cemetery.

    所以,如果我想蓋一座大型墓園, 就得這樣操作。

  • But what if I've got a piece of land

    但是如果我有一塊地,

  • and I just want to bury a few people, like five or six?

    而我只想在裡面埋葬少數的人, 例如5或6個,又會怎樣?

  • Well, then -- actually, I don't need permission from anyone!

    那麼,事實上,我不需要任何人批准!

  • There's actually almost no regulation in the UK around burial,

    在英國實際上幾乎沒有 殯葬的相關規定,

  • and the little bit that there is, is about not polluting water courses,

    僅有的一點就是,不能污染水源,

  • like not polluting rivers or groundwater.

    比如說不能污染河流或者地下水。

  • So actually, if you want to go and make your own mini-cemetery,

    所以,如果你想建造你的小墓園,

  • then you can.

    是沒問題的。

  • But I mean, like -- really, who does this? Right?

    但我的意思是,說真的, 誰會這樣做?對吧?

  • Well, if you're an aristocratic family and you have a large estate,

    如果你是一個貴族家庭 並且擁有大片土地,

  • then there's a chance that you'll have a mausoleum on it,

    那麼你有機會蓋一個陵墓,

  • and you'll bury your family there.

    並將你的家族成員埋葬於此。

  • But the really weird thing

    但真正奇怪的是

  • is that you don't need to have a piece of land of a certain size

    在你要開始埋葬一個人之前,

  • before you're allowed to start burying people on it.

    你不需要擁有一塊某種大小的地。

  • And so that means that, technically,

    也就是說,技術上,

  • this applies to, like, the back garden of your house in the suburbs.

    在你郊區家中的後花園也可以。

  • (Laughter)

    ( 笑聲 )

  • So what if you wanted to try this yourself at home?

    所以,如果你想要自己在家搞墓園, 要怎麼做呢?

  • Well, there's a few councils that have guidance on their website

    是的,有一些地方議會網站上

  • which can help you.

    是有些指引可以幫助你的。

  • So, the first thing that they tell you

    第一件事情他們會告訴你,

  • is that you need to have a certificate of burial before you can go ahead --

    在開始之前,你必須要有埋葬證書 -

  • you're not allowed to just murder people and put them under the patio.

    謀殺某些人然後把他們 埋在天井是行不通的。

  • (Laughter)

    ( 笑聲 )

  • They also tell you that you need to keep a record of where the grave is.

    他們也會告訴,你要把 墳墓的位置紀錄下來。

  • But that's pretty much it for formal requirements.

    但這些只是正式的要求。

  • Now, they do warn you that your neighbors might not like this,

    他們還會警告你, 你的鄰居可能不會喜歡,

  • but, legally speaking, there's almost nothing that they can do about it.

    但就法律而言, 他們幾乎一點也沒輒。

  • And just in case any of you still had that profit idea in your mind

    但萬一你們任何人之中 仍有想賺錢的念頭呢?

  • about how much those burial plots cost

    例如,這些墓地要花多少成本,

  • and how much money you might be able to make,

    然後大概可以賺多少,

  • they also warn that it might cause the value of your house

    他們也會警告你, 你的計劃可能會造成房價

  • to drop by 20 percent.

    下跌20%。

  • Although, actually, it's more likely

    雖然事實上,在那之後 大概也沒人會想買你的房子

  • that no one will want to buy your house at all after that.

    所以,我發現這件事迷人的地方

  • So what I find fascinating about this

    就是它可以歸納出 社會大眾面對死亡的態度。

  • is the fact that it kind of sums up many of our attitudes towards death.

    在英國,而我想在歐洲 應該也是差不多的數字,

  • In the UK, and I think that the figures across Europe are probably similar,

    只有30%的人曾經與其他人 談論過關於死亡這件事的願望,

  • only about 30 percent of people have ever talked to anyone

    甚至是超過75歲的人,

  • about their wishes around death,

    只有45%的人曾經討論過死亡。

  • and even for people over 75,

    而人們給的答案就是...你知道的,

  • only 45 percent of people have ever talked about this.

    他們認為死亡離自己還很遠,

  • And the reasons that people give ... you know,

    或者他們認為,談論死亡 會讓對方不舒服。

  • they think that their death is far off

    而你也知道,在某種程度上,

  • or they think that they're going to make people uncomfortable

    還有其他人在替我們關心這些事,

  • by talking about it.

    政府有整套相關的規範及制度,

  • And you know, to a certain extent,

    例如,死亡埋葬法,

  • there are other people out there who are taking care of things for us.

    還有葬儀社的人

  • The government has all this regulation and bureaucracy around things

    貢獻他們所有的生命在這些事上。

  • like burying a death, for example,

    但一談到我們的城市,

  • and there's people like funeral directors

    並想想死亡如何融入於我們的城市,

  • who devote their entire working lives to this issue.

    那些規範、設計及想法 比我們想像的還要少,

  • But when it comes to our cities

    所以,我們現在沒有在想這些事,

  • and thinking about how death fits in our cities,

    而且在我們想像中, 在想這些事情的人 -

  • there's much less regulation and design and thought

    基本上,他們也不會在乎的。

  • than we might imagine.

    謝謝。

  • So we're not thinking about this,

  • but all of the people we imagine are thinking about it --

  • they're not taking care of it either.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

So, I have an overlooked but potentially lucrative

譯者: 易帆 余 審譯者: Allen Kuo

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