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  • Have you ever wondered what animals think and feel?

    譯者: Gentian Pan 審譯者: Adrienne Lin

  • Let's start with a question:

    你可曾想過動物在想什麼? 感受為何?

  • Does my dog really love me, or does she just want a treat?

    我們從這問題講起:

  • Well, it's easy to see that our dog really loves us,

    我的狗真的愛我? 還是她只想吃零食?

  • easy to see, right,

    當然我們都知道 我們的狗是真的愛我們。

  • what's going on in that fuzzy little head.

    簡單就看得出來,對吧?

  • What is going on?

    可以想像這些毛絨絨的 小腦袋裡想著什麼嗎?

  • Something's going on.

    所以牠們到底在想什麼?

  • But why is the question always do they love us?

    一定有些事。

  • Why is it always about us?

    但是為什麼我們總是 問牠們是否愛我們?

  • Why are we such narcissists?

    為什麼問題總是關於我們?

  • I found a different question to ask animals.

    為何我們如此自戀?

  • Who are you?

    我想問動物另一個問題:

  • There are capacities of the human mind

    你是誰?

  • that we tend to think are capacities only of the human mind.

    人類的智力具有數種能力,

  • But is that true?

    我們一向認為是只有人類才擁有的能力。

  • What are other beings doing with those brains?

    但是事實真是如此嗎?

  • What are they thinking and feeling?

    其他生物跟腦有何關係?

  • Is there a way to know?

    牠們思考和感受到什麼?

  • I think there is a way in.

    能有辦法知道嗎?

  • I think there are several ways in.

    我認為可以,

  • We can look at evolution, we can look at their brains

    我認為有一些方法可以。

  • and we can watch what they do.

    我們可以看看演化過程, 我們可以看看牠們的大腦,

  • The first thing to remember is: our brain is inherited.

    我們也可以觀察牠們的習性。

  • The first neurons came from jellyfish.

    首先要記得: 我們的頭腦是演化繼承而來的。

  • Jellyfish gave rise to the first chordates.

    最古老的神經元來自水母。

  • The first chordates gave rise to the first vertebrates.

    水母演化成早期的脊索動物,

  • The vertebrates came out of the sea,

    脊索動物演化成脊椎動物,

  • and here we are.

    脊椎動物走出海洋,

  • But it's still true that a neuron, a nerve cell, looks the same

    然後演化成我們。

  • in a crayfish, a bird or you.

    然而,這仍是事實: 神經元、神經細胞看起來都一樣,

  • What does that say about the minds of crayfish?

    不管存在於小龍蝦、鳥, 或是你都一樣。

  • Can we tell anything about that?

    那這些事實又怎樣說明 小龍蝦的頭腦呢?

  • Well, it turns out that if you give a crayfish

    我們能知道什麼?

  • a lot of little tiny electric shocks

    我們發現如果你給一隻小龍蝦

  • every time it tries to come out of its burrow,

    多次的微量電擊,

  • it will develop anxiety.

    每次牠想從地洞裡出來時 都這麼做的話,

  • If you give the crayfish the same drug

    牠會變得緊張。

  • used to treat anxiety disorder in humans,

    如果你給小龍蝦人類的藥物,

  • it relaxes and comes out and explores.

    一些治療人類焦慮症的藥物,

  • How do we show how much we care about crayfish anxiety?

    牠會放鬆然後爬出來走一走。

  • Mostly, we boil them.

    那如何呈現我們 多麼在乎小龍蝦的焦慮?

  • (Laughter)

    我們大都把牠們烹煮了吧。

  • Octopuses use tools, as well as do most apes

    (笑聲)

  • and they recognize human faces.

    章魚也使用工具, 做得跟多數猿類一樣熟練,

  • How do we celebrate the ape-like intelligence of this invertebrate?

    牠們也會識別人臉。

  • Mostly boiled.

    我們要如何讚頌 這如猿類智力般的無脊椎動物?

  • If a grouper chases a fish into a crevice in the coral,

    我們大都把牠們烹煮了吧。

  • it will sometimes go to where it knows a moray eel is sleeping

    如果石斑魚將魚趕到珊瑚縫中,

  • and it will signal to the moray, "Follow me,"

    牠有時候會游去 已知道有海鰻睡覺的地方,

  • and the moray will understand that signal.

    然後對著海鰻發出 「跟我走」的信號,

  • The moray may go into the crevice and get the fish,

    海鰻可以理解牠的意思,

  • but the fish may bolt and the grouper may get it.

    然後跟著游進珊瑚縫去捕獵魚,

  • This is an ancient partnership that we have just recently found out about.

    但魚可能逃脫, 而石斑魚就可以逮到牠。

  • How do we celebrate that ancient partnership?

    這種古老的合作關係 我們最近才發現。

  • Mostly fried.

    我們要如何讚頌 這古老的合作關係?

  • A pattern is emerging and it says a lot more about us

    我們大都把牠們炸了吧!

  • than it does about them.

    這些行為模式的出現 更加清楚說明了我們的行為,

  • Sea otters use tools

    並不單只是說明了牠們的。

  • and they take time away from what they're doing

    水瀨會用工具,

  • to show their babies what to do, which is called teaching.

    而且他們挪出時間

  • Chimpanzees don't teach.

    示範動作給牠們的寶寶看, 這就是教學。

  • Killer whales teach and killer whales share food.

    黑猩猩沒有教學行為。

  • When evolution makes something new,

    虎鯨不但會教學, 也會分享食物。

  • it uses the parts it has in stock, off the shelf,

    在演化創造新生物時,

  • before it fabricates a new twist.

    保留原有部分的血統體系,

  • And our brain has come to us

    再分化轉變。

  • through the enormity of the deep sweep of time.

    而我們現在所演化而成的大腦

  • If you look at the human brain compared to a chimpanzee brain,

    歷經了時間的巨輪。

  • what you see is we have basically a very big chimpanzee brain.

    如果你拿人類的大腦 與黑猩猩的大腦來比較,

  • It's a good thing ours is bigger, because we're also really insecure.

    你看到的基本上是 我們有一顆很大的黑猩猩大腦。

  • (Laughter)

    我們頭腦較大是好事, 因為我們很真的很沒信心。

  • But, uh oh, there's a dolphin,

    (笑聲)

  • a bigger brain with more convolutions.

    然而... 喔哦... 這是的海豚大腦。

  • OK, maybe you're saying, all right, well, we see brains,

    這是更大的腦, 皺摺也更多。

  • but what does that have to say about minds?

    好了,也許你會說: 「沒錯我們看到大腦,

  • Well, we can see the working of the mind

    但這跟心智有什麼關係呢?」

  • in the logic of behaviors.

    嗯,我們可以看到心智

  • So these elephants, you can see,

    在行為邏輯中的活動。

  • obviously, they are resting.

    所以你看這些大象

  • They have found a patch of shade under the palm trees

    很明顯正在休息。

  • under which to let their babies sleep,

    牠們在棕梠樹下找到一方樹蔭,

  • while they doze but remain vigilant.

    作為牠們寶寶睡覺的地方,

  • We make perfect sense of that image

    牠們自己則在小盹中也仍維持警戒。

  • just as they make perfect sense of what they're doing

    我們相當能理解這個景象,

  • because under the arc of the same sun on the same plains,

    就像動物完全可以理解他們正在做什麼,

  • listening to the howls of the same dangers,

    因為同在一個太陽下、同一片平原上,

  • they became who they are and we became who we are.

    聆聽著相同危險的怒號聲音,

  • We've been neighbors for a very long time.

    牠們演化成牠們如今的模樣, 正如我們演化成現成我們現今的模樣。

  • No one would mistake these elephants as being relaxed.

    我們有很長一段時間 一直為相比為鄰。

  • They're obviously very concerned about something.

    沒人會誤以為 這些大象的情緒是鬆懈的,

  • What are they concerned about?

    牠們顯然正擔心某些事物。

  • It turns out that if you record the voices of tourists

    牠們在擔心什麼呢?

  • and you play that recording from a speaker hidden in bushes,

    如果你將遊客的聲音錄下來,

  • elephants will ignore it, because tourists never bother elephants.

    然後從草叢裡的擴音器播放音檔,

  • But if you record the voices of herders

    大象會無視錄音, 因為大象從不會操心遊客。

  • who carry spears and often hurt elephants in confrontations at water holes,

    但如果你錄的是牧人的聲音,

  • the elephants will bunch up and run away from the hidden speaker.

    牧人都攜帶長矛 且經常在水源地和大象對峙,

  • Not only do elephants know that there are humans,

    大象就會集結在一起跑走, 遠離隱藏的擴音器,

  • they know that there are different kinds of humans,

    大象不僅知道這是人類的聲音,

  • and that some are OK and some are dangerous.

    他們也知道人類分為好幾種,

  • They have been watching us for much longer than we have been watching them.

    有些人類還是好的, 有些人類則是危險的。

  • They know us better than we know them.

    大象觀察我們的時間 遠比我們觀察牠們的時間多。

  • We have the same imperatives:

    牠們了解我們的程度 遠超過我們了解牠們的程度。

  • take care of our babies, find food, try to stay alive.

    我們和大象有相同的生存責任:

  • Whether we're outfitted for hiking in the hills of Africa

    照顧嬰兒、覓食、試著活下去。

  • or outfitted for diving under the sea, we are basically the same.

    無論是我們是穿戴旅行裝備 健走在非洲的山丘,

  • We are kin under the skin.

    或是穿戴潛水裝備潛入海底, 我們基本上都是一樣的,

  • The elephant has the same skeleton,

    我們在皮囊之下是一樣的。

  • the killer whale has the same skeleton,

    大象有相同的骨架,

  • as do we.

    殺人鯨有相同的骨架,

  • We see helping where help is needed.

    我們亦是如此。

  • We see curiosity in the young.

    我們能看到牠們互相幫助,

  • We see the bonds of family connections.

    我們明白年幼者的好奇心,

  • We recognize affection.

    我們了解家人之間的聯繫,

  • Courtship is courtship.

    我們領悟愛情,

  • And then we ask, "Are they conscious?"

    追求愛。

  • When you get general anesthesia, it makes you unconscious,

    於是我們想問:「動物也有意識嗎?」

  • which means you have no sensation of anything.

    如果你服用了麻醉劑, 你就會暫時失去意識,

  • Consciousness is simply the thing that feels like something.

    也就是說你對任何事情 都不會有知覺。

  • If you see, if you hear, if you feel, if you're aware of anything,

    意識簡單地說 就是感覺與比對。

  • you are conscious, and they are conscious.

    如果你看見、聽見 感覺、認知到任何東西,

  • Some people say

    你就是有意識的, 而且動物也是。

  • well, there are certain things that make humans humans,

    有人說,

  • and one of those things is empathy.

    人之所以為人,有一些特點,

  • Empathy is the mind's ability to match moods with your companions.

    其中之一就是同理心。

  • It's a very useful thing.

    同理心是能夠感受 同伴情緒的心靈力量。

  • If your companions start to move quickly,

    這是有益的事情。

  • you have to feel like you need to hurry up.

    如果同伴開始快速動作,

  • We're all in a hurry now.

    你便會覺得也應該加快腳步, 我們都在急促追趕中。

  • The oldest form of empathy is contagious fear.

    同理心最古老的一種形式 就是具有傳染力的恐懼。

  • If your companions suddenly startle and fly away,

    如果你的同伴 突然受驚嚇且全部飛走,

  • it does not work very well for you to say,

    如果你還像這樣悠悠哉哉地說:

  • "Jeez, I wonder why everybody just left."

    「老天,為何大家都飛走了!」 這對你沒有什麼幫助。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Empathy is old, but empathy, like everything else in life,

    同理心雖然存在已久, 但像生活大小事一樣,

  • comes on a sliding scale and has its elaboration.

    排山倒海而來,有其精密複雜。

  • So there's basic empathy: you feel sad, it makes me sad.

    基本的同理心是: 如果你很難過,我也會跟著難過,

  • I see you happy, it makes me happy.

    我看見你高興,所以我也高興。

  • Then there's something that I call sympathy,

    還有一種情感我稱之為同情心,

  • a little more removed:

    情緒稍微疏離一點:

  • "I'm sorry to hear that your grandmother has just passed away.

    「我很難過聽到你祖母剛過世的消息。」

  • I don't feel that same grief, but I get it; I know what you feel

    雖然我沒有感到同樣的悲傷, 但我懂,我知道那感覺,

  • and it concerns me."

    這讓我擔心。

  • And then if we're motivated to act on sympathy,

    而如果我們被觸發了 同情心因而產生行動,

  • I call that compassion.

    我稱那為憐憫。

  • Far from being the thing that makes us human,

    這根本不是人類獨特所有,

  • human empathy is far from perfect.

    人類同理心也並非那麼完美。

  • We round up empathic creatures, we kill them and we eat them.

    我們圍捕擁有同理心的動物, 殺死牠們,把牠們吃掉。

  • Now, maybe you say OK, well, those are different species.

    你可能會說:好了,好吧。 牠們是不同物種嘛。

  • That's just predation, and humans are predators.

    肉若強食很正常啊, 人類是肉食動物。

  • But we don't treat our own kind too well either.

    然而我們對待同胞也沒多好。

  • People who seem to know only one thing about animal behavior

    人們也似乎只認識一種動物行為,

  • know that you must never attribute human thoughts and emotions

    就是你絕對不能 將人類的思想和情緒

  • to other species.

    套用在其他物種身上。

  • Well, I think that's silly,

    我覺得這是愚蠢的,

  • because attributing human thoughts and emotions to other species

    因為把人類思緒和情感 套用在其他物種身上,

  • is the best first guess about what they're doing and how they're feeling,

    是了解牠們的最佳第一步, 猜測牠們在做什麼、感覺如何,

  • because their brains are basically the same as ours.

    因為牠們的大腦 基本上和我們一樣,

  • They have the same structures.

    有相同的結構,

  • The same hormones that create mood and motivation in us

    造就我們情緒與動力的賀爾蒙

  • are in those brains as well.

    也同樣在牠們的大腦中。

  • It is not scientific to say that they are hungry when they're hunting

    這並不是科學的說法: 牠們餓了才會獵食、

  • and they're tired when their tongues are hanging out,

    牠們舌頭垂在外面時, 就表示牠們是累了。

  • and then say when they're playing with their children

    或者說,當牠們和孩子玩耍,

  • and acting joyful and happy,

    行為表現喜悅和快樂的時候,

  • we have no idea if they can possibly be experiencing anything.

    我們無從了解是否牠們真的感受如此。

  • That is not scientific.

    這些說法不科學。

  • So OK, so a reporter said to me,

    所以,好了,有個記者跟我說:

  • "Maybe, but how do you really know that other animals can think and feel?"

    「也許吧,但你如何真正知道 其他動物能思考與感覺?」

  • And I started to rifle through all the hundreds

    我開始到處搜尋

  • of scientific references that I put in my book

    我書裡引用的所有科學參考資料,

  • and I realized that the answer was right in the room with me.

    我發現答案就在我的房間裡。

  • When my dog gets off the rug and comes over to me --

    當我的狗起身離開了毯子, 來到我身邊,

  • not to the couch, to me --

    沒有跑到沙發,而是跑向我,

  • and she rolls over on her back and exposes her belly,

    她滾躺著露出肚子,

  • she has had the thought, "I would like my belly rubbed.

    她所想的是:「我要肚子抓抓。

  • I know that I can go over to Carl,

    我知道我可以跑到卡爾那,

  • he will understand what I'm asking.

    他會知道我想要什麼,

  • I know I can trust him because we're family.

    我信任他,因為我們是家人。

  • He'll get the job done, and it will feel good."

    他會把事情做好,讓我開心。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • She has thought and she has felt,

    她有思考過,而且她也感覺到了。

  • and it's really not more complicated than that.

    這真的沒有那麼複雜。

  • But we see other animals and we say, "Oh look, killer whales,

    當我們欣賞其他動物時說: 「瞧!虎鯨、狼、大象。」

  • wolves, elephants:

    這並非牠們觀察其他動物的方式。

  • that's not how they see it."

    這隻背鰭高大的公鯨叫 L41,

  • That tall-finned male is L41.

    38歲,

  • He's 38 years old.

    在牠左側的母鯨是 L22,

  • The female right on his left side is L22.

    44歲。

  • She's 44.

    牠們彼此認識已經幾十年了。

  • They've known each other for decades.

    牠們知道自己是誰,

  • They know exactly who they are.

    牠們知道誰是朋友,

  • They know who their friends are.

    牠們知道誰是敵人。

  • They know who their rivals are.

    牠們也有生涯曲線。

  • Their life follows the arc of a career.

    總是知道自己身處何處。

  • They know where they are all the time.

    這隻叫作菲洛的大象,

  • This is an elephant named Philo.

    是年輕的公象。

  • He was a young male.

    四天之後牠變成這樣。

  • This is him four days later.

    人類不只可以感受悲傷, 我們做了很多這種駭人之舉。

  • Humans not only can feel grief, we create an awful lot of it.

    我們想拔除牠們的象牙,

  • We want to carve their teeth.

    但為何就不能等牠們死亡後再做?

  • Why can't we wait for them to die?

    大象曾經分布在地中海的沿岸,

  • Elephants once ranged from the shores of the Mediterranean Sea

    一路到好望角。

  • all the way down to the Cape of Good Hope.

    1980年這裡是大象的廣大分布區,

  • In 1980, there were vast strongholds of elephant range

    就在中非、東非。

  • in Central and Eastern Africa.

    而現在牠們散布到零星的區域。

  • And now their range is shattered into little shards.

    這是我們造成大象滅絕的情況,

  • This is the geography of an animal that we are driving to extinction,

    牠們是地表上最壯觀的動物、 也我們的同伴。

  • a fellow being, the most magnificent creature on land.

    當然,在美國我們 照顧野生動物更為周到。

  • Of course, we take much better care of our wildlife in the United States.

    我們在黃石公園 獵殺每隻一隻狼,

  • In Yellowstone National Park, we killed every single wolf.

    其實我們也在加拿大的南境 獵殺每一隻狼。

  • We killed every single wolf south of the Canadian border, actually.

    在1920年代, 森林警備隊都在執行這種任務。

  • But in the park, park rangers did that in the 1920s,

    而60年後,他們必須增加狼群數量,

  • and then 60 years later they had to bring them back,

    因為駝鹿的數目已經失控。

  • because the elk numbers had gotten out of control.

    然後遊客也來了,

  • And then people came.

    成千上萬的人前來觀賞狼群,

  • People came by the thousands to see the wolves,

    這裡是全世界最容易 看到狼群的地方。

  • the most accessibly visible wolves in the world.

    我也前往觀察這個 令人驚嘆的野狼家族,

  • And I went there and I watched this incredible family of wolves.

    這是一個狼群家族,

  • A pack is a family.

    有成年的狼與幾代年輕的狼。

  • It has some breeding adults and the young of several generations.

    我在黃石公園觀察這個 名聲響亮、最穩定的野狼家族。

  • And I watched the most famous, most stable pack in Yellowstone National Park.

    當牠們徘徊在邊境,

  • And then, when they wandered just outside the border,

    有兩隻成年狼被獵殺了,

  • two of their adults were killed,

    其中一隻是雌狼媽媽,

  • including the mother,

    我們有時候稱之為頭號母狼。

  • which we sometimes call the alpha female.

    剩下的狼族立即展開了兄弟鬩牆。

  • The rest of the family immediately descended into sibling rivalry.

    狼的姊妹彼此互相驅離,

  • Sisters kicked out other sisters.

    左邊的這一隻狼有好幾天想回到家族,

  • That one on the left tried for days to rejoin her family.

    但其他狼不接受,因為忌妒她,

  • They wouldn't let her because they were jealous of her.

    她受到另外兩隻新公狼太多的關注了。

  • She was getting too much attention from two new males,

    她太早熟了,

  • and she was the precocious one.

    對其它狼來說,這太麻煩。

  • That was too much for them.

    後來,牠在公園裡徘徊, 後來被獵殺了。

  • She wound up wandering outside the park and getting shot.

    頭號公狼也被逐出家族。

  • The alpha male wound up being ejected from his own family.

    隨著冬季到來,