Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • So whenever I visit a school and talk to students,

    譯者: Ming Gui Tan 審譯者: Allen Kuo

  • I always ask them the same thing:

    每當我拜訪一所學校 跟那裡的學生交流

  • Why do you Google?

    我都會問同樣的問題:

  • Why is Google the search engine of choice for you?

    你為什麼用Google?

  • Strangely enough, I always get the same three answers.

    為什麼Google 是你獨愛的搜索引擎?

  • One, "Because it works,"

    很奇妙, 答案永遠是這三種。

  • which is a great answer; that's why I Google, too.

    一、因為有用。

  • Two, somebody will say,

    的確是不錯的答案, 我也是因此而使用Google的。

  • "I really don't know of any alternatives."

    二、有些人會說,

  • It's not an equally great answer and my reply to that is usually,

    「我真的不知道還有什麼選擇」

  • "Try to Google the word 'search engine,'

    這不是很好的答案, 我通常這樣回應,

  • you may find a couple of interesting alternatives."

    「試試看用Google搜索 『搜索引擎』

  • And last but not least, thirdly,

    你將會找到其他 更有趣的選擇。」

  • inevitably, one student will raise her or his hand and say,

    最後但一樣重要的是,三、

  • "With Google, I'm certain to always get the best, unbiased search result."

    一定會有學生會舉手說,

  • Certain to always get the best, unbiased search result.

    「透過Google,我很肯定能找到 最好、最沒有偏差的結果」

  • Now, as a man of the humanities,

    肯定能夠找到最好、 最沒有偏差的結果。

  • albeit a digital humanities man,

    學人文學的我,

  • that just makes my skin curl,

    雖然是數位人文學,

  • even if I, too, realize that that trust, that idea of the unbiased search result

    聽到這句話真是令人發毛,

  • is a cornerstone in our collective love for and appreciation of Google.

    即便我也發覺到這種信任、 這種無偏差搜尋結果的想法

  • I will show you why that, philosophically, is almost an impossibility.

    是我們對於Google共同的喜愛 和感激的基礎。

  • But let me first elaborate, just a little bit, on a basic principle

    我等等會透過哲學思維 證明給你看這句話根本不可能成立。

  • behind each search query that we sometimes seem to forget.

    但我要事先 稍微闡述每個搜尋查詢背後的

  • So whenever you set out to Google something,

    基本運作, 這些是我們常常忽略的。

  • start by asking yourself this: "Am I looking for an isolated fact?"

    每次當你開始用Google查詢,

  • What is the capital of France?

    先問問自己: 「我在尋找單一的事實嗎?」

  • What are the building blocks of a water molecule?

    法國的首都在哪裡?

  • Great -- Google away.

    構成水分子的 基本結構是什麼?

  • There's not a group of scientists who are this close to proving

    很好--用Google搜尋吧!

  • that it's actually London and H30.

    不會有一群科學家 有那麼一點點可能證明

  • You don't see a big conspiracy among those things.

    答案是倫敦和H3O的。

  • We agree, on a global scale,

    這當中沒有什麼陰謀。

  • what the answers are to these isolated facts.

    我們大家都同意

  • But if you complicate your question just a little bit and ask something like,

    這些事實的真偽是什麼。

  • "Why is there an Israeli-Palestine conflict?"

    但如果你問的問題 稍微複雜一點,像是

  • You're not exactly looking for a singular fact anymore,

    「為什麼以色列 和巴勒斯坦會有衝突?」

  • you're looking for knowledge,

    你要的不只是單一的事實了,

  • which is something way more complicated and delicate.

    你要的是知識,

  • And to get to knowledge,

    是更加複雜也更加細微的東西。

  • you have to bring 10 or 20 or 100 facts to the table

    而為了獲得知識,

  • and acknowledge them and say, "Yes, these are all true."

    你得列出10個、20個 甚至100個事實

  • But because of who I am,

    然後承認它們,並且說: 「是的,這些都是事實。」

  • young or old, black or white, gay or straight,

    但會因為我是誰,

  • I will value them differently.

    是年輕人或老人、黑人或白人、 同性戀或異性戀,

  • And I will say, "Yes, this is true,

    而對它們產生不同評價。

  • but this is more important to me than that."

    然後我會說:「對,這是事實,

  • And this is where it becomes interesting,

    但我覺得這個比那個重要。」

  • because this is where we become human.

    事情就從這一刻變得精彩,

  • This is when we start to argue, to form society.

    因為這就是我們為何身而為人,

  • And to really get somewhere, we need to filter all our facts here,

    我們會因此開始辯論, 而形成一個社會。

  • through friends and neighbors and parents and children

    要能真正有所進展, 我們首先要篩選手上的資訊,

  • and coworkers and newspapers and magazines,

    透過朋友、鄰居、父母、孩子、

  • to finally be grounded in real knowledge,

    同事和報章雜誌,

  • which is something that a search engine is a poor help to achieve.

    來取得最終真正的知識,

  • So, I promised you an example just to show you why it's so hard

    這種事搜尋引擎很難辦得到。

  • to get to the point of true, clean, objective knowledge --

    我剛剛答應你們我會舉例說明為什麼

  • as food for thought.

    要獲得真實、純淨、 客觀的知識那麼困難--

  • I will conduct a couple of simple queries, search queries.

    好讓你深思一下。

  • We'll start with "Michelle Obama,"

    我來現場搜尋一些簡單的東西。

  • the First Lady of the United States.

    我們就從「蜜雪兒·歐巴馬」

  • And we'll click for pictures.

    美國的第一夫人開始吧。

  • It works really well, as you can see.

    我們搜尋圖片。

  • It's a perfect search result, more or less.

    正如你所見,效果還不錯。

  • It's just her in the picture, not even the President.

    結果或多或少還算不錯啦。

  • How does this work?

    圖片裡都只有她, 連總統都沒有。

  • Quite simple.

    背後的運作是如何的呢?

  • Google uses a lot of smartness to achieve this, but quite simply,

    很簡單。

  • they look at two things more than anything.

    Google利用不少智慧型功能來 達成這些目的,但簡單來說

  • First, what does it say in the caption under the picture on each website?

    他們主要看兩樣東西。

  • Does it say "Michelle Obama" under the picture?

    首先,每一個網頁上 圖片的標題是什麼?

  • Pretty good indication it's actually her on there.

    圖片底下的標題是否是 「Michelle Obama」?

  • Second, Google looks at the picture file,

    有的話代表圖中人物應該就是她。

  • the name of the file as such uploaded to the website.

    第二、Google看圖片檔名,

  • Again, is it called "MichelleObama.jpeg"?

    上傳到網路上的檔名。

  • Pretty good indication it's not Clint Eastwood in the picture.

    我們來看看, 檔名是否是MichelleObama.jpeg?

  • So, you've got those two and you get a search result like this -- almost.

    很明顯圖片中不是 克林·伊斯威特(Clint Eastwoood)。

  • Now, in 2009, Michelle Obama was the victim of a racist campaign,

    上面那兩項條件會讓你 搜尋到這樣的結果--幾乎啦。

  • where people set out to insult her through her search results.

    在2009年的時候,蜜雪兒·歐巴馬 變成一個種族歧視運動的受害者,

  • There was a picture distributed widely over the Internet

    一些人透過搜尋結果來侮辱她。

  • where her face was distorted to look like a monkey.

    有一張在網路上廣為流傳的照片,

  • And that picture was published all over.

    照片中她的臉被扭曲成像猴子一樣。

  • And people published it very, very purposefully,

    而那張照片到處可見。

  • to get it up there in the search results.

    而且這些人真的是故意在上傳,

  • They made sure to write "Michelle Obama" in the caption

    為的就是讓它成為搜尋結果。

  • and they made sure to upload the picture as "MichelleObama.jpeg," or the like.

    他們確保有把 「Michelle Obama」寫入標題裡,

  • You get why -- to manipulate the search result.

    也確保被上傳的圖片的檔名是 「MichelleObama.jpeg」,或類似的。

  • And it worked, too.

    你應該知道為什麼-- 為了操縱搜尋結果。

  • So when you picture-Googled for "Michelle Obama" in 2009,

    結果真的成功了。

  • that distorted monkey picture showed up among the first results.

    當你在2009年用Google 搜尋「Michelle Obama」的圖片,

  • Now, the results are self-cleansing,

    那張被改成像猴子的圖片 就會出現在結果的前端。

  • and that's sort of the beauty of it,

    這些搜尋結果會自動清除,

  • because Google measures relevance every hour, every day.

    這也算是Google的美啦,

  • However, Google didn't settle for that this time,

    因為Google每小時、每天 都在測量結果的相關性。

  • they just thought, "That's racist and it's a bad search result

    然而,Google這次並沒有 讓這件事順其自然,

  • and we're going to go back and clean that up manually.

    他們想說:「這有種族歧視, 是不好的搜尋結果,

  • We are going to write some code and fix it,"

    我們要手動清除掉這些,

  • which they did.

    我們需要寫一些程式把它給弄好。」

  • And I don't think anyone in this room thinks that was a bad idea.

    而他們真的做到了。

  • Me neither.

    我不認為這裡有人會 覺得這是個餿主意吧。

  • But then, a couple of years go by,

    對啊,我也不這麼認為。

  • and the world's most-Googled Anders,

    但是,一直到幾年之後,

  • Anders Behring Breivik,

    世上最多人Google搜尋的昂德史

  • did what he did.

    昂德史·北令·布雷維克,

  • This is July 22 in 2011,

    做了一件事。

  • and a terrible day in Norwegian history.

    那時是2011年7月22日,

  • This man, a terrorist, blew up a couple of government buildings

    在挪威歷史上 是慘不忍睹的一天。

  • walking distance from where we are right now in Oslo, Norway

    這個人,一個恐怖分子, 炸毀了好幾棟

  • and then he traveled to the island of Utøya

    離這裡(奧斯陸)不遠的政府機關,

  • and shot and killed a group of kids.

    然後再到烏托亞島上

  • Almost 80 people died that day.

    射殺了一群孩子。

  • And a lot of people would describe this act of terror as two steps,

    那天,死了將近80人。

  • that he did two things: he blew up the buildings and he shot those kids.

    很多人認為這個惡行是兩部曲,

  • It's not true.

    認為他做了兩件事:炸毀建築物 以及射殺那群孩子。

  • It was three steps.

    不對。

  • He blew up those buildings, he shot those kids,

    這件事其實是三部曲。

  • and he sat down and waited for the world to Google him.

    他炸毀建築物, 射殺那群孩子,

  • And he prepared all three steps equally well.

    然後坐下來等待 天下人Google搜尋他。

  • And if there was somebody who immediately understood this,

    而且他為這三部曲做足了準備。

  • it was a Swedish web developer,

    如果說有誰馬上明白他的真正用意,

  • a search engine optimization expert in Stockholm, named Nikke Lindqvist.

    那就是一位瑞典網路設計者,

  • He's also a very political guy

    住在斯德哥爾摩的搜尋引擎最佳化專家, 叫尼克·林德威斯特

  • and he was right out there in social media, on his blog and Facebook.

    他也是個很有政治主見的人,

  • And he told everybody,

    他剛好就在社群網路上, 瀏覽他的部落格和臉書。

  • "If there's something that this guy wants right now,

    他告訴大家,

  • it's to control the image of himself.

    「這個人現在最想要的是

  • Let's see if we can distort that.

    能夠主宰他自己的形象。

  • Let's see if we, in the civilized world, can protest against what he did

    讓我們試著扭曲他的形象。

  • through insulting him in his search results."

    讓我們嘗試在文明世界裡,

  • And how?

    透過他的搜尋結果侮辱他, 來抗議他的惡行。』

  • He told all of his readers the following,

    要怎麼做呢?

  • "Go out there on the Internet,

    他讓所有的讀者這樣做,

  • find pictures of dog poop on sidewalks --

    「連上網絡

  • find pictures of dog poop on sidewalks --

    搜尋一下狗狗在路邊大便的圖片--

  • publish them in your feeds, on your websites, on your blogs.

    搜尋一下狗狗在路邊大便的圖片--

  • Make sure to write the terrorist's name in the caption,

    上傳到你們的發文、網頁、部落格。

  • make sure to name the picture file "Breivik.jpeg."

    記得一定要把這位恐怖分子 的名字寫到標題中,

  • Let's teach Google that that's the face of the terrorist."

    確保圖片檔名是『Breivik.jpeg』

  • And it worked.

    一起來告訴Google 這就是那位恐怖分子的臉孔。」

  • Two years after that campaign against Michelle Obama,

    後來真的成功了。

  • this manipulation campaign against Anders Behring Breivik worked.

    繼蜜雪兒·歐巴馬那件事的兩年之後,

  • If you picture-Googled for him weeks after the July 22 events from Sweden,

    這次針對昂德史·北令·布雷維克 所發起的操縱運動成功了。

  • you'd see that picture of dog poop high up in the search results,

    你如果在7月22日後的幾個禮拜, 你在瑞典Google圖片搜尋他的話,

  • as a little protest.

    你會看到先出現的都是 狗狗在路邊大便的圖片,

  • Strangely enough, Google didn't intervene this time.

    算是對他小小的討伐。

  • They did not step in and manually clean those search results up.

    奇怪的是,Google 這次竟撒手閉眼。

  • So the million-dollar question,

    他們沒有介入, 手動把這些搜尋結果清除掉。

  • is there anything different between these two happenings here?

    那我要問你們一個迫切而困難的問題,

  • Is there anything different between what happened to Michelle Obama

    這兩件事有什麼差別嗎?

  • and what happened to Anders Behring Breivik?

    究竟發生在蜜雪兒·歐巴馬身上的事件

  • Of course not.

    跟昂德史·北令·布雷維克的有何差別?

  • It's the exact same thing,

    當然沒有。

  • yet Google intervened in one case and not in the other.

    這兩件事根本是一樣的,

  • Why?

    但Google並沒有一視同仁。

  • Because Michelle Obama is an honorable person, that's why,

    為什麼?

  • and Anders Behring Breivik is a despicable person.

    因為蜜雪兒·歐巴馬德高望重,

  • See what happens there?

    而昂德史·北令·布雷維克十惡不赦。

  • An evaluation of a person takes place

    你看到了嗎?

  • and there's only one power-player in the world

    有人被斷定其好壞,

  • with the authority to say who's who.

    而世上只有一個大玩家

  • "We like you, we dislike you.

    被賦予權利去判定對錯。

  • We believe in you, we don't believe in you.

    「我們喜歡你,我們不喜歡你。

  • You're right, you're wrong. You're true, you're false.

    我們相信你, 我們不相信你。

  • You're Obama, and you're Breivik."

    你對,你錯。 你說真話,你說謊。

  • That's power if I ever saw it.

    你是歐巴馬,你是布雷維克。」

  • So I'm asking you to remember that behind every algorithm

    這就是權勢。

  • is always a person,

    所以我在此提醒你在任何運算中

  • a person with a set of personal beliefs

    都有一個人在背後,

  • that no code can ever completely eradicate.

    一個擁有自己根深蒂固、 難以動搖的信仰的人。

  • And my message goes out not only to Google,

    而我的不只是要對Google說,

  • but to all believers in the faith of code around the world.

    我也想對世上所有 擁有相信某種教條的人說。

  • You need to identify your own personal bias.

    你必須要釐清 自己的個人偏差。

  • You need to understand that you are human

    你必須明瞭你身而為人

  • and take responsibility accordingly.

    然後擔當起相對的責任。

  • And I say this because I believe we've reached a point in time

    我這麼說是因為相信 我們已經到了一個

  • when it's absolutely imperative

    必須無可避免地

  • that we tie those bonds together again, tighter:

    重新把這些距離拉得更近的時機:

  • the humanities and the technology.

    人文跟科技之間的距離。

  • Tighter than ever.

    比以前更近。

  • And, if nothing else, to remind us that that wonderfully seductive idea

    我也相信那誘人的觀念,

  • of the unbiased, clean search result

    認為搜尋結果是無偏差、純淨的,

  • is, and is likely to remain, a myth.

    只是個天方夜譚, 永遠是個天方夜譚。

  • Thank you for your time.

    謝謝你撥冗聆聽。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

So whenever I visit a school and talk to students,

譯者: Ming Gui Tan 審譯者: Allen Kuo

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 搜尋 圖片 obama 蜜雪兒 歐巴馬

【TED】Andreas Ekström:您的搜索結果背後的道德偏見 (The moral bias behind your search results | Andreas Ekström) (【TED】Andreas Ekström: The moral bias behind your search results (The moral bias behind your search results | Andreas Ekström))

  • 28 1
    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字