Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • About 12 years ago,

    譯者: Harry Chen 審譯者: Coco Shen

  • I gave up my career in banking

    大約在12年前,

  • to try to make the world a safer place.

    我從銀行離職,

  • This involved a journey into national and global advocacy

    想要努力讓這個世界變得更安全。

  • and meeting some of the most extraordinary people in the world.

    我因此到國內外倡導我的理念,

  • In the process, I became a civil society diplomat.

    並與世界上一些最非凡的人碰面。

  • Civil society diplomats do three things:

    在這個過程中, 我成為了公民社會的外交官。

  • They voice the concerns of the people,

    公民社會的外交官要做三件事:

  • are not pinned down by national interests,

    「他們會為人民的疑慮發聲、

  • and influence change through citizen networks,

    不受制於國家利益、

  • not only state ones.

    並透過平民網絡來推動變革,

  • And if you want to change the world, we need more of them.

    而非只有透過國家的網絡。」

  • But many people still ask,

    若想改變這個世界, 我們就需要更多這樣的人。

  • "Can civil society really make a big difference?

    不過許多人仍舊會問:

  • Can citizens influence and shape national and global policy?"

    「公民社會真的能做到 實質性的改變嗎、

  • I never thought I would ask myself these questions,

    公民真的能影響甚至決定 國家和全球性政策嗎?」

  • but here I am to share some lessons

    我不曾想過會問自己這些問題。

  • about two powerful civil society movements that I've been involved in.

    不過在這裡我要分享幾項教訓,

  • They are in issues that I'm passionate about:

    來自於我參與過的 兩場重大公民社會運動,

  • gun control and drug policy.

    兩場運動都有我非常熱衷的議題:

  • And these are issues that matter here.

    槍枝管制以及毒品政策;

  • Latin America is ground zero for both of them.

    這兩者就是這邊的重大問題,

  • For example, Brazil --

    拉丁美洲是兩者皆俱的重災區。

  • this beautiful country hosting TEDGlobal has the world's ugliest record.

    舉例來說:巴西 ─

  • We are the number one champion in homicidal violence.

    舉辦著 TEDGlobal 年會的美麗國家 有著世界上最不堪的紀錄,

  • One in every 10 people killed around the world is a Brazilian.

    我們是暴力謀殺排名的榜首:

  • This translates into over 56,000 people

    世界上每十個被殺害的人當中 就有一個就是巴西人,

  • dying violently each year.

    這相當於每年有超過 56,000 人

  • Most of them are young, black boys dying by guns.

    死於暴力,

  • Brazil is also one of the world's largest consumers of drugs,

    受害者大多數是遭槍殺的 年輕黑人小子。

  • and the War on Drugs has been especially painful here.

    巴西也是這個世界上 毒品使用人口最多的地方,

  • Around 50 percent of the homicides in the streets in Brazil

    而「向毒品宣戰」在這裡 進行得異常艱難;

  • are related to the War on Drugs.

    在巴西街頭,將近 50% 的兇殺案

  • The same is true for about 25 percent of people in jail.

    是與「向毒品宣戰」有關的,

  • And it's not just Brazil that is affected by the twin problems of guns and drugs.

    對監獄裡大約 25% 的人來說 也是如此。

  • Virtually every country and city across Central and South America is in trouble.

    受到槍械與毒品兩項麻煩 所困擾的不只有巴西,

  • Latin America has nine percent of the world's population,

    幾乎是整個中美和南美的 每一個國家和城市都深受其害。

  • but 25 percent of its global violent deaths.

    拉丁美洲有著世界 9% 的人口,

  • These are not problems we can run away from.

    但卻佔了全球暴力所造成之 死亡人數的 25%,

  • I certainly could not.

    這些並不是我們可以逃避的問題,

  • So the first campaign I got involved with started here in 2003

    我肯定不會逃避的!

  • to change Brazil's gun law

    所以在 2003 年我第一場參加的 政治運動就從這裡開始,

  • and to create a program to buy back weapons.

    我們想要改變巴西的槍械法令,

  • In just a few years,

    以及提出買回武器的計畫。

  • we not only changed national legislation

    只花了幾年,

  • that made it much more difficult for civilians to buy a gun,

    我們不但改變了國家的法令,

  • but we collected and destroyed almost half a million weapons.

    讓民眾想要購買槍枝更困難了,

  • This was one of the biggest buyback programs in history --

    我們還收回並銷毀掉 近 50 萬把槍枝,

  • (Applause) --

    這是歷史上最大宗的槍械買回計畫。

  • but we also suffered some setbacks.

    (掌聲)

  • We lost a referendum to ban gun sales to civilians in 2005.

    不過我們也遭受到一些挫折,

  • The second initiative was also home-grown,

    在 2005 年時,我們輸掉一場 禁止販賣槍械給民眾的公投。

  • but is today a global movement to reform the international drug control regime.

    第二個提案也是我們的自家事,

  • I am the executive coordinator

    不過在今天卻是全球的行動 : 改革國際毒品控管辦法。

  • of something called the Global Commission on Drug Policy.

    我是「毒品政策全球委員會」的 執行統籌人,

  • The commission is a high-level group

    該委員會是一個 全球領袖的高層級團體,

  • of global leaders brought together to identify more humane

    攜手找出更人道和有效的辦法,

  • and effective approaches to the issue of drugs.

    來應對與毒品相關的議題。

  • Since we started in 2008, the taboo on drugs is broken.

    自從我們在 2008 年啟動, 對毒品的禁忌就被瓦解了,

  • Across the Americas, from the US and Mexico to Colombia and Uruguay,

    整個美洲從美國、墨西哥 到哥倫比亞、烏拉圭,

  • change is in the air.

    改變隨處可見。

  • But rather than tell you the whole story about these two movements,

    但與其跟你們講這兩場運動的細節,

  • I just want to share with you four key insights.

    不如只跟你們分享四個重要的見解,

  • I call them lessons to change the world.

    我稱之為「從改變世界所獲得的教訓」,

  • There are certainly many more,

    肯定還有很多其他的東西可以講,

  • but these are the ones that stand out to me.

    不過這些讓我特別有感覺。

  • So the first lesson is:

    第一個教訓是:

  • Change and control the narrative.

    「改變並控制報導內容」。

  • It may seem obvious,

    這看似再簡單不過,

  • but a key ingredient to civil society diplomacy

    不過公民社會外交一個重要的環節,

  • is first changing and then controlling the narrative.

    就是先改變然後控制報導內容;

  • This is something that veteran politicians understand,

    這是老練的政治人物都懂的事情,

  • but that civil society groups generally do not do very well.

    不過公民社會團體普遍做得不夠好。

  • In the case of drug policy,

    就毒品政策而言,

  • our biggest success has been to change the discussion

    我們最大的成功是改變了輿論走向,

  • away from prosecuting a War on Drugs

    從持續向毒品宣戰,

  • to putting people's health and safety first.

    轉變為將人民的健康和安全置於首位。

  • In a cutting-edge report we just launched in New York,

    在一份我們剛在紐約 發表的最新報告裡,

  • we also showed that the groups benefiting most from this $320 billion market

    我們也指出從 3200 億美金的 市場中獲利最多的人,

  • are criminal gangs and cartels.

    是不法幫派和毒梟們。

  • So in order to undermine the power and profit of these groups,

    所以為了來削弱 這些團體的力量和利潤,

  • we need to change the conversation.

    我們需要改變輿論,

  • We need to make illegal drugs legal.

    我們要讓非法的毒品成為合法。

  • But before I get you too excited,

    不過在你太開心之前,

  • I don't mean drugs should be a free-for-all.

    我並不是說所有人都能任意碰毒品,

  • What I'm talking about, and what the Global Commission advocates for

    我想講的以及全球委員會所力倡的,

  • is creating a highly regulated market,

    就是創造出高度受規範的市場,

  • where different drugs would have different degrees of regulation.

    讓不同的毒品制訂不同程度的規範。

  • As for gun control, we were successful in changing,

    就槍枝管制來說, 我們成功地改變報導內容,

  • but not so much in controlling, the narrative.

    卻沒有控制報導內容,

  • And this brings me to my next lesson:

    而這就讓我講到下一個教訓:

  • Never underestimate your opponents.

    「永遠不要低估你的對手」。

  • If you want to succeed in changing the world,

    如果你想要成功來改變世界,

  • you need to know who you're up against.

    你得要瞭解你的對手,

  • You need to learn their motivations and points of view.

    你得要瞭解他們的動機和觀點。

  • In the case of gun control,

    就槍枝管制而言,

  • we really underestimated our opponents.

    我們的確小看了我們的對手,

  • After a very successful gun-collection program,

    在非常成功的槍枝收回計劃之後,

  • we were elated.

    我們喜不勝收,

  • We had support from 80 percent of Brazilians,

    獲得了巴西人民 80% 的支持,

  • and thought that this could help us win the referendum

    而我們認為這可以幫我們贏得

  • to ban gun sales to civilians.

    「禁止販賣槍枝給民眾」的公投,

  • But we were dead wrong.

    不過我們徹頭徹尾搞錯了,

  • During a televised 20-day public debate,

    在電視公開辯論的 20 天期間,

  • our opponent used our own arguments against us.

    對手利用我們的論點來打擊我們,

  • We ended up losing the popular vote.

    結果我們在投票上輸掉了,

  • It was really terrible.

    這真是糟透了。

  • The National Rifle Association -- yes, the American NRA --

    「全國槍枝協會」, 沒錯!就是美國的 NRA ,

  • came to Brazil.

    來到了巴西,

  • They inundated our campaign with their propaganda,

    並且用他們的宣傳文案 淹沒了我們的政治訴求。

  • that as you know,

    正如你所知,

  • links the right to own guns to ideas of freedom and democracy.

    將擁有槍枝的權力 牽連上自由與民主的理念。

  • They simply threw everything at us.

    他們無所不用其極的來對付我們,

  • They used our national flag,

    利用我們的國旗、獨立頌歌、

  • our independence anthem.

    他們借助女權、

  • They invoked women's rights

    而且濫用曼達拉、天安門廣場、 甚至是希特勒的照片,

  • and misused images of Mandela, Tiananmen Square, and even Hitler.

    他們透過操弄人民的恐懼來獲取勝利。

  • They won by playing with people's fears.

    事實上槍枝在他們的選舉訴求中 幾乎是不存在的,

  • In fact, guns were almost completely ignored in their campaign.

    他們的重點是個人權力;

  • Their focus was on individual rights.

    但是我要問你們:

  • But I ask you,

    哪一種權力比較重要?

  • which right is more important,

    是活下去的權力?

  • the right to life

    還是持有剝奪人命之槍枝的權力呢?

  • or the right to have a gun that takes life away?

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    我們認為大家會支持捍衛性命。

  • We thought people would vote in defense of life,

    但是對於一個剛剛擺脫 軍事獨裁者的國家來說,

  • but in a country with a recent past of military dictatorship,

    我們的對手的反政府訊息得到民眾響應,

  • the anti-government message of our opponents resonated,

    而我們並沒有做好應對準備;

  • and we were not prepared to respond.

    我們學到教訓了,

  • Lesson learned.

    我們的毒品政策宣傳進步了不少。

  • We've been more successful in the case of drug policy.

    10年前假如你問人 「向毒品宣戰」是否有可能終結,

  • If you asked most people 10 years ago if an end to the War on Drugs was possible,

    大多數人會一笑置之,

  • they would have laughed.

    畢竟尚存有大量的軍事警察監獄,

  • After all, there are huge military police prisons

    以及金融機構從這場戰爭中賺到錢。

  • and financial establishments benefiting from this war.

    今天,控制毒品的國際組織逐日崩潰,

  • But today, the international drug control regime is starting to crumble.

    政府和公民社會 正在嘗試新的方法;

  • Governments and civil societies are experimenting with new approaches.

    「毒品政策全球委員會」

  • The Global Commission on Drug Policy

    真的瞭解對手,

  • really knew its opposition,

    比起與它們當面搏鬥,

  • and rather than fighting them,

    我們的主席、巴西前總統 ─ 費爾南多·恩里克·卡多佐,

  • our chair -- former Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso --

    找來不同政治主張的各界領袖,

  • reached out to leaders from across the political spectrum,

    從自由派到保守派都有,

  • from liberals to conservatives.

    這個高峰團體願意以誠懇的態度來討論

  • This high level group agreed to honestly discuss

    既有毒品政策的優缺點。

  • the merits and flaws of drug policies.

    正是這場經過縝密思考、 瞭解情況、和具有戰略性的討論,

  • It was this reasoned, informed and strategic discussion

    揭露出令人難過的真相:

  • that revealed the sad truth about the War on Drugs.

    「向毒品宣戰」在每一方面 都徹底失敗。

  • The War on Drugs has simply failed across every metric.

    毒品更加便宜了, 而且比從前更容易取得,

  • Drugs are cheaper and more available than ever,

    毒品的全球使用量也在增加,

  • and consumption has risen globally.

    不過更糟的是

  • But even worse,

    它還積聚了眾多意料之外的負面後果。

  • it also generated massive negative unintended consequences.

    誠然以前有人提出這些論點,

  • It is true that some people have made these arguments before,

    不過我們不一樣,

  • but we've made a difference

    我們透過預測對手的論點,

  • by anticipating the arguments of our opponents

    以及利用有影響力者的聲音,

  • and by leveraging powerful voices

    那些前幾年還在拒絕改變的人。

  • that a few years ago would probably have resisted change.

    第三個教訓:應用資料來支持你的論點。

  • Third lesson: Use data to drive your argument.

    槍枝和毒品是容易激發情緒的議題,

  • Guns and drugs are emotive issues,

    而當我們在巴西槍械公投的 宣導活動中就痛苦地領悟到,

  • and as we've painfully learned in the gun referendum campaign in Brazil,

    要完全不帶情緒

  • sometimes it's impossible to cut through the emotions

    直接提供證據,是不可能的。

  • and get to the facts.

    不過這並不代表我們不該去做,

  • But this doesn't mean that we shouldn't try.

    直到不久前,

  • Until quite recently,

    我們還不知道究竟有多少巴西人 死於槍下;

  • we simply didn't know how many Brazilians were killed by guns.

    意外的是一齣地方肥皂劇 ─ "Mulheres Apaixonadas",

  • Amazingly, it was a local soap opera called "Mulheres Apaixonadas" --

    或者叫「戀愛中的女人」,

  • or "Women in Love" --

    這齣戲開啟了巴西國內 對槍枝管制的政治訴求,

  • that kicked off Brazil's national gun control campaign.

    在非常高收視的某一集中,

  • In one highly viewed episode,

    肥皂劇的女主角被一顆 射偏了的子彈所殺害,

  • a soap opera lead actress was killed by a stray bullet.

    巴西的祖母輩和主婦們都被激怒了。

  • Brazilian grannies and housewives were outraged,

    而在戲劇仿效生活的例子裡,

  • and in a case of art imitating life,

    這一集也包含了一段真實的 槍枝管制遊行短片,

  • this episode also included footage of a real gun control march

    那正是我們在這邊所籌畫的,

  • that we had organized right here,

    就在外面的科帕卡瓦納海灘,

  • outside in Copacabana Beach.

    電視演出中的死亡和遊行 對公眾意見起了很大的作用,

  • The televised death and march had a huge impact on public opinion.

    幾週不到我們的國家議會 通過了繳械法案,

  • Within weeks, our national congress approved the disarmament bill

    那已經折騰好幾年了。

  • that had been languishing for years.

    之後我們才能夠準備好資料,

  • We were then able to mobilize data

    來證明修改法令和槍枝收回計畫 的確奏效;

  • to show the successful outcomes of the change in the law

    我指的是─

  • and gun collection program.

    我們可以證明僅僅在一年內,

  • Here is what I mean:

    我們保住了超過 5,000 條性命。

  • We could prove that in just one year,

    (掌聲)

  • we saved more than 5,000 lives.

    在毒品管制的問題上,

  • (Applause)

    為了要瓦解外縛於 這些議題的恐懼和偏見,

  • And in the case of drugs,

    我們順利蒐集並呈現資料 來證明當下的毒品政策

  • in order to undermine this fear and prejudice that surrounds the issue,

    比使用毒品這件事造成更多的傷害,

  • we managed to gather and present data that shows that today's drug policies

    而大家也漸漸開始接受了。

  • cause much more harm than drug use per se,

    我的第四個洞見:

  • and people are starting to get it.

    不要怕與意見不同的夥伴合作。

  • My fourth insight is:

    我們在巴西所學到的,

  • Don't be afraid to bring together odd bedfellows.

    這一點不只是適用於我的國家,

  • What we've learned in Brazil --

    是將多樣、兼容並蓄之輩 帶到一塊來的重要性,

  • and this doesn't only apply to my country --

    如果你想改變這個世界,

  • is the importance of bringing diverse and eclectic folks together.

    身邊有群跨領域的夥伴會讓你事半功倍。

  • If you want to change the world,

    在槍枝和毒品兩個案例上,

  • it helps to have a good cross-section of society on your side.

    我們聚集了非常棒的人才組合,

  • In both the case of guns and drugs,

    我們組織了傑出人才 並從媒體得到大量的援助,

  • we brought together a wonderful mix of people.

    我們聚合了受難者、人權奨得主 、精神領導者,

  • We mobilized the elite and got huge support from the media.

    我們也聚集了各專業階級,

  • We gathered the victims, human rights champions, cultural icons.

    有醫生、律師、學者以及其他很多人。

  • We also assembled the professional classes --

    過去這些年我所學到的事,

  • doctors, lawyers, academia and more.

    就是你需要有同意者和反對者 組成的聯盟才能實現改變。

  • What I've learned over the last years

    在毒品控制的問題上,

  • is that you need coalitions of the willing and of the unwilling to make change.

    我們需要自由主義者、 反禁者、立法者們,

  • In the case of drugs,

    以及開明的政治人物。

  • we needed libertarians, anti-prohibitionists, legalizers,

    他們也許不會在每件事上都一致同意,

  • and liberal politicians.

    事實上他們幾乎在每件事上 都是意見不一的,

  • They may not agree on everything;

    但是這場政治運動的合理性 正是立基於他們多樣化的觀點。

  • in fact, they disagree on almost everything.

    十多年前,

  • But the legitimacy of the campaign is based on their diverse points of view.

    我在投資銀行工作, 有著衣食無憂的未來,

  • Over a decade ago,

    那時候的我與公民社會的外交官 是八竿子打不著關係的,

  • I had a comfortable future working for an investment bank.

    正如你能想像到的那樣。

  • I was as far removed from the world of civil society diplomacy

    但是我冒了一次險,

  • as you can imagine.

    我改變了人生的軌跡,

  • But I took a chance.

    在這條路上我幫忙發動社會運動,

  • I changed course,

    我相信自己所做的已經使得 世界上某些地區更安全了。

  • and on the way, I helped to create social movements

    我們每個人都有改變世界的力量,

  • that I believe have made some parts of the world safer.

    不論議題是什麼, 不論這場戰役有多艱難,

  • Each and every one of us has the power to change the world.

    公民社會是尋求改變的關鍵。

  • No matter what the issue, and no matter how hard the fight,

    謝謝大家!

  • civil society is central to the blueprint for change.

    (掌聲)

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

About 12 years ago,

譯者: Harry Chen 審譯者: Coco Shen

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 毒品 槍枝 巴西 公民 改變

【TED】伊洛娜-薩博-德-卡瓦略:我從站在反對毒品和槍支暴力的立場上學到的4個教訓(伊洛娜-薩博-德-卡瓦略:我從站在反對毒品和槍支暴力的立場上學到的4個教訓)。 (【TED】Ilona Szabó de Carvalho: 4 lessons I learned from taking a stand against drugs and gun violence (Ilona Szabó de Carvalho: 4 lessons I learned from taking a stand agai

  • 36 1
    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字