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  • I had brain surgery 18 years ago,

    譯者: Thunder Song 審譯者: Regina Chu

  • and since that time, brain science has become

    18 年前我動了大腦手術,

  • a personal passion of mine.

    從那個時候開始,大腦科學變成了

  • I'm actually an engineer.

    我的一個個人愛好。

  • And first let me say, I recently joined

    我其實是個工程師。

  • Google's Moonshot group,

    首先我想說,我最近加入了

  • where I had a division,

    谷歌的「科技登月」計畫, (Google X Moonshots)

  • the display division in Google X,

    在那裏我有個部門,

  • and the brain science work I'm speaking about today

    谷歌實驗室的顯示器部門,

  • is work I did before I joined Google

    今天我要說的大腦科學,

  • and on the side outside of Google.

    是我在加入谷歌之前的工作,

  • So that said, there's a stigma

    以及不涉及谷歌的方面的事情。

  • when you have brain surgery.

    所以有這麼一個汙名,

  • Are you still smart or not?

    就是當妳進行了大腦手術,

  • And if not, can you make yourself smart again?

    妳是不是依舊聰明?

  • After my neurosurgery,

    如果不是,妳能再次變得聰明嗎?

  • part of my brain was missing,

    在我的神經外科手術後,

  • and I had to deal with that.

    我大腦的一部份遺失了,

  • It wasn't the grey matter, but it was the gooey part dead center

    而且我需要解決這個問題。

  • that makes key hormones and neurotransmitters.

    那一部份並不是灰質, 而是那個黏糊糊的死點,

  • Immediately after my surgery,

    生產關鍵的荷爾蒙 和神經傳導物質的部分。

  • I had to decide what amounts of each of over

    我的手術一結束,

  • a dozen powerful chemicals to take each day,

    我需要決定

  • because if I just took nothing,

    每天攝入多少那些強效的化學藥品。

  • I would die within hours.

    因為如果我什麽都不做,

  • Every day now for 18 years -- every single day --

    那我會在幾個小時以後死去

  • I've had to try to decide the combinations

    18 年來的每一天,真的是每一天,

  • and mixtures of chemicals,

    我不得不去決定如何組合 並且混合各種化學藥品,

  • and try to get them, to stay alive.

    同時我也要獲取它們, 以便我能維持生命。

  • There have been several close calls.

    曾經有幾次我已經幾乎面對死亡。

  • But luckily, I'm an experimentalist at heart,

    但幸運地是, 我的本質是一個實驗者,

  • so I decided I would experiment

    所以我決定我要通過實驗

  • to try to find more optimal dosages

    去嘗試找出最佳的劑量,

  • because there really isn't a clear road map

    因為這之前並沒有 一個清晰明確指導

  • on this that's detailed.

    關於各種細節的介紹。

  • I began to try different mixtures,

    我開始嘗試不同的混合,

  • and I was blown away by how

    我已經強烈的感受到

  • tiny changes in dosages

    一點點的劑量變化

  • dramatically changed my sense of self,

    會戲劇性的改變我的 自我感知能力,

  • my sense of who I was, my thinking,

    我對我自己的感受,我的思考,

  • my behavior towards people.

    以及對待別人的行為。

  • One particularly dramatic case:

    我有一個非常戲劇性的例子,

  • for a couple months I actually tried dosages

    在幾個月的時間中我真的試驗了

  • and chemicals typical of a man in his early 20s,

    給 20 歲出頭的男性 所用的藥品及劑量。

  • and I was blown away by how my thoughts changed.

    而我被我自己的想法 因此改變而震驚。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑~)

  • I was angry all the time,

    那時我一直很生氣,

  • I thought about sex constantly,

    我時常會想到性,

  • and I thought I was the smartest person

    並且我覺得自己是世界上

  • in the entire world, and

    是最聰明的人,

  • —(Laughter)—

    (笑~)

  • of course over the years I'd met guys kind of like that,

    當然這幾年我遇到了 一些很類似的傢伙

  • or maybe kind of toned-down versions of that.

    或者說比那種稍微低調一點的人。

  • I was kind of extreme.

    我其實是有點極端。

  • But to me, the surprise was,

    但是對我而言,令我震驚的是

  • I wasn't trying to be arrogant.

    我並不是去嘗試變得傲慢。

  • I was actually trying,

    我實際上是在嘗試

  • with a little bit of insecurity,

    帶著一點不安

  • to actually fix a problem in front of me,

    去解決擺在我面前的問題,

  • and it just didn't come out that way.

    只是結果總是不像我所設想的一樣。

  • So I couldn't handle it.

    所以我並沒有辦法解決。

  • I changed my dosages.

    我改變了我用藥的劑量。

  • But that experience, I think, gave me

    但是那段經歷,我認為,讓我對於

  • a new appreciation for men

    男人以及他們所經歷的一切 有了新的評價,

  • and what they might walk through,

    所以從那時開始,

  • and I've gotten along with men

    我和他們相處地更好了。

  • a lot better since then.

    我想嘗試的是

  • What I was trying to do

    去調節這樣的一些荷爾蒙,

  • with tuning these hormones

    以及神經傳導物質等等,

  • and neurotransmitters and so forth

    去恢復我的智力水平,

  • was to try to get my intelligence back

    在我生病並且手術之後,

  • after my illness and surgery,

    以及我那些我充滿創意的想法。

  • my creative thought, my idea flow.

    並且我是以圖像思考的人,

  • And I think mostly in images,

    所以對我而言這是一個重要的指標,

  • and so for me that became a key metric --

    如何獲得這些心智圖像,

  • how to get these mental images

    你也可以這樣說,讓我快速建立

  • that I use as a way of rapid prototyping,

    我的想法原型的圖像,

  • if you will, my ideas,

    嘗試各種新想法,

  • trying on different new ideas for size,

    推演不同的情節。

  • playing out scenarios.

    這種想法並不新鮮。

  • This kind of thinking isn't new.

    哲學家像休謨、笛卡兒以及霍布斯,

  • Philiosophers like Hume and Descartes and Hobbes

    也有著相同的想法。

  • saw things similarly.

    他們覺得心智圖像以及想法

  • They thought that mental images and ideas

    其實是一樣的東西。

  • were actually the same thing.

    現今有很多懷疑這樣的觀點,

  • There are those today that dispute that,

    也有很多關於心智如何工作的辯論,

  • and lots of debates about how the mind works,

    但是對我而言,這很簡單:

  • but for me it's simple:

    心智圖像,對大多數我們而言,

  • Mental images, for most of us,

    其實是發明以及創造性想法的中心。

  • are central in inventive and creative thinking.

    所以很多年後,

  • So after several years,

    我調整好了我自己, 並且擁有了很多很好、

  • I tuned myself up and I have lots of great,

    非常生動,有著各種複雜的心智圖像,

  • really vivid mental images with a lot of sophistication

    並且有很多分析支撐著這樣的觀點。

  • and the analytical backbone behind them.

    我現在開始研究,

  • And so now I'm working on,

    我如何才能將我大腦裡的心智圖像

  • how can I get these mental images in my mind

    更快速的顯示在我的電腦螢幕上?

  • out to my computer screen faster?

    你能夠想像,這麼說吧,

  • Can you imagine, if you will,

    一個電影的導演能夠只用

  • a movie director being able to use

    她大腦的想像力去操縱 她眼前的世界的想法?

  • her imagination alone to direct the world in front of her?

    或者一個音樂家 直接從頭裡取得音樂?

  • Or a musician to get the music out of his head?

    這種方式創造出不可思議的可能性

  • There are incredible possibilities with this

    對於那些有創造性的人們而言

  • as a way for creative people

    他們可以以光速來分享他們的想法。

  • to share at light speed.

    但事實上,有待突破的瓶頸是,

  • And the truth is, the remaining bottleneck

    想實現這樣的效果

  • in being able to do this

    必須提高腦部斷層掃描的解析度。

  • is just upping the resolution of brain scan systems.

    現在讓我展示爲什麽我認為 我們幾乎已經成功了,

  • So let me show you why I think we're pretty close to getting there

    通過我們最近的兩個實驗,

  • by sharing with you two recent experiments

    來自我們兩個頂尖的神經學小組。

  • from two top neuroscience groups.

    他們都採用了 fMRI 技術,

  • Both used fMRI technology --

    也就是功能性核磁共振造影

  • functional magnetic resonance imaging technology --

    去給大腦成像,

  • to image the brain,

    這裡有一組從哈佛的喬治·甘尼斯

  • and here is a brain scan set from Giorgio Ganis

    以及他的同事得到的大腦掃描圖。

  • and his colleagues at Harvard.

    左手邊的一列顯示了大腦的掃描圖,

  • And the left-hand column shows a brain scan

    是一個人正在看一張圖片的時候掃描的。

  • of a person looking at an image.

    中間這一列顯示的大腦掃描圖

  • The middle column shows the brainscan

    是同樣的一個人

  • of that same individual

    去想像那張圖片的時候掃描的。

  • imagining, seeing that same image.

    右邊的這一列圖則是

  • And the right column was created

    用左邊的圖減去中間的圖的結果,

  • by subtracting the middle column from the left column,

    你可以發現幾乎沒有差別。

  • showing the difference to be nearly zero.

    已經在很多人身上做了這個實驗

  • This was repeated on lots of different individuals

    得到大量不同的圖片,

  • with lots of different images,

    都得到了相同的結果。

  • always with a similar result.

    看一張圖以及

  • The difference between seeing an image

    想像同一張圖

  • and imagining seeing that same image

    大腦幾乎沒有變化。

  • is next to nothing.

    接下來讓我分享另外的一個實驗,

  • Next let me share with you one other experiment,

    來自柏克萊的傑克·格蘭特的實驗室

  • this from Jack Gallant's lab at Cal Berkeley.

    他們能夠解密腦電波,

  • They've been able to decode brainwaves

    轉化成可以辨認的視場。

  • into recognizable visual fields.

    讓我來為你解釋這個。

  • So let me set this up for you.

    在這個試驗中,我們給每個人

  • In this experiment, individuals were shown

    播放了上百小時 YouTube 的影片

  • hundreds of hours of YouTube videos

    同時掃描著他們的大腦,

  • while scans were made of their brains

    並且根據大腦的反應 建立一個龐大的數據庫,

  • to create a large library of their brain reacting

    依照影片的順序。

  • to video sequences.

    然後我們播放有著新圖像,

  • Then a new movie was shown with new images,

    新人物,新動物的新電影,

  • new people, new animals in it,

    並且記錄了新的一系列掃描結果。

  • and a new scan set was recorded.

    而電腦則使用之前的 大腦掃描數據庫

  • The computer, using brain scan data alone,

    對這個新的大腦掃描圖解碼,

  • decoded that new brain scan

    並且展示電腦認為 人們看見的圖像。

  • to show what it thought the individual was actually seeing.

    在右手邊,你可以看見電腦的猜測,

  • On the right-hand side, you see the computer's guess,

    左手邊則是我們提供的影片片段。

  • and on the left-hand side, the presented clip.

    這樣的結果是令人震驚的。

  • This is the jaw-dropper.

    我們就要成功的實現這樣的技術,

  • We are so close to being able to do this.

    我們要做的只是去提高解析度。

  • We just need to up the resolution.

    現在請記住當你看到一張圖片

  • And now remember that when you see an image

    同時當你想像同樣的圖片的時候,

  • versus when you imagine that same image,

    它會產生相同的大腦變化。

  • it creates the same brain scan.

    這是用現今可得的最高解析度

  • So this was done with the highest-resolution

    大腦掃描系統得到的結果

  • brain scan systems available today,

    它們的解析度最近幾年都是

  • and their resolution has increased really

    以千倍的速度增長。

  • about a thousandfold in the last several years.

    下一步我們需要再一次

  • Next we need to increase the resolution

    以千倍的速度提高解析度,

  • another thousandfold

    以獲得更深層次的變化。

  • to get a deeper glimpse.

    那我們應該如何做呢?

  • How do we do that?

    現在有很多科學方法 可以用於實現。

  • There's a lot of techniques in this approach.

    一種方法是打開 你的腦殼並放入電極。

  • One way is to crack open your skull and put in electrodes.

    我並不支持這種方法。

  • I'm not for that.

    現在有很多新的成像技術

  • There's a lot of new imaging techniques

    正在開發,有些則是由我負責,

  • being proposed, some even by me,

    想到最近 MRI(核磁共振成像) 的成功,

  • but given the recent success of MRI,

    首先我們要問的是,

  • first we need to ask the question,

    這項科技已經走到了盡頭嗎?

  • is it the end of the road with this technology?

    傳統意義上講,只有採用更大的磁體

  • Conventional wisdom says the only way

    才能產生更高解析度的圖片,

  • to get higher resolution is with bigger magnets,

    但是所謂更大的磁體

  • but at this point bigger magnets

    只能夠持續改進成像解析度,

  • only offer incremental resolution improvements,

    而不是我們所需要的千倍提高。

  • not the thousandfold we need.

    我們有這樣的一個想法:

  • I'm putting forward an idea:

    不要使用大型的磁體,

  • instead of bigger magnets,

    而是採用更好的磁體。

  • let's make better magnets.

    現在有一些技術 能夠取得突破性的進展,

  • There's some new technology breakthroughs

    在納米科技中,

  • in nanoscience

    當對磁體的結構進行改造,

  • when applied to magnetic structures

    就能產生一個全新級別的磁體,

  • that have created a whole new class of magnets,

    當使用這些磁體的時候,我們可以

  • and with these magnets, we can lay down

    在大腦中產生 非常精細的磁場圖案

  • very fine detailed magnetic field patterns

    並且通過這樣的技術,我們可以產生

  • throughout the brain,

    如全像攝影般的干涉結構,

  • and using those, we can actually create

    便能精確地控制不同的圖案,

  • holographic-like interference structures

    就像這裡通過移動 而展示出來的效果。

  • to get precision control over many patterns,

    我們可以創造更多複雜的結構,

  • as is shown here by shifting things.

    通過一點點不同的排列安排

  • We can create much more complicated structures

    就像製作呼吸運動記錄器。

  • with slightly different arrangements,

    爲什麽這個這麼重要?

  • kind of like making Spirograph.

    這些年來在 MRI(核磁共振成像)的努力,

  • So why does that matter?

    已經取得了巨大的成果,

  • A lot of effort in MRI over the years

    非常大的磁體,對不對?

  • has gone into making really big,

    但是近些年來在解析度上的進步

  • really huge magnets, right?

    實際上來自

  • But yet most of the recent advances

    在 MRI (核磁共振成像)系統中

  • in resolution have actually come from

    對調頻信號頻率的傳輸和接收

  • ingeniously clever encoding and decoding solutions

    巧妙的加密和解密的方法。

  • in the F.M. radio frequency transmitters and receivers

    同樣的,我們不採用標準的磁場,

  • in the MRI systems.

    而是記下有結構磁性的圖案

  • Let's also, instead of a uniform magnetic field,

    以及所對應的調頻信號頻率。

  • put down structured magnetic patterns

    通過結合磁性的圖案

  • in addition to the F.M. radio frequencies.

    以及調頻信號頻率中產生的圖案,

  • So by combining the magnetics patterns

    一次掃描所提取的資訊 取得了巨大的進展

  • with the patterns in the F.M. radio frequencies

    在僅僅的一次掃描中。

  • processing which can massively increase

    最重要的是,我們可以將

  • the information that we can extract

    我們持續增長的 大腦結構和記憶分層,

  • in a single scan.

    產生我們所需要的成千倍的增長。

  • And on top of that, we can then layer

    使用 fMRI(功能性磁共振成像), 我們不僅僅能夠測量

  • our ever-growing knowledge of brain structure and memory

    血液含氧量,

  • to create a thousandfold increase that we need.

    還有我之前說的荷爾蒙 以及神經傳導物質,

  • And using fMRI, we should be able to measure

    甚至是直接的神經活動,

  • not just oxygenated blood flow,

    就是我們所說的夢。

  • but the hormones and neurotransmitters I've talked about

    我們能夠實現將我們的想法

  • and maybe even the direct neural activity,

    直接轉換為數位媒體資訊。

  • which is the dream.

    你能想像我們能夠不使用語言

  • We're going to be able to dump our ideas

    而直接通過人類的思想進行交流嗎?

  • directly to digital media.

    那我們還能再做甚麼?

  • Could you imagine if we could leapfrog language

    我們要如何學習處理

  • and communicate directly with human thought?

    未篩選的人類想法中真實的內容?

  • What would we be capable of then?

    你們認為網路的問題很大。

  • And how will we learn to deal

    這些都是很大的問題。

  • with the truths of unfiltered human thought?

    這可能是一個不可抵擋的工具

  • You think the Internet was big.

    用來放大你的想法以及交流的技能。

  • These are huge questions.

    確實,也就是這個相同的工具

  • It might be irresistible as a tool

    可能是解決

  • to amplify our thinking and communication skills.

    阿茲海默症以及 相似的疾病的方法。

  • And indeed, this very same tool

    我們別無選擇,只能打開這扇門

  • may prove to lead to the cure

    無論如何,隨便選一年,

  • for Alzheimer's and similar diseases.

    5 年後還是 15 年後?

  • We have little option but to open this door.

    很難想像這會花費太多時間。

  • Regardless, pick a year --

    我們需要學習 如何一起走過這一步。

  • will it happen in five years or 15 years?

    謝謝。

  • It's hard to imagine it taking much longer.

    (掌聲~)

  • We need to learn how to take this step together.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

I had brain surgery 18 years ago,

譯者: Thunder Song 審譯者: Regina Chu

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 大腦 掃描 圖像 想法 心智

【TED】瑪麗-盧-傑普森:未來的設備能從我們的大腦中讀取影像嗎?(Mary Lou Jepsen: Could future devices read images from our brains?) (【TED】Mary Lou Jepsen: Could future devices read images from our brains? (Mary Lou Jepsen: Could future devices read images from our brains?))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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