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  • Mobility in developing world cities

    譯者: Marssi Draw 審譯者: Catharina Kim

  • is a very peculiar challenge,

    在世界上發展中國家城市裡

  • because different from health

    移動力是一個非常嚴峻的挑戰,

  • or education or housing,

    因為它與健康、

  • it tends to get worse as societies become richer.

    教育或住宅不同,

  • Clearly, a unsustainable model.

    當社會越富有時,它反而變得更糟。

  • Mobility, as most other developing country problems,

    顯然,這是一個不可持續的發展模式。

  • more than a matter of money or technology,

    移動力,如同其他大多數 發展中國家所遇到的問題,

  • is a matter of equality, equity.

    除了事關財富或科技,

  • The great inequality in developing countries

    尤其與平等和公正更是相關。

  • makes it difficult to see, for example,

    開發中國家不平等的程度大到

  • that in terms of transport,

    讓我們很難看到,例如

  • an advanced city is not one

    在交通上,

  • where even the poor use cars,

    一個先進的城市與其說是

  • but rather one where even the rich

    連窮人都開車的地方,

  • use public transport.

    不如說是連富人

  • Or bicycles: For example, in Amsterdam,

    都搭乘大眾運輸,或是騎自行車的地方。

  • more than 30 percent of the population

    例如在阿姆斯特丹,

  • uses bicycles,

    超過 30% 的人口

  • despite the fact that the Netherlands has

    騎自行車,

  • a higher income per capita than the United States.

    儘管荷蘭的人均所得

  • There is a conflict in developing world cities

    比美國還高。

  • for money, for government investment.

    發展中國家城市內部也有矛盾,

  • If more money is invested in highways,

    為了錢,為了政府投資。

  • of course there is less money for housing,

    如果投資較多錢在公路上,

  • for schools, for hospitals,

    當然就會投資較少在住宅、

  • and also there is a conflict for space.

    學校、醫院上,

  • There is a conflict for space between

    同樣地,空間使用上也有矛盾。

  • those with cars and those without them.

    矛盾出現在

  • Most of us accept today

    那些有汽車和那些沒有汽車的人之間。

  • that private property and a market economy

    今天大多數的人都接受

  • is the best way to manage most of society's resources.

    私有財產與市場經濟

  • However, there is a problem with that,

    是管理大多數社會資源的最好方式。

  • that market economy needs

    然而,還有一個問題是

  • inequality of income in order to work.

    市場經濟需要通過

  • Some people must make more money,

    收入不平等來鼓勵人們工作。

  • some others less.

    有些人必然會賺較多錢,

  • Some companies succeed. Others fail.

    有些人則較少。

  • Then what kind of equality

    有些公司興盛,有公司經營不善。

  • can we hope for today

    那麼什麼樣的平等,

  • with a market economy?

    是我們今天在市場經濟條件下

  • I would propose two kinds

    所期待的?

  • which both have much to do with cities.

    我在此提出兩種,

  • The first one is equality of quality of life,

    這兩種都與城市有關。

  • especially for children,

    第一點是生活品質的平等,

  • that all children should have,

    特別是針對孩童,

  • beyond the obvious health and education,

    所有的孩子都應該擁有

  • access to green spaces, to sports facilities,

    除了顯而易見的健康和教育,

  • to swimming pools, to music lessons.

    還能接觸自然環境、運動設施、

  • And the second kind of equality

    游泳池和音樂課程。

  • is one which we could call "democratic equality."

    我所說的第二種平等,

  • The first article in every constitution states

    我們稱為「民主的平等」。

  • that all citizens are equal before the law.

    每個國家憲法的第一條規定都是

  • That is not just poetry.

    在法律之前人人平等。

  • It's a very powerful principle.

    那不只是首詩歌,

  • For example, if that is true,

    那是效力非常強大的準則。

  • a bus with 80 passengers

    舉例來說,如果那是真的,

  • has a right to 80 times more road space

    載有 80 名乘客的公車

  • than a car with one.

    有權獲得比單人駕駛的小汽車

  • We have been so used to inequality, sometimes,

    多 80 倍的道路空間。

  • that it's before our noses and we do not see it.

    有時候我們太習慣不平等,

  • Less than 100 years ago,

    它就在面前,我們看不到它。

  • women could not vote,

    不到 100 年前,

  • and it seemed normal,

    女性沒有投票權,

  • in the same way that it seems normal today

    在過去顯得稀鬆平常,

  • to see a bus in traffic.

    正如今天我們看到

  • In fact, when I became mayor,

    一輛公共汽車處在擁擠的道路中。

  • applying that democratic principle

    事實上,當我成為市長的時候,

  • that public good prevails over private interest,

    基於民主原則,

  • that a bus with 100 people

    即公共利益凌駕於個人利益之上,

  • has a right to 100 times more road space than a car,

    因此一台載有 100 人的公車

  • we implemented a mass transit system

    有權利比一台汽車 擁有 100 倍的用路空間,

  • based on buses in exclusive lanes.

    我們推行的大眾運輸系統

  • We called it TransMilenio, in order to make buses sexier.

    基於公車專用車道。

  • And one thing is that it is also a very beautiful democratic symbol, because as buses zoom by,

    為了讓公車更吸引人一點, 我們稱之為「千禧快捷」(TransMilenio)。

  • expensive cars stuck in traffic,

    而且它也是種非常美麗與民主的象徵, 因為當公車從旁駛過,

  • it clearly is almost a picture of democracy at work.

    而昂貴房車深陷車陣中,

  • In fact, it's not just a matter of equity.

    很明顯,這就是民主得到實現的畫面。

  • It doesn't take Ph.D.'s.

    事實上,那不只是公正的問題,

  • A committee of 12-year-old children

    那不需要哲學博士學位。

  • would find out in 20 minutes

    一群 12 歲孩童

  • that the most efficient way to use scarce road space

    在 20 分鐘內就能發現

  • is with exclusive lanes for buses.

    使用有限道路空間的最有效方法

  • In fact, buses are not sexy,

    就是使用公「車」專用道。

  • but they are the only possible means

    事實上,公車並不迷人,

  • to bring mass transit to all areas

    但是公車是唯一能夠

  • of fast growing developing cities.

    將大眾運輸帶到快速發展城市中

  • They also have great capacity.

    各個地區的方式。

  • For example, this system in Guangzhou

    公車也有很大的載客量。

  • is moving more passengers our direction

    例如,這系統在廣州

  • than all subway lines in China,

    比中國所有的地鐵線路

  • except for one line in Beijing,

    能運送更多的乘客,

  • at a fraction of the cost.

    除了北京的一條地鐵線,

  • We fought not just for space for buses,

    而花費只是九牛一毛。

  • but we fought for space for people,

    我們不只是為公車的空間而戰,

  • and that was even more difficult.

    我們也為人民的空間而戰,

  • Cities are human habitats,

    而那更加艱難。

  • and we humans are pedestrians.

    城市是人類的棲息地,

  • Just as fish need to swim or birds need to fly

    而人類是步行者。

  • or deer need to run, we need to walk.

    就像魚需要游泳、鳥需要飛翔、

  • There is a really enormous conflict,

    或鹿需要奔跑,我們需要行走。

  • when we are talking about developing country cities,

    這之中有一個非常大的衝突,

  • between pedestrians and cars.

    當我們談到發展中國家的城市時,

  • Here, what you see is a picture that shows

    衝突存在於行人與車輛之間。

  • insufficient democracy.

    你看到的圖片顯示了

  • What this shows is that people who walk

    不夠民主。

  • are third-class citizens

    這顯示了行人

  • while those who go in cars

    是三等公民,

  • are first-class citizens.

    而那些開車的

  • In terms of transport infrastructure,

    則是一等公民。

  • what really makes a difference

    就公共運輸建設來說,

  • between advanced and backward cities

    真正區別

  • is not highways or subways

    進步與落後城市之間的要素,

  • but quality sidewalks.

    不是公路或地鐵,

  • Here they made a flyover, probably very useless,

    而是品質良好的人行道。

  • and they forgot to make a sidewalk.

    他們在這做了一座天橋,大概沒什麼用處,

  • This is prevailing all over the world.

    而且他們忘了做人行道。

  • Not even schoolchildren are more important than cars.

    這在世界各地都很普遍。

  • In my city of Bogotá,

    連學童都不比汽車重要。

  • we fought a very difficult battle

    在我的城市波哥大,

  • in order to take space from cars,

    我們打了艱難的一戰,

  • which had been parking on sidewalks for decades,

    為了奪回汽車佔據的空間,

  • in order to make space for people that should reflect

    數十年來汽車都停放在人行道上,

  • dignity of human beings,

    為了替行人爭取空間,應該反應出

  • and to make space for protected bikeways.

    人類的尊嚴,

  • First of all, I had black hair before that.

    並爭取自行車道的空間。

  • (Laughter)

    首先,我在那之前還是一頭黑髮。

  • And I was almost impeached in the process.

    (笑聲)

  • It is a very difficult battle.

    過程中我幾乎要被告了。

  • However, it was possible, finally,

    這是場硬仗。

  • after very difficult battles, to make a city

    然而最終還是能成真,

  • that would reflect some respect for human dignity,

    在幾場硬仗後,能讓城市

  • that would show that those who walk are equally

    展現出對人類尊嚴的敬意,

  • important to those who have cars.

    展現出行人

  • Indeed, a very important ideological and political issue anywhere

    與有車的人一樣重要。

  • is how to distribute that most valuable resource

    確實,在各地都非常重要的意識與政治議題

  • of a city, which is road space.

    即是如何分配城市中最有價值的資源,

  • A city could find oil or diamonds underground

    那就是道路的空間。

  • and it would not be so valuable as road space.

    一座城市可以在地下開採石油或鑽石,

  • How to distribute it between pedestrians,

    但那都不像道路空間如此珍貴。

  • bicycles, public transport and cars?

    如何將空間分配給路人、

  • This is not a technological issue,

    自行車、大眾運輸和汽車?

  • and we should remember that in no constitution

    這不是科技問題,

  • parking is a constitutional right

    我們應該牢記,沒有一部憲法中明定

  • when we make that distribution.

    停車是法定權利,

  • We also built, and this was 15 years ago,

    在我們分配時應留意。

  • before there were bikeways in New York

    我們也會建設,這是在 15 年前,

  • or in Paris or in London,

    在自行車道出現在紐約、

  • it was a very difficult battle as well,

    巴黎或倫敦之前,

  • more than 350 kilometers of protected bicycle ways.

    那也是場硬仗,

  • I don't think protected bicycle ways

    超過 350 公里的自行車專用道。

  • are a cute architectural feature.

    我不認為自行車專用道

  • They are a right, just as sidewalks are,

    是可愛的建築特色。

  • unless we believe that only those

    那是一種權利,就像人行道,

  • with access to a motor vehicle

    除非我們相信只有那些

  • have a right to safe mobility,

    汽機車駕駛

  • without the risk of getting killed.

    才擁有行車安全的權利,

  • And just as busways are,

    沒有致命的風險。

  • protected bikeways also are

    就像公車道一樣,

  • a powerful symbol of democracy,

    自行車專用道

  • because they show that a citizen on a $30 bicycle

    也是一種強而有力的民主象徵,

  • is equally important

    因為那展現了騎 30 元自行車的市民

  • to one in a $30,000 car.

    重要性等同於

  • And we are living in a unique moment in history.

    開三萬元汽車的市民。

  • In the next 50 years, more than half of those cities

    我們生活在歷史上的獨特時刻。

  • which will exist in the year 2060 will be built.

    接下來 50 年將會建造

  • In many developing country cities,

    2060 年時超過一半的城市。

  • more than 80 and 90 percent

    在許多開發中國家的城市中,

  • of the city which will exist in 2060

    2060 年時存在的城市中,

  • will be built over the next four or five decades.

    80% 到 90% 以上

  • But this is not just a matter for developing country cities.

    將會在未來的四、五十年間建設完成。

  • In the United States, for example,

    但這不只和開發中國家的城市有關。

  • more than 70 million new homes

    在美國,舉例來說,

  • must be built over the next 40 or 50 years.

    超過七千萬戶新家

  • That's more than all the homes that today exist

    得在接下來的四、五十年間建設完成。

  • in Britain, France and Canada put together.

    那些房子的數量比現在

  • And I believe that our cities today

    英國、法國和加拿大的所有房子還多。

  • have severe flaws,

    我相信我們現在的城市

  • and that different, better ones could be built.

    有嚴重的缺陷,

  • What is wrong with our cities today?

    因此未來能建造不同且更好的房子。

  • Well, for example, if we tell any three-year-old child

    當代的城市有什麼問題?

  • who is barely learning to speak

    舉例來說,如果我們告訴任何一名三歲小孩,

  • in any city in the world today,

    還不太會說話小孩,

  • "Watch out, a car,"

    不管他身在世界的哪一個城市:

  • the child will jump in fright,

    「小心,有車!」

  • and with a very good reason, because there are

    那孩子會驚嚇地跳開,

  • more than 10,000 children who are killed

    他們有很合理的因素,

  • by cars every year in the world.

    因為世界上每年平均

  • We have had cities for 8,000 years,

    都有超過一萬名孩童因車禍喪命。

  • and children could walk out of home and play.

    城市已存在八千年之久,

  • In fact, only very recently,

    而且孩童過去能出門玩耍。

  • towards 1900, there were no cars.

    事實上,僅是在最近的

  • Cars have been here for really less than 100 years.

    1900 年代,街上還沒有車子。

  • They completely changed cities.

    車輛存在不到 100 年。

  • In 1900, for example,

    車輛卻完全改變了城市。

  • nobody was killed by cars in the United States.

    舉例來說,在 1900 年時,

  • Only 20 years later,

    美國沒有人會因車禍喪命。

  • between 1920 and 1930,

    僅僅 20 年後,

  • almost 200,000 people

    在 1920 年和 1930 年間,

  • were killed by cars in the United States.

    幾乎有 20 萬人

  • Only in 1925, almost 7,000 children

    在美國因車禍喪命。

  • were killed by cars in the United States.

    僅在 1925 年時,有將近 7,000 名孩童

  • So we could make different cities,

    在美國因車禍喪命。

  • cities that will give more priority to human beings

    因此,我們可以建造不同的城市,

  • than to cars, that will give more public space

    城市能讓人類優先於汽車,

  • to human beings than to cars,

    能讓人類比汽車擁有

  • cities which show great respect

    更多公共空間,

  • for those most vulnerable citizens,

    城市展現了至高的敬意

  • such as children or the elderly.

    給那些最珍貴的市民,

  • I will propose to you a couple of ingredients

    像是孩童或長者。

  • which I think would make cities much better,

    我會提出一些良方給各位參考,

  • and it would be very simple to implement them

    我相信能讓城市變得更好,

  • in the new cities which are only being created.

    而且對正在建造的城市

  • Hundreds of kilometers of greenways

    也簡單可行。

  • criss-crossing cities in all directions.

    數百公里的綠道

  • Children will walk out of homes into safe spaces.

    在城市中交錯、四通八達。

  • They could go for dozens of kilometers safely

    孩童能走出家門,進入安全的空間。

  • without any risk in wonderful greenways,

    他們可以安全地走上好幾公里路,

  • sort of bicycle highways,

    沒有任何風險地走在美麗的綠道上,

  • and I would invite you to imagine the following:

    有點像是自行車公路,

  • a city in which every other street would be

    請想像這幅圖像:

  • a street only for pedestrians and bicycles.

    城市中的每一條道路

  • In new cities which are going to be built,

    都只供行人和自行車通行。

  • this would not be particularly difficult.

    對即將建設的新城市來說,

  • When I was mayor of Bogotá,

    這件事不太難。

  • in only three years, we were able to create

    當我成為波哥大市長,

  • 70 kilometers,

    僅僅三年

  • in one of the most dense cities in the world,

    我們就在世界上最繁忙的城市之中

  • of these bicycle highways.

    建立了 70 公里的

  • And this changes the way people live,

    自行車公路。

  • move, enjoy the city.

    這改變了人們生活、

  • In this picture, you see in one of the very poor neighborhoods,

    移動與在城市中享樂的方式。

  • we have a luxury pedestrian bicycle street,

    在這幅圖像中,你在極貧困的街區中看到

  • and the cars still in the mud.

    我們有豪華的行人與自行車街道,

  • Of course, I would love to pave this street for cars.

    而車輛依然使用泥土路。

  • But what do we do first?

    當然,我願意為車輛鋪路。

  • Ninety-nine percent of the people in those neighborhoods don't have cars.

    但是,什麼是首要之急?

  • But you see, when a city is only being created,

    那些街區之中有 99% 的居民沒有汽車。

  • it's very easy to incorporate

    但是當一座城市正在建設時,

  • this kind of infrastructure.

    要體現這種公共建設

  • Then the city grows around it.

    十分容易。

  • And of course this is just a glimpse

    那麼城市就會繞著它發展。

  • of something which could be much better

    當然這只是讓我們窺探

  • if we just create it,

    能做得更好的一件事,

  • and it changes the way of life.

    如果我們如此建立城市