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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    譯者: Jephian Lin 審譯者: hunghsin sung

  • So, this book that I have in my hand

    嗯,我手上的這本書

  • is a directory of everybody who had an email address

    是 1982 年所有電子信箱的

  • in 1982. (Laughter)

    地址通訊錄。(笑聲)

  • Actually, it's deceptively large.

    實際上,它的大小是騙人的。

  • There's actually only about 20 people on each page,

    其中每頁根本就只有將近 20 人的資料,

  • because we have the name, address

    因為那包含每個人的 人名、地址、

  • and telephone number of every single person.

    及電話號碼。

  • And, in fact, everybody's listed twice,

    而實際上,每個人都出現了兩次,

  • because it's sorted once by name and once by email address.

    因為一次是用人名排列, 而一次是用信箱位址排列。

  • Obviously a very small community.

    很明顯是一個小族群。

  • There were only two other Dannys on the Internet then.

    當時的網路中只有另外兩個人也叫 Danny。 (和講者同名)

  • I knew them both.

    兩個人我都認識。

  • We didn't all know each other,

    我們並不全然知道對方,

  • but we all kind of trusted each other,

    但是我們都一定程度地信任對方,

  • and that basic feeling of trust

    而這種基本的信任感,

  • permeated the whole network,

    瀰漫了整個網路世界,

  • and there was a real sense that

    進而存在一種真實的感覺,

  • we could depend on each other to do things.

    彷彿我們可以仰賴彼此來做些事情。

  • So just to give you an idea of the level of trust in this community,

    為了讓各位對這種信任的程度有個概念,

  • let me tell you what it was like

    讓我來告訴你們

  • to register a domain name in the early days.

    在早些年代註冊一個網域名稱 是什麼樣子。

  • Now, it just so happened that I got to register

    嗯,意外地我那時註冊的

  • the third domain name on the Internet.

    是整個網際網路中 第三個網域名稱。

  • So I could have anything I wanted

    所以我可以用任何我喜歡的名字,

  • other than bbn.com and symbolics.com.

    只要不是 bbn.com 或是 symbolics.com。

  • So I picked think.com, but then I thought,

    所以我選了 think.com,但是我又想,

  • you know, there's a lot of really interesting names out there.

    你知道的,還有一堆有趣的名字可以用。

  • Maybe I should register a few extras just in case.

    也許我可以多註冊幾個 以備哪天不時之須。

  • And then I thought, "Nah, that wouldn't be very nice."

    但最後我想:「算了,這樣不太好。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • That attitude of only taking what you need

    這種須要多少拿多少 的態度

  • was really what everybody had on the network in those days,

    真的就是那年代的網路中 每個人心中所想的,

  • and in fact, it wasn't just the people on the network,

    而事實上,並不只有人這麼想,

  • but it was actually kind of built into the protocols

    實際上這想法也建立到網路本身

  • of the Internet itself.

    的通訊協定中。

  • So the basic idea of I.P., or Internet protocol,

    所以 I.P.,或是所謂的網路協定, 的基本概念,

  • and the way that the -- the routing algorithm that used it,

    還有它基於這協定的路由演算法, (譯註:即決定由哪臺電腦接手傳輸的演算法。)

  • were fundamentally "from each according to their ability,

    基本上就是「盡其所能,

  • to each according to their need."

    各取所需。」

  • And so, if you had some extra bandwidth,

    所以,如果你有多的頻寬,

  • you'd deliver a message for someone.

    你會幫別人傳些訊息。

  • If they had some extra bandwidth, they would deliver a message for you.

    而如果他們有多的頻寬, 他們也會幫你傳遞訊息。

  • You'd kind of depend on people to do that,

    一定程度上你必須依賴人們這麼做,

  • and that was the building block.

    而這是網際網路的構成要素。

  • It was actually interesting that such a communist principle

    很有趣的是,這樣一種 共產主義的原則

  • was the basis of a system developed during the Cold War

    是冷戰時期國防部所開發的一個系統, 它的基礎,

  • by the Defense Department,

    是冷戰時期國防部所開發的一個系統, 它的基礎,

  • but it obviously worked really well,

    但很明顯地它運作得非常好,

  • and we all saw what happened with the Internet.

    而我們都見證了網際網路的發展。

  • It was incredibly successful.

    簡直是不可思議地成功。

  • In fact, it was so successful that there's no way

    事實上,網際網路實在太成功, 以致於你不可能

  • that these days you could make a book like this.

    在現代做出這麼薄的通訊錄。

  • My rough calculation is it would be about 25 miles thick.

    我粗略估計那會有 25 哩長。

  • But, of course, you couldn't do it,

    但當然地,你不可能完成它,

  • because we don't know the names of all the people

    因為我們不知道所有 網路或電子信箱擁有者的名字,

  • with Internet or email addresses,

    因為我們不知道所有 網路或電子信箱擁有者的名字,

  • and even if we did know their names,

    而即使我們知道了名字,

  • I'm pretty sure that they would not want their name,

    我很確定大家並不希望他們的名字、

  • address and telephone number published to everyone.

    信箱、以及電話號碼 被公開。

  • So the fact is that there's a lot of bad guys on the Internet these days,

    所以結果就是現今的網路中 有許多壞人,

  • and so we dealt with that by making

    因此我們藉由許多機制來面對, 這包含:

  • walled communities,

    有防火牆的社群、

  • secure subnetworks, VPNs,

    安全子網路、虛擬私人網路,

  • little things that aren't really the Internet

    一些小方法, 它們並不真的是網際網路

  • but are made out of the same building blocks,

    卻都建構於 先前所提的構成要素,

  • but we're still basically building it out of those

    但我們基本上還是用那些構成要素,

  • same building blocks with those same assumptions of trust.

    以及那些信任感的前提, 來建構網路。

  • And that means that it's vulnerable

    而這表示當面對

  • to certain kinds of mistakes that can happen,

    某些可能發生的錯誤,

  • or certain kinds of deliberate attacks,

    或是某些蓄意的攻擊時, 它是脆弱的,

  • but even the mistakes can be bad.

    但只是錯誤也可以變得很糟糕。

  • So, for instance,

    所以,舉例來說,

  • in all of Asia recently,

    最近在整個亞洲,

  • it was impossible to get YouTube for a little while

    使用 YouTube 是幾乎不可能的,

  • because Pakistan made some mistakes

    因為巴基斯坦在為內部網路 審查 YouTube 時

  • in how it was censoring YouTube in its internal network.

    發生了些錯誤。

  • They didn't intend to screw up Asia, but they did

    他們並不希望把亞洲網路搞亂, 但是他們還做了,

  • because of the way that the protocols work.

    這歸咎於網路協定的運作方式。

  • Another example that may have affected many of you in this audience is,

    另一個可能影響在座於多人的是,

  • you may remember a couple of years ago,

    你可能記得幾年之前,

  • all the planes west of the Mississippi were grounded

    所有密西西比河以西的飛機 都停飛了,

  • because a single routing card in Salt Lake City

    因為一塊鹽湖城的路由卡中

  • had a bug in it.

    有一個小錯誤。

  • Now, you don't really think

    現在,你並不真的認為

  • that our airplane system depends on the Internet,

    我們的飛航系統必須仰賴網路,

  • and in some sense it doesn't.

    而某些角度來說並不是的。

  • I'll come back to that later.

    我等等再回來談這個。

  • But the fact is that people couldn't take off

    但事實就是人們沒辦法讓飛機起飛,

  • because something was going wrong on the Internet,

    因為網路出了錯,

  • and the router card was down.

    而那張路由卡停止運作。

  • And so, there are many of those things that start to happen.

    因此,許多這類的事情開始發生。

  • Now, there was an interesting thing that happened last April.

    嗯,有件有趣的事發生在去年四月。

  • All of a sudden,

    剎那之間,

  • a very large percentage of the traffic on the whole Internet,

    非常大量的流量,佔滿整個網際網路,

  • including a lot of the traffic between U.S. military installations,

    還包含了美國軍方各裝置間的網路,

  • started getting re-routed through China.

    並開始重新導向到中國。

  • So for a few hours, it all passed through China.

    所以有幾個小時,這流量在中國流通。

  • Now, China Telecom says it was just an honest mistake,

    而現在,中國電信說那只是一個純然的錯誤,

  • and it is actually possible that it was, the way things work,

    而那的確也有可能,由於網路的運作方式,

  • but certainly somebody could make

    但是無礙地,有人可以做出

  • a dishonest mistake of that sort if they wanted to,

    蓄意的那類錯誤,只要他們願意,

  • and it shows you how vulnerable the system is even to mistakes.

    而這告訴你整個系統即使對於錯誤, 是多麼脆弱。

  • Imagine how vulnerable the system is to deliberate attacks.

    再想想面對蓄意攻擊時, 會有多脆弱。

  • So if somebody really wanted to attack the United States

    如果近期真的有人想要攻擊美國、

  • or Western civilization these days,

    或是西方文明,

  • they're not going to do it with tanks.

    他們並不會用訴諸坦克。

  • That will not succeed.

    那將不會成功。

  • What they'll probably do is something

    他們可能做的是某些

  • very much like the attack that happened

    和伊朗核能裝置攻擊事件 非常類似的攻擊。

  • on the Iranian nuclear facility.

    和依朗核能裝置攻擊事件 非常類似的攻擊。

  • Nobody has claimed credit for that.

    沒人承認做了這件事。

  • There was basically a factory of industrial machines.

    基本上就是有一個工廠的工業機械。

  • It didn't think of itself as being on the Internet.

    沒人覺得它們會連在網路上。

  • It thought of itself as being disconnected from the Internet,

    大家認為機器是和網際網路沒有通連的,

  • but it was possible for somebody to smuggle

    但很有可能某人偷偷帶了

  • a USB drive in there, or something like that,

    一個 USB 到那裡,或是類似的東西,

  • and software got in there that causes the centrifuges,

    而軟體得以侵入並造成廠房離心機

  • in that case, to actually destroy themselves.

    ,在這個例子裡,自我破壞。

  • Now that same kind of software could destroy an oil refinery

    而同一類的軟體也可以破壞石油精煉場、

  • or a pharmaceutical factory or a semiconductor plant.

    或是製藥場、或是半導體工廠。

  • And so there's a lot of -- I'm sure you've read a lot in papers,

    因此有很多,我相信你們在文獻中看到很多,

  • about worries about cyberattacks

    關於網路攻擊的擔心、

  • and defenses against those.

    或是如何去防衛。

  • But the fact is, people are mostly focused on

    但事實上,人們主要關注於

  • defending the computers on the Internet,

    防衛有連上網的電腦,

  • and there's been surprisingly little attention

    而只有少到令人訝異的心力

  • to defending the Internet itself as a communications medium.

    是用於防衛 當作通訊媒介的網路本身。

  • And I think we probably do need to pay

    而我認為我們可能真的須要

  • some more attention to that, because it's actually kind of fragile.

    更加關注這件事,因為 網路確實有些脆弱。

  • So actually, in the early days,

    所以,事實上,前些日子,

  • back when it was the ARPANET,

    回到 ARPANET 的時代, (譯註:ARPANET 為美國網際網路的前身。)

  • there were actually times -- there was a particular time it failed completely

    實際上有好幾次,其中還有一次網路完全停擺,

  • because one single message processor

    就因為一個訊息處理器

  • actually got a bug in it.

    有些內部錯誤。

  • And the way the Internet works is

    而網路運作的方式是

  • the routers are basically exchanging information

    不同路由器基本上會交換資訊,

  • about how they can get messages to places,

    這資訊是關於 如何將訊息傳到目的地,

  • and this one processor, because of a broken card,

    而這一個出錯的處理器, 因為一張損壞的電路板

  • decided it could actually get a message

    而決定它會在一個時間為負數的時刻

  • to some place in negative time.

    來傳遞訊息。

  • So, in other words, it claimed it could deliver a message before you sent it.

    所以,也就是說,它宣聲它可以 在你傳出訊息前就把訊息傳出去。

  • So of course, the fastest way to get a message anywhere

    當然地,最快傳播訊息的方法

  • was to send it to this guy,

    就是把訊息傳給這個人,

  • who would send it back in time and get it there super early,

    他可以準時回傳訊息並在 「超早」的時間點送達訊息,

  • so every message in the Internet

    所以網路上的每個訊息

  • started getting switched through this one node,

    漸漸開始想藉由這個節點 來交換訊息,

  • and of course that clogged everything up.

    而當然網路就塞爆了。

  • Everything started breaking.

    所有通路開始攤瘓。

  • The interesting thing was, though,

    而儘管如此,有趣的是

  • that the sysadmins were able to fix it,

    系統管理員是有辦法修正這個錯誤的,

  • but they had to basically turn every single thing on the Internet off.

    但他們基本上必須暫停 網路上每一個傳輸任務。

  • Now, of course you couldn't do that today.

    嗯,當然,在今日你不可能這麼做。

  • I mean, everything off, it's like

    我的意思是,暫停每個傳輸任務 就像是

  • the service call you get from the cable company,

    整個世界裡你只接得到

  • except for the whole world.

    電纜公司的服務電話一般。

  • Now, in fact, they couldn't do it for a lot of reasons today.

    實際上,今日的社會裡, 他們還有很多原因不能這麼做。

  • One of the reasons is a lot of their telephones

    其中一個原因是許多人的電話

  • use IP protocol and use things like Skype and so on

    是使用 IP 協定並使用 Skype 之類的軟體,

  • that go through the Internet right now,

    而這些軟體是藉由網路傳輸訊息的,

  • and so in fact we're becoming dependent on it

    所以我們開始在愈來愈多的事務上,

  • for more and more different things,

    漸漸和網路分不開,

  • like when you take off from LAX,

    就像是當你從洛山機國際機場起飛,

  • you're really not thinking you're using the Internet.

    你不會認為你正在使用網路。

  • When you pump gas, you really don't think you're using the Internet.

    當你在加油時,你更不認為你用有到網路。

  • What's happening increasingly, though, is these systems

    然而這些系統中,正加速發生的

  • are beginning to use the Internet.

    就是開始使用網路的這個事實。

  • Most of them aren't based on the Internet yet,

    它們大部份還沒架構於網路之上,

  • but they're starting to use the Internet for service functions,

    但他們正開始將網路用於 各種服務、

  • for administrative functions,

    以及管理功能,

  • and so if you take something like the cell phone system,

    所以如果你以手機系統, 這種多數時候還與網路較無關聯的事物為例,

  • which is still relatively independent of the Internet for the most part,

    所以如果你以手機系統, 這種多數時候還與網路較無關聯的事物為例,

  • Internet pieces are beginning to sneak into it

    網路已經開始 由某些控制及管理等功能

  • in terms of some of the control and administrative functions,

    潛入其中,

  • and it's so tempting to use these same building blocks

    而使用同樣的建構要素, 是那麼誘人,

  • because they work so well, they're cheap,

    因為它們運作得很理想,它們便宜,

  • they're repeated, and so on.

    他們可以重覆利用,等等。

  • So all of our systems, more and more,

    所以我們所有的系統,愈來愈多,

  • are starting to use the same technology

    開始使用這同一項科技

  • and starting to depend on this technology.

    且開始依賴這項科技。

  • And so even a modern rocket ship these days

    因此就算是現代的火箭

  • actually uses Internet protocol to talk

    實際上也使用網際網路來做

  • from one end of the rocket ship to the other.

    兩火箭之間的通訊。

  • That's crazy. It was never designed to do things like that.

    這很瘋狂。網路並不是為了這個設計的。

  • So we've built this system

    所以我們已經建構這個系統,

  • where we understand all the parts of it,

    在這系統中我們了解每一個部份,

  • but we're using it in a very, very different way than we expected to use it,

    但我們使用的方法 完完全全超出我們預設的模式,

  • and it's gotten a very, very different scale

    而它已經到了和一個原本設計 非常非常不一樣的境界。

  • than it was designed for.

    而它已經到了和一個原本設計 非常非常不一樣的境界。

  • And in fact, nobody really exactly understands

    而實際上,沒有人真正完全了解

  • all the things it's being used for right now.

    現今用到的所有網路科技。

  • It's turning into one of these big emergent systems

    它已經變成眾多巨大不穩定系統 的其中之一,

  • like the financial system, where we've designed all the parts

    好比說是經濟體系,我們設計了它的每一個部份

  • but nobody really exactly understands

    但是根本沒有人完全了解

  • how it operates and all the little details of it

    它怎麼運作、 它的所有小細節、

  • and what kinds of emergent behaviors it can have.

    以及可能會有什麼意外事故。

  • And so if you hear an expert talking about the Internet

    因此如果你聽到一個專家在談論網路

  • and saying it can do this, or it does do this, or it will do that,

    並聲稱它可以做這事、或是它確實做了這事、 又或者它將可以做這事,

  • you should treat it with the same skepticism

    你應該要抱持同樣的懷疑,

  • that you might treat the comments of an economist about the economy

    就是那種面對經濟專家談論經濟時 會有的懷疑

  • or a weatherman about the weather, or something like that.

    或是面對預報員報氣象時的懷疑, 或是類似的事。

  • They have an informed opinion,

    他們有有根據的主張,

  • but it's changing so quickly that even the experts

    但它瞬息萬變,即使是專家學者

  • don't know exactly what's going on.

    也不完全了解全盤的運作。

  • So if you see one of these maps of the Internet,

    所以如果你見到一些網路地圖,

  • it's just somebody's guess.

    那不過是某人的猜測而已。

  • Nobody really knows what the Internet is right now

    沒人真的知道現在的網路是什麼樣子

  • because it's different than it was an hour ago.

    因為它和一小時之前的樣子 就已經不一樣了。

  • It's constantly changing. It's constantly reconfiguring.

    它持續地改變中。 也持續地改變設定。

  • And the problem with it is,

    而問題是,

  • I think we are setting ourselves up for a kind of disaster

    我想我們正在把自己置於災難之中

  • like the disaster we had in the financial system,

    就像是我們在經濟體系裡面臨的災難一般,

  • where we take a system that's basically built on trust,

    那也是一個類似的系統, 它基本上建構於信任之上、

  • was basically built for a smaller-scale system,

    它基本上也是為小規模的系統而建立、

  • and we've kind of expanded it way beyond the limits

    而我們同樣有點把它擴張 並超過

  • of how it was meant to operate.

    它原先預定運作的極限。

  • And so right now, I think it's literally true

    所以現在,我想它是對的,

  • that we don't know what the consequences

    就是說我們並不知道 當網路遇到

  • of an effective denial-of-service attack

    有效的阻斷服務攻擊時

  • on the Internet would be,

    會是什麼樣子,

  • and whatever it would be is going to be worse next year,

    而不論怎樣的結果 都將會一年

  • and worse next year, and so on.

    比一年更糟。

  • But so what we need is a plan B.

    所以我們須要 B 計劃。

  • There is no plan B right now.

    現今並沒有這項替代計劃。

  • There's no clear backup system that we've very carefully kept

    也沒有明顯的備援系統, 讓我們得以小心地

  • to be independent of the Internet,

    避免對網路的依賴,

  • made out of completely different sets of building blocks.

    就是那個已經和原本建構理念 完全不一樣的網路系統。

  • So what we need is something that doesn't necessarily

    所以我們所須要的是

  • have to have the performance of the Internet,

    某種不見得須要網路、

  • but the police department has to be able

    而警察局得以在沒有網路的情況下

  • to call up the fire department even without the Internet,

    也可以和消防局通聯、

  • or the hospitals have to order fuel oil.

    且醫院也可以訂購燃油。

  • This doesn't need to be a multi-billion-dollar government project.

    這並不須要一個 數十億美元的政府計劃。

  • It's actually relatively simple to do, technically,

    這實際上是相對來說簡單的, 技術上來說,

  • because it can use existing fibers that are in the ground,

    因為可以利用 現有那些埋在地裡的光纖、