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  • This video was made possible by Brilliant.

    這支影片由 Brilliant 提供

  • The first 424 people to sign up at brilliant.org/HAI will get 20% off their premium subscription.

    前 424 位訂閱 brilliant.org/HAI 的用戶將享有八折優惠

  • This is Sweden, one of the countries on the friendly northern countries side of the world.

    這是瑞典,位於世界北端的友善國之一

  • In Sweden, you can't name your baby Metallica, you can't name them Elvis, you can't name them Ikea,

    在瑞典,寶寶的名字不能叫做 Metallica ,不能叫做 Elvis ,不能叫做 Ikea

  • and you definitely can't name them Albin just as long as its spelled like this.

    更不能叫做 Albin 。這名字太長,拼出來就像是:

  • That's because Sweden has some of the strictest laws in the world on which names you can use.

    這是因為在哪些名字能使用的方面上,瑞典有著世界上幾個最嚴格的法規

  • These laws originally came around because Sweden is a monarchy.

    瑞典的君主體制造就了這些法條

  • They've got a king, and queen, and royal families, as monarchies do,

    瑞典有國王、皇后、皇室,就像是君主國

  • and they don't want anyone to just waltz into fake nobility by changing their name.

    他們不希望有來路不明的人不過是會跳華爾滋,就假裝自己是皇族,用了皇室專屬的名字

  • They want the nobles to stay nobles and their ordinaries to stay ordinaries,

    他們覺得貴族就是貴族,百姓就是百姓

  • so nobody is allowed to use the names of noble families unless they are part of that family.

    所以只有貴族可以用這些名字,其餘的人想都別想

  • Slight problem - there are over 28,000 nobles in Sweden.

    但是有個小問題:瑞典有超過 28,000 名貴族

  • That's a lot of prohibited names.

    有太多名字是不可以用的

  • Weirdly, these laws are managed by the Swedish Tax Agency.

    奇怪的是,這些名字是由瑞典稅務局統一管理

  • Whenever a baby is born in Sweden, parents are required to submit a name to them for approval.

    瑞典的新生兒無論何時出生,父母都得提交寶寶的名字以得許可

  • Of course in most cases babies just take the last name of their parents, but you can technically change last names,

    當然,大多數的新生兒是用父母的姓,但是可以有技巧地做點改變

  • so in order to prevent anyone from changing their last names to that of a royal,

    所以為了杜絕有心人士刻意將其改得跟皇族一樣

  • this agency prevents anyone from naming their child or changing their name to a noble name.

    瑞典稅務局不讓任何小孩取名或改名為貴族的名字

  • But they also regulate first names.

    但是他們對於「名」也不放過

  • The naming law states that "First names shall not be approved if they can cause offense, or can be supposed to cause discomfort for the one using it,

    姓名規範的定義是「名字不可以有冒犯到他人之意,或讓子女感到不舒服

  • or names which for some obvious reason are not suitable as a first name.”

    或者有些擺明了不適合當名字。」

  • This is why they rejected this spelling of Albin.

    這就是為什麼 Albin 這個名字會遭到駁回

  • The parents submitted this name in protest of the naming laws since they were fined 5000 krona

    有對父母為了抗議命名法,故意把小孩命名為 Albin

  • for not submitting a name by the child's 5th birthday

    只因為他們沒有在孩子五歲前提交姓名審核,而遭罰五千克朗

  • and after this spelling was rejected, they tried again by submitting the name Albin, this time spelled like this.

    當這個字的拼法遭受駁回時,他們仍不服輸地再提交一次。而這次拼起來是像這樣:

  • This name was rejected again because of a ban on one-letter names.

    但還是遭受駁回,原因是「不可以使用單一英文字母」為名

  • But Sweden isn't the only place where some names are illegal.

    不過,瑞典也不是唯一一個有命名限制的國家

  • In Denmark, which is, fun fact, the only country in the world whose name starts with "d-e-n" and ends with "mark,"

    在丹麥有個有趣的現象,也是世界上唯一一個國名始於 den 終於 mark

  • there's a list of 15,000 male names and 18,000 female names that are approved for use.

    有份清單名列出可使用的 15,000 個男性名字及 18,000 個女性名字

  • In order to name a child something not on this list, parents have to go through a laborious approval process.

    若父母一定要幫孩子取名單以外的名字,就得經過繁瑣又耗時的程序才能拿到許可

  • Iceland, one of the other countries in the jibber-jabber language area of the world,

    冰島跟以上這些國家屬於同一個語系

  • is even more restrictive where there are only 1,700 approved male names and 1,800 approved female names.

    在取名上更為嚴謹,名單上僅有 1,700 個男性名字與 1,800 個女性名字是官方批准的

  • These Icelandic laws are even more difficult to comply with because Iceland doesn't name people the same way as the rest of the world.

    人民之所以更難遵守冰島的法律

  • In the traditional Icelandic naming system, there are no real last names.

    是因為他們命名的方式和其他國家不一樣

  • If someone named Karl Daníelson has a boy named Björn, the son would not take the last name Daníelson

    冰島傳統的命名規則中,人民沒有真正的姓

  • In Iceland, boys' last names are typically their fathers first names plus "son" which, surprisingly, means son,

    若有個名叫 Karl Daníelson 的人,有了一個叫 Björn 的兒子,那麼這個兒子就不會用 Daníelson 這個姓

  • while girls' last names are correspondingly usually their fathers first names plus "dóttir," which means daughter.

    在冰島,男生的名字通常是由爸爸的名字加上 son 這個字,令人驚訝的,這個字就代表兒子

  • So, that boy named Björn with a father named Karl would be named Björn Karlson.

    同理,女生的名字就是由爸爸的命字加上 dóttir 這個字,代表女兒

  • This can create enormous difficulties especially for Icelandic nationals

    所以,兒子的名字就會由爸爸的名字 Karl 加上 son 這個字,名為 Björn Karlson

  • who have children abroad and name them with the more traditional last-name system.

    這種命名方式帶來了很多困擾

  • Children without proper gendered last names have regularly been denied passports in Iceland

    尤其是在海外有小孩的冰島國民

  • and so, to summarize, in Iceland, Aliaksandr Alexander Aliaksandrson is a legal name but John Smith is not.

    如果小孩護照上的姓沒有清楚的標示出性別,就會在進入冰島時遭拒

  • But even the US has some restrictions on names.

    總歸一句, Aliaksandr Alexander Aliaksandrson 在冰島是一個合法的名字,而 John Smith 就掰掰囉!

  • Of course, Americans seem to take this whole free speech thing pretty seriously,

    但就連美國也有些命名規則

  • so you don't need to get names approved,

    當然,美國人很重視言論自由

  • but there are some technical limitations on which names you can have.

    所以命名不用得到誰的允許

  • There are no country-wide laws on names, but different states have different restrictions.

    但在取名時還是有些限制

  • Mostly based off of how advanced their computer systems that handle name registration are.

    沒有全國性的規定,但不同州有不同的限制

  • In Alaska, for example, you can have any name you want but in New Hampshire, on the other hand,

    大致上是基於他們處理姓名註冊的系統有多先進

  • names are capped at 100 characters because the state computers can only handle 100 character names.

    舉例來說,在阿拉斯加你可以隨心所裕地命名,但相較之下,在新罕布什爾州

  • California, meanwhile, prohibits names spelled with anything but the 26 letters of the English alphabet so Günter and Léa and José are out of luck.

    姓名不得超過 100 字符,因為程式上只能處理 100 字符以內的名字

  • Of course these people aren't just prohibited from existing in California,

    同樣的,在加州,取名時不能使用 26 個英文字母以外的符號

  • but for all government purposes their name will be switched to a version without accents.

    所以,也只能跟 Günter、Léa、 José 這些名字說聲抱歉啦

  • Also out of luck would be famous mathematician Mileva Marić

    當然,這些人不僅不能待在加州

  • who, I'm sure you all know, married Albert Einstein who published the Theory of Relativity,

    政府也會要求人民將名字換為沒有重音的

  • which stated that you can't travel faster than the speed of light, among other things, in 1905

    姓名遭拒的還有知名是數學家 Mileva Marić,我想你們都知道

  • then 113 years later it went up as a course on brilliant.org.

    她嫁給了提出相對論的愛因斯坦

  • Brilliant is the best place to learn things like probability, machine learning, special relativity, and more

    相對論於 1905 年指出「沒有任何東西能夠移動得比光速還快」

  • because they don't teach you by making you frantically check a bunch of inane rules.

    然而在 113 年後的今天變成了 Brilliant 網站上的一堂課

  • With Brilliant you learn by playing through puzzles that help you build up your intuition,

    Brilliant 是最好的平台,提供你學習概率、機器學、狹義相對論等等的課程

  • so you truly come to understand these concepts.

    因為 Brilliant 絕不會一昧地教你一堆讓你抓狂的公式

  • You can take as many of these superbly designed courses as you want with their premium subscription,

    和 Brilliant 一同學習,像是玩拼圖一樣,累積知識

  • which by being one of the first 424 people to click on the link in the description, you can get for 20% off.

    所以你會真的了解這些概念

This video was made possible by Brilliant.

這支影片由 Brilliant 提供

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