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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    譯者: Grace Tung 審譯者: Ho-chung Chou

  • Twelve years ago, I founded Zipcar.

    十二年前,我成立了 Zipcar 公司

  • Zipcar buys cars and parks them

    Zipcar 收購車輛並將這些車子

  • throughout dense metropolitan areas

    停在人口密集的都會區

  • for people to use, by the hour and by the day,

    租給人們使用,以小時或天數計價

  • instead of owning their own cars.

    讓人們不需要自己買車子

  • Each Zipcar replaces 15 personal cars,

    每輛 Zipcar 可以減少 15 輛私有車

  • and each driver drives about 80 percent less

    而且每位駕駛的里程數比之前少了八成

  • because they're now paying the full cost,

    因為他們現在要全額付費了

  • all at once, in real time.

    一次付清,按時計費

  • But what Zipcar really did was make sharing the norm.

    但其實 Zipcar 在做的事,是讓共享成為規範

  • Now, a decade later, it's really time to push the envelope a little bit,

    現在,十年過了,再次挑戰自我的時刻了

  • and so a couple years ago I moved to Paris

    所以幾年前我搬到了巴黎

  • with my husband and youngest child,

    帶著我丈夫和我家幼子

  • and we launched Buzzcar a year ago.

    並在一年前成立了Buzzcar

  • Buzzcar lets people rent out their own cars

    在 Buzzcar,人們可以把自己的車子

  • to their friends and neighbors.

    租給他們的朋友或鄰居

  • Instead of investing in a car, we invest in a community.

    我們投資一個社區而非投資一輛車子

  • We bring the power of a corporation

    我們讓普通人能利用企業級的資源

  • to individuals who add their cars to the network.

    將其私有車登錄上網

  • Some people call this peer-to-peer.

    有人稱之為「同儕交易」

  • This does express the humanity of what's going on,

    這的確體現了"何謂人性"

  • and the personal relationships,

    也體現了人際關係

  • but that is also like saying that it's the same thing

    不過你們也可以說這跟跳蚤市場

  • as a yard sale or a bake sale or babysitting.

    賣蛋糕、褓姆工作是差不多的

  • That's peer-to-peer.

    這就是「同儕交易」

  • It's like saying yard sales are the same thing as eBay,

    這就像說跳蚤市場和 eBay 是同樣的東西

  • or craft fairs are the same thing as Etsy.

    或說工藝品交易是跟 Etsy 同樣的東西

  • But what's really happening is that we've got the power

    但是事實上,我們擁有的是

  • of a free and open Internet,

    自由、開放的網路力量

  • and on top of that we're putting a platform for participation,

    在網路上,我們提供一個媒合的平台

  • and the peers are now in partnership with the company,

    人們與公司可以成為事業夥伴

  • creating shared value on shared values,

    有了共同利基才得以創造共享價值觀

  • and each strengthening the other, and doing what the other can't do.

    彼此強化,互補另一方不足之處

  • I call this Peers, Inc.

    我稱之為「同儕交易」公司

  • The incorporated side, the company,

    從企業角度來看,公司的作用

  • is doing things that it does really well.

    就是發揮本身的專長

  • What does it do really well? It creates economies of scale,

    何謂公司專長?那就是開創經濟的規模

  • significant and long-term resource investment,

    決定性的、長期性的資源投資

  • the expertise of many different kinds of people

    培養各領域的專業人士

  • and different kinds of minds, and for individuals,

    以及多元化的思考模式,對個人

  • consumers, it's bringing the standards, rules and recourse

    也就是消費者來說,企業建立的規範、規則及提供的幫助

  • that we really want as consumers,

    都是我們這些消費者真正想要的

  • and this is kind of bound up in a brand promise,

    這與企業品牌的信譽可說是密不可分

  • and the companies are providing this on a platform for participation.

    各家公司在這個平台上提供了合夥的機會

  • Peers are giving and doing things

    而人們能做的,能提供的是

  • that are incredibly expensive for companies to do.

    如果由公司進行,成本將會相當可觀

  • What do they bring? They bring this fabulous diversity,

    他們提供了什麼?對公司而言,他們提供的是

  • expensive for companies. And what does that deliver?

    難能可貴的多樣性。這種多樣性有甚麼好處?

  • It delivers localization and customization,

    產品的在地化和客製化

  • specialization, and all of this aspect about social networks

    以及專業化。然而,所有這些社群網路帶來的遠景

  • and how companies are yearning and eager to get inside there?

    和這些公司渴望參與其中的程度

  • It's natural for me. Me and my friends, I can connect to them easily.

    在我看來是理所當然。我和我朋友, 我可以輕鬆地聯繫這些公司

  • And it also delivers really fabulous innovation,

    多元性還能刺激出非常棒的創新想法

  • and I'll talk about that later.

    這我稍後再談

  • So we have the peers that are providing the services and the product,

    所以我們有這些個體戶能提供服務和產品

  • and the company that's doing the stuff that companies do.

    而公司則各盡其責,恪守其職

  • The two of these are delivering the best of both worlds.

    兩者的合作使雙方都受益無窮

  • Some of my favorite examples:

    舉幾個我最喜歡的例子:

  • in transportation, Carpooling.com. Ten years old,

    在交通運輸方面,有 Carpooling.com,成立了十年

  • three and a half million people have joined up,

    成員有 350 萬人

  • and a million rides are shared every day.

    每天有一百萬的共乘車次

  • It's a phenomenal thing. It's the equivalent

    這是非常驚人的事,這樣的承載量相當於

  • of 2,500 TGV trains,

    2,500 班次的法國高速列車

  • and just think, they didn't have to lay a track or buy a car.

    想想看,人們不用鋪設任何軌道,連一輛車也不用買

  • This is all happening with excess capacity.

    這都要歸功於如此龐大的乘載量

  • And it's not just with transportation, my love,

    而且不只是交通運輸,親愛的各位

  • but of course in other realms. Here's Fiverr.com.

    當然在其他領域也能看到。例如 Fiverr.com

  • I met these founders just weeks after they had launched,

    這項服務剛推出不到幾個禮拜時,我和那些創辦人碰過面

  • and now, in two years, what would you do for five dollars?

    到現在已經兩年了,你們願意為五塊美金做什麼?

  • Seven hundred and fifty thousand gigs are now posted after two years,

    過去的兩年裡,人們張貼了 75 萬項的服務需求

  • what people would do for five dollars.

    人們願意為了五塊美元做什麼

  • And not just easy things that anyone can do.

    這些可不只是人人可以做的容易差事

  • This Peers, Inc. concept is in a very difficult and complex realm.

    這家「同儕交易」公司,採用的概念非常困難而複雜

  • TopCoder has 400,000 engineers who are delivering

    TopCoder 上有四十萬名接受挑戰的工程師

  • complex design and engineering services.

    正在解決複雜的程式設計和工程設計

  • When I talked to their CEO, he had this great line.

    我和他們的執行長聊天時,他說了一句很棒的話

  • He said, "We have a community that owns its own company."

    他說:"我們有一個自己開公司的社群"

  • And then my all-time favorite, Etsy.

    接下來是我的最愛,Etsy

  • Etsy is providing goods that people make themselves

    Etsy 提供的都是會員的手做商品

  • and they're selling it in a marketplace.

    然後再放在網路商場上販賣

  • It just celebrated its seventh anniversary,

    不久前才歡慶了七周年的紀念日

  • and after seven years, last year it delivered

    七年過去了,他們去年貢獻了

  • 530 million dollars' worth of sales to all those individuals

    價值五億三千萬美元的市場產值

  • who have been making those objects.

    給這些提供商品的會員

  • I know you guys out there who are businesspeople,

    我知道在座各位有些是做生意的

  • are thinking, "Oh my God, I want to build one of those.

    你們在想:" 我的天啊,我也想蓋個像這樣的平台

  • I see this incredible speed and scale.

    這種速度和規模真讓人難以置信

  • You mean all I have to do is build a platform and all these people are going

    你是說我只要蓋個平台就好,然後所有人就會

  • to put their stuff on top and I sit back and roll it in?"

    把自己的東西放上去,然後我就可以坐下來等收錢嗎?"

  • Building these platforms for participation are so nontrivial to do.

    構建這些撮合工作夥伴的平台太容易了

  • I think of the difference of Google Video versus YouTube.

    我想到的是 Google Video 和 YouTube 之間的差異

  • Who would have thought that two young guys and a start-up

    誰會想到這兩個年輕人創立的事業

  • would beat out Google Video? Why?

    會擊敗 Google Video呢?為什麼?

  • I actually have no idea why. I didn't talk to them.

    其實我也不知道。我沒有和他們聊過

  • But I'm thinking, you know, they probably had

    但是我覺得,你知道,他們說不定曾經調整過

  • the "share" button a little bit brighter and to the right,

    那個“分享”的選項,讓它明顯一點,然後靠右一點

  • and so it was easier and more convenient for the two sides

    因此讓使用網站上傳和瀏覽的那些

  • that are always participating on these networks.

    死忠用戶覺得更方便,更好上手

  • So I actually know a lot about building a peer platform now,

    直到現在,我才真的了解如何建造一個對等的平台

  • and a Peers, Inc. company, because I've spent

    還有這間「同儕交易」公司,因為我前兩年

  • the last two years doing that in Paris.

    就是在巴黎做這件事

  • So let me take you back how it's so incredibly different

    我們回到主題,當初成立 Zipcar 的作法

  • building Buzzcar than it was building Zipcar,

    和先前成立 Buzzcar 的做法完全不同

  • because now every single thing we do has these two

    因為現在我們推出的每種服務

  • different bodies that I have to be thinking about:

    都必須從雙方不同的角度來考慮:

  • the owners who are going to provide the cars

    準備提供自己車子的車主

  • and the drivers who are going to rent them.

    以及準備承租車子的駕駛人

  • Every single decision, I have to think about what is right for both sides.

    每一項決定,我都要使其兼顧雙方的利益

  • There are many, many examples and I'll give you one

    有很多很多例子,我舉其中之一

  • that is not my favorite example: insurance.

    不過這不是我最喜歡的例子: 保險

  • It took me a year and a half to get the insurance just right.

    我花了一年半的時間才搞定保險內容

  • Hours and hours of sitting with insurers and many companies

    花了許多時間和那些承保人還有許多間保險公司面談

  • and their thoughts about risk and how this is totally innovative,

    了解他們對於風險的看法,並告訴他們這種全新的創意

  • they'd never thought of it before.

    是他們從來沒想過的做法

  • Way too much money, I just can't even go there, with lawyers,

    需要的資金太多,我不能就這樣投入,我和律師們

  • trying to figure out how this is different, who's responsible to whom,

    試圖釐清這種保險和其他保險有何不同,以及責任歸屬的問題

  • and the result was that we were able to provide owners

    最後我們終於讓車主有了保障

  • protection for their own driving records and their own history.

    讓可能發生的事故不會列入他們的駕駛記錄

  • The cars are completely insured during the rental,

    這些車在承租期間全程保險

  • and it gives drivers what they need, and what do they need?

    也顧及了承租駕駛的需要,他們的需求為何?

  • They need a low deductible,

    他們需要低廉的抵扣稅

  • and 24-hour roadside assistance.

    和 24 小時道路救援服務

  • So this was a trick to get these two sides.

    這就是讓雙方都滿意的訣竅

  • So now I want to take you to the moment of --

    現在,我要提出一個問題請各位想想

  • When you're an entrepreneur, and you've started a new company,

    如果你是企業家,你剛創立了一間新公司

  • there's the, here's all the stuff we do beforehand,

    然後呢,我們做了這些事前準備

  • and then the service launches. What happens?

    然後開始營運了。接下來呢?

  • So all those months of work, they come into play.

    好幾個月以來做的準備,開始發揮作用

  • Last June 1, we launched. It was an exciting moment.

    去年 6 月 1 日我們開始營運。令人興奮的時刻到了

  • And all the owners are adding their cars. It's really exciting.

    每個車主都登錄了他們的車。真是太令人興奮了

  • All the drivers are becoming members. It's excellent.

    所有的駕駛都成了會員,太棒了

  • The reservations start coming in, and here,

    然後開始有人預約,然後呢

  • owners who were getting text messages and emails

    車主接到了簡訊和電子郵件

  • that said, "Hey, Joe wants to rent your car for the weekend.

    上面寫:"你好,這個週末老喬想租你的車

  • You can earn 60 euros. Isn't that great? Yes or no?"

    你可以賺 60 歐元。很棒不是嗎?要不要租?"

  • No reply. Like, a huge proportion of them

    結果沒人回覆。大部份的車主

  • couldn't be bothered after they had just started, they just signed up, to reply.

    不想剛剛加入會員就被人打擾, 他們要先登入網站才會回覆

  • So I thought, "Duh, Robin, this is the difference between

    所以我就想:"我真笨,羅賓,這就是

  • industrial production and peer production."

    工業化生產和同儕化生產的差別。"

  • Industrial production, the whole point of industrial production

    工業化生產,工業化生產的基本原則

  • is to provide a standardized, exact service model

    是提供一個標準化的, 確實的服務模式

  • that is consistent every single time,

    每次都一樣,始終如一

  • and I'm really thankful that my smartphone is made

    我很慶幸我的智慧型手機

  • using industrial production.

    是工業化生產的

  • And Zipcar provides a very nice, consistent service

    Zipcar 提供相當優質的,始終如一的服務

  • that works fabulously.

    運行得非常順暢

  • But what does peer production do? Peer production

    同儕化生產呢?同儕化生產

  • is this completely different way of doing things,

    是另一種完全不同的模式

  • and you have a big quality range, and so eBay, cleverly,

    會產生很大的品質落差,所以聰明的 eBay

  • the first peer production, Peer, Inc. company, I'd say,

    同儕化生產的先鋒,第一間「同儕交易」公司,我必須承認

  • they figured out early on, we need to have ratings

    他們很早就想到了,必須要有評等機制

  • and commentaries and all that yucky side stuff.

    以及買家評論,而且還要能發表負評

  • We can flag that and we can put it to the side, and people

    我們可以標記這些用戶然後將之摒除在外

  • who are buyers and consumers don't have to deal with it.

    這種問題不需要那些買家和消費者來處理

  • So going back, this is my look of excitement and joy,

    話說回來,這是我激動和開心的表情

  • because all this stuff that I'd also been hoping for

    因為所有一切,也是我先前一直期望出現的

  • actually really did happen, and what's that?

    真的發生了,是什麼呢?

  • That is the diversity of what's going on.

    就是各式各樣的"怎麼回事!"

  • You have these different fabulous owners

    網站上這些與眾不同的車主

  • and their different cars, different prices,

    和他們不同的汽車,不同的價格

  • different locations. (Laughter)

    不同的地點(笑聲)

  • They dress differently, and they look different,

    他們的穿著不同,他們的長相不同

  • and, really, I love these photos every time I look at them.

    而且,說真的,每次我看著這些照片都很開心

  • Cool guys, excited guys,

    很酷的傢伙,興奮的傢伙

  • and here is Selma, who -- I love this driver.

    這位是塞爾瑪 — —  我愛這位駕駛

  • And after a year, we have 1,000 cars

    一年後,有一千輛汽車登錄

  • that are parked across France and 6,000 people

    來自法國各地,人數有六千

  • who are members and eager to drive them.

    他們加入會員,渴望租車來開

  • This would not be possible to do that in economic fashion

    這種時尚經濟是傳統的公司

  • for a traditional company.

    不可能辦得到的

  • Back to this spectrum.

    回頭看這張圖表

  • So what's happening is, we had the yuck side,

    所以呢,我們能說"爛透了"

  • but we actually had this real wow side.

    而且我們也能大聲說"太棒了"

  • And I can tell you two great stories.

    我來跟你們分享兩個很棒的故事

  • A driver was telling me that they went to rent a car

    有個駕駛人告訴我,他們想租一輛車

  • to go up the coast of France and the owner gave it to them,

    開去法國海岸,然後車主把車交給他們

  • and said, "You know what, here's where the cliffs are,

    然後說:"你知道嗎,懸崖就那裡"

  • and here's all the beaches, and this is my best beach,

    "還有很多海灘,這是我最愛的海灘"

  • and this is where the best fish restaurant is."

    "還有這是最好的海鮮餐廳的地址。"

  • And the peers also become,

    所以同儕交易也變成

  • peers and owners create relationships,

    租車者和擁有者共創的關係

  • and so at the last minute people can --

    因此在緊急時刻,人們可以

  • a driver can say, "Hey, you know what, I really need the car,

    駕駛可以說:"你好,你知道嗎,我真的需要這輛車

  • is it available?" And that person will say,

    可以出租嗎?” 然後車主會說

  • "Sure, my wife's at home. Go pick up the keys. Go do it."

    "當然,我妻子在家,去拿鑰匙吧。去吧。"

  • So you can have these really nice things that can't happen,

    所以我們讓這些不可思議的好事發生了

  • and it's a kind of "Wow!" and I want to say "Wow!"

    這是一種"太棒了!",我也想說"太棒了!"

  • type of thing that's happening here, because individuals,

    之所以會發生這種事,都是因為這裡有各式各樣的人

  • if you're a company, what happens is you might have

    如果你擁有的是一家公司,你手下也許有

  • 10 people who are in charge of innovation,

    十個負責創意的員工

  • or 100 people who are in charge of innovation.

    或是是一百個負責創意的員工

  • What happens in Peer, Inc. companies is that you have

    在「同儕交易」公司裡,你有的是

  • tens and hundreds and thousands and even millions

    幾十幾百幾千個,甚至上百萬個人

  • of people who are creating experiments on this model,

    用這種模式創造新體驗

  • and so out of all that influence and that effort,

    你所擁有的,如此豐富的創造力

  • you are having this exceptional amount of innovation

    憑藉的是這種模式的影響力和努力

  • that is coming out.

    才使其得以成真

  • So one of the reasons, if we come back to why did I

    當初為什麼將公司取名 Buzzcar 呢?

  • call it Buzzcar? I wanted to remind all of us

    至於我們這麼做的原因之一,先請大家回想一下

  • about the power of the hive,

    蜂巢有何驚人之處

  • and its incredible facility to create this platform

    牠們以不可思議的純熟技法來建造蜂巢

  • that individuals want to participate and innovate on.

    每個個體都想參與改造與創新

  • And for me, when I think about our future,

    在我看來,當我想到我們的未來

  • and all of those problems that seem incredibly large,

    所有的問題似乎都非常棘手

  • the scale is impossible, the urgency is there,

    規模似乎大到不可能解決,危機迫在眉梢

  • Peers, Inc. provides the speed and scale

    「同儕交易」公司提供的效率和規模

  • and the innovation and the creativity that is going to answer these problems.

    還有創意和創造力,將可以解決這些問題

  • All we have to do is create a fabulous platform for participation -- nontrivial.

    我們所要做的就是創造一個非常棒的媒合平台 -- 而且還很複雜

  • So I continue to think that

    我不斷地思索著

  • transportation is the center of the hard universe.

    交通運輸是解決這難題的關鍵

  • All problems come back to transportation for me.

    我認為所有問題都會回到交通運輸

  • But there are all these other areas that are these profound,

    但是每個領域都遇到這種艱鉅的挑戰

  • big problems that I know that we can work on,

    我知道我們可以克服這些問題

  • and people are working on them in many different sectors,

    各方人馬也在努力尋求解決之道

  • but there's this really fabulous group of things

    而我們「同儕交易」公司的模式

  • with the power of this Peers, Inc. model.

    真的讓許多美妙無比的事實現了

  • So over the last decade, we've been reveling in

    所以,過去的十多年我們陶醉在網路的威力

  • the power of the Internet and how it's empowered individuals,

    以及網路如何使個人用戶如虎添翼

  • and for me, what Peers, Inc. does

    對我來說,「同儕交易」公司的作為是

  • is it takes it up a notch. We're now bringing the power

    它將這種力量提升了一個等級。現在我們能把

  • of the company and the corporation

    公司和企業的能量

  • and supercharging individuals.

    灌注在個人,使其更有威力

  • So for me, it's a collaboration.

    所以對我來說,這才是合作。

  • Together, we can. (Applause)

    我們一起,我們辦得到。(掌聲)

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝大家。(掌聲)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

譯者: Grace Tung 審譯者: Ho-chung Chou

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 公司 同儕 交易 平台 保險

【TED】羅賓-蔡斯。對不起,我可以租你的車嗎?(羅賓-蔡斯:對不起,我可以租你的車嗎?) (【TED】Robin Chase: Excuse me, may I rent your car? (Robin Chase: Excuse me, may I rent your car?))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字