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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    譯者: Anny Chung 審譯者: 盧 曉天

  • When I was considering a career in the art world,

    正當我打算投入藝術事業時

  • I took a course in London,

    我在倫敦修了一門課

  • and one of my supervisors was this irascible Italian

    其中一名老師 是位個性焦躁的義大利人

  • called Pietro, who drank too much,

    叫做 Pietro

  • smoked too much and swore much too much.

    他常喝酒、常抽菸 髒話也罵得有夠多

  • But he was a passionate teacher,

    但他是個極富熱忱的教師

  • and I remember one of our earlier classes with him,

    有一次上課

  • he was projecting images on the wall,

    他把圖片投影在牆上

  • asking us to think about them,

    並要我們思索圖中含意

  • and he put up an image of a painting.

    其中一張是一幅畫

  • It was a landscape with figures, semi-dressed,

    一幅風景圖 有一些半裸體的人在喝酒

  • drinking wine. There was a nude woman

    前景下方

  • in the lower foreground, and on the hillside in the back,

    有一位裸女 而後方的山丘邊上

  • there was a figure of the mythological god Bacchus,

    畫著希臘神話中的酒神Bacchus

  • and he said, "What is this?"

    老師問道 "這是什麼?"

  • And I -- no one else did, so I put up my hand, and I said,

    因為沒人回答,我就舉手說:

  • "It's a Bacchanal by Titian."

    "這是提香所繪的《酒神節》(Bacchanal)"

  • He said, "It's a what?"

    他說:"是什麼?"

  • I thought maybe I'd pronounced it wrong.

    我以為是發音錯了

  • "It's a Bacchanal by Titian."

    "這是提香的《ㄐㄧㄡ神節》"

  • He said, "It's a what?"

    他又說:"是什麼?"

  • I said, "It's a Bacchanal by Titian." (Laughter)

    我說:"這是提香的《ㄑㄧㄡˊ 神節》" (笑聲)

  • He said, "You boneless bookworm!

    他說:"你這個書呆子!"

  • It's a fucking orgy!"

    "這他媽的叫做多P派對!"

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • As I said, he swore too much.

    如我所說,他髒話掛嘴邊

  • There was an important lesson for me in that.

    從中,我學到寶貴的一課

  • Pietro was suspicious of formal art training,

    Pietro 對正規 藝術教育 和 藝術史教育 很不以為然

  • art history training, because he feared

    因為他認為

  • that it filled people up with jargon, and then they just

    這麼一來 人們的腦袋只會充滿專有名詞

  • classified things rather than looking at them,

    讓大家學會分門別類 忽略如何欣賞

  • and he wanted to remind us that all art was once contemporary,

    他想要提醒我們所有的藝術曾經都很 "現代"

  • and he wanted us to use our eyes,

    他希望我們用自己的眼睛

  • and he was especially evangelical about this message,

    也特別強調

  • because he was losing his sight.

    因為他的視力已經開始退化

  • He wanted us to look and ask basic questions of objects.

    他希望我們多觀察 問的問題越單純越好

  • What is it? How is it made? Why was it made?

    這是什麼? 是怎麼做的?為什麼要做?

  • How is it used?

    如何使用?

  • And these were important lessons to me when

    這堂課帶給我的觀念

  • I subsequently became a professional art historian.

    在我成為專業的藝術史學家之後 依然中用

  • My kind of eureka moment came a few years later,

    幾年之後,我茅塞頓開

  • when I was studying the art of the courts of Northern Europe,

    當時我正研究北歐宮廷藝術

  • and of course it was very much discussed in terms of

    當然這其中所討論的大多是

  • the paintings and the sculptures

    畫作、雕刻

  • and the architecture of the day.

    還有當代的建築

  • But as I began to read historical documents

    但當我開始閱讀史料

  • and contemporary descriptions,

    和當代的介紹時

  • I found there was a kind of a missing component,

    我發現有一樣東西不見了

  • for everywhere I came across descriptions of tapestries.

    我在史料中到處可見壁毯的記載

  • Tapestries were ubiquitous between the Middle Ages

    壁毯在中世紀是隨處可見的

  • and, really, well into the 18th century,

    一直到18世紀都是如此

  • and it was pretty apparent why.

    原因挺明顯的

  • Tapestries were portable. You could roll them up,

    因為壁毯可以隨身攜帶

  • send them ahead of you, and in the time

    簡單又方便 只要掛到牆上

  • it took to hang them up, you could transform a cold,

    就可以讓又冷又暗的房間

  • dank interior into a richly colored setting.

    瞬間充滿色彩

  • Tapestries effectively provided a vast canvas

    壁毯是一幅巨大的畫布

  • on which the patrons of the day could depict the heroes

    畫布上大多刻畫著

  • with whom they wanted to be associated,

    他們所喜愛的英雄們

  • or even themselves,

    甚至是自己的肖像

  • and in addition to that, tapestries were hugely expensive.

    此外,壁毯是非常昂貴的東西

  • They required scores of highly skilled weavers

    每一條都是靠大量精熟的織工

  • working over extended periods of time

    花很多時間做成的

  • with very expensive materials -- the wools, the silks,

    選用上好的羊毛和蠶絲製作

  • even gold and silver thread.

    有的甚至織入金線銀線

  • So, all in all, in an age when the visual image

    所以

  • of any kind was rare, tapestries were an incredibly potent

    在任何視覺圖像都很稀有的時代

  • form of propaganda.

    壁毯成為極具影響力的宣傳工具

  • Well, I became a tapestry historian.

    我也因緣際會成為壁毯史學家

  • In due course, I ended up as a curator

    後來 我到大都會美術館擔任策展人

  • at the Metropolitan Museum, because I saw the Met

    因為我認為

  • as one of the few places where I could organize

    這個機會世上少有

  • really big exhibitions about the subject

    我可以策劃各種我喜歡的大型特展

  • I cared so passionately about.

    探討我最熱愛主題

  • And in about 1997, the then-director Philippe de Montebello

    1997年時 那時的館長Phlippe de Montebello

  • gave me the go-ahead to organize an exhibition

    要我開始籌備2002年的特展

  • for 2002. We normally have these very long lead-in times.

    這種特展 因為牽扯到許多環節

  • It wasn't straightforward. It's no longer a question

    往往要提早很長一段時間籌備

  • of chucking a tapestry in the back of a car.

    譬如說 不能直接把壁毯扔進貨車

  • They have to be wound on huge rollers,

    得用巨大的捲筒捲起來

  • shipped in oversized freighters.

    並用特大號的貨輪運送

  • Some of them are so big we had, to get them into the museum,

    有些壁毯大到無法扛進美術館

  • we had to take them up the great steps at the front.

    從正門的大石階才得其門而入

  • We thought very hard about how to present this

    我們費盡心思

  • unknown subject to a modern audience:

    試圖呈現這幅壁毯的意境

  • the dark colors to set off the colors that remained

    用較暗色的背景和褪色的物品形成對比

  • in objects that were often faded;

    顯現主題的色彩

  • the placing of lights to bring out the silk and the gold thread;

    運用燈光

  • the labeling.

    來襯托蠶絲與金線

  • You know, we live in an age where we are so used

    你知道嗎?

  • to television images and photographs,

    現代人太依賴電視影像、照片和照片

  • a one-hit image. These were big, complex things,

    壁毯這種又大又複雜的東西

  • almost like cartoons with multiple narratives.

    就像有多種角色扮演的卡通

  • We had to draw our audience in, get them to slow down,

    我們必須吸引觀眾 讓他們放慢步調

  • to explore the objects.

    慢慢探索這些藝術品

  • There was a lot of skepticism. On the opening night,

    縱使面臨許多質疑的聲浪

  • I overheard one of the senior members of staff saying,

    特展第一天 我偷聽到一位資深的工作人員說

  • "This is going to be a bomb."

    "這樣沒搞頭!"

  • But in reality, in the course of the coming weeks and months,

    但事實上 在接下來的幾個月

  • hundreds of thousands of people came to see the show.

    成千上萬民眾接踵而至

  • The exhibition was designed to be an experience,

    展覽的設計讓觀眾身歷其境

  • and tapestries are hard to reproduce in photographs.

    而且壁毯很難以照片的形式呈現

  • So I want you to use your imaginations,

    所以我想請你們運用想像力

  • thinking of these wall-high objects,

    想像這些跟牆一樣高的東西

  • some of them 10 meters wide,

    有些寬達10米

  • depicting lavish court scenes with courtiers and dandies

    刻畫著金碧輝煌的宮廷景象 和穿著華麗的紈褲子弟

  • who would look quite at home in the pages of the fashion press today,

    若出現在今日的流行雜誌 也不會奇怪

  • thick woods with hunters crashing through the undergrowth

    茂密的樹林中 獵人在樹叢中披荊斬棘

  • in pursuit of wild boars and deer,

    緊追著野豬和鹿群

  • violent battles with scenes of fear and heroism.

    血腥戰場上的恐懼與英雄氣概

  • I remember taking my son's school class. He was eight at the time,

    我記得我帶兒子的班上參觀 他當時八歲

  • and all the little boys, they kind of -- you know, they were little boys,

    而那些小男孩 你也知道的,小男生都這樣

  • and then the thing that caught their attention

    他們的最專注的東西

  • was in one of the hunting scenes there was a dog

    是一幅狩獵景象裡 其中有隻狗

  • pooping in the foreground — (Laughter) —

    在前景中大便(笑聲)

  • kind of an in-your-face joke by the artist.

    有點像是藝術家故意的小笑話

  • And you can just imagine them.

    你可想樣小朋友的反應

  • But it brought it alive to them. I think they suddenly saw

    但這使的整個展覽鮮活了起來 我想他們忽然發現

  • that these weren't just old faded tapestries.

    這些並不只是褪色的壁毯

  • These were images of the world in the past,

    這些影像捕捉已過去的世界

  • and that it was the same for our audience.

    忠實地呈現在過去與現代的觀眾眼前

  • And for me as a curator, I felt proud. I felt I'd shifted the needle a little.

    身為策展人,我感到很驕傲 我覺得我有那麼些影響力

  • Through this experience that could only be created

    透過這個只有在美術博物館 才能製造的經驗

  • in a museum, I'd opened up the eyes of my audience --

    我讓觀眾開了眼界

  • historians, artists, press, the general public --

    讓歷史學家、藝術家,和社會大眾

  • to the beauty of this lost medium.

    有機會欣賞這已失去的介質的美麗

  • A few years later, I was invited to be the director

    幾年後 我受邀成為美術館的館長

  • of the museum, and after I got over that --

    在我自當下的不可置信: "蛤?我嗎?"

  • "Who, me? The tapestry geek? I don't wear a tie!" --

    "那個壁毯怪咖?我是不打領帶的!" 反應過來之後

  • I realized the fact: I believe passionately in that

    我看清事實:我熱忱地相信

  • curated museum experience.

    博物館經驗的力量

  • We live in an age of ubiquitous information,

    我們生活的時代中資訊無所不在

  • and sort of "just add water" expertise,

    專業知識簡便地像即溶咖啡

  • but there's nothing that compares with the presentation

    但是沒有任何東西比得過

  • of significant objects in a well-told narrative,

    已引人入勝的故事呈獻深具意義的物品

  • what the curator does, the interpretation of a complex,

    策展人的任務是解釋一個複雜

  • esoteric subject, in a way that retains the integrity

    深奧的主題 並同時保持主題的完整性

  • of the subject, that makes it -- unpacks it

    但是想辦法將謎團拆開

  • for a general audience.

    使普通觀眾能夠親近

  • And that, to me, today, is now the challenge and the fun

    而對我來說 那正是我的工作的有趣

  • of my job, supporting the vision of my curators,

    及挑戰之處 如何支持我的策展同仁的願景

  • whether it's an exhibition of Samurai swords,

    不管是展出日本武士刀

  • early Byzantine artifacts, Renaissance portraits,

    早期拜占廷文物、文藝復興肖像

  • or the show we heard mentioned earlier,

    或是之前有提過的特展

  • the McQueen show, with which we enjoyed

    也就是去年暑假很成功的

  • so much success last summer.

    設計師麥昆的展覽

  • That was an interesting case.

    那其實是很有趣的案例

  • In the late spring, early summer of 2010, shortly after

    在2010年的春末夏初時

  • McQueen's suicide,

    於麥昆自殺過後不久

  • our curator of costume, Andrew Bolton, came to see me,

    我們的服裝策展人 Andrew Bolton來見我

  • and said, "I've been thinking of doing a show on McQueen,

    他說 "我已經想要計畫麥昆特展一陣子了"

  • and now is the moment. We have to, we have to do it fast."

    "而現在正是時機" "我們一定得做,而且要快"

  • It wasn't easy. McQueen had worked throughout his career

    這並不簡單 麥昆畢生僅與少數幾名

  • with a small team of designers and managers

    經紀人和設計團隊合作

  • who were very protective of his legacy,

    他們很保護麥昆留下的作品

  • but Andrew went to London and worked with them

    但Andrew去了倫敦一趟

  • over the summer and won their confidence, and that of

    並與他們一共事了一個暑假

  • the designers who created his amazing fashion shows,

    贏得一些設計師的信賴 他們曾策劃麥昆驚人的服裝秀

  • which were works of performance art in their own right,

    單是這些秀就可說是表演藝術的作品

  • and we proceeded to do something at the museum,

    而我們一同於大都會美術館

  • I think, we've never done before.

    做了我們不曾做過的事

  • It wasn't just your standard installation.

    這不是正常的藝術安裝

  • In fact, we ripped down the galleries to recreate

    事實上,我們把各展廳給拆了

  • entirely different settings, a recreation of his first studio,

    創造完全不同的佈景 像是重造他第一個工作室

  • a hall of mirrors,

    一個鏡面長廊

  • a curiosity box,

    一個百寶箱

  • a sunken ship, a burned-out interior,

    一艘沈船、火災肆虐後的室內

  • with videos and soundtracks that ranged from

    加上各式錄音和錄影帶

  • operatic arias to pigs fornicating.

    從歌劇詠嘆調到豬在交配的畫面

  • And in this extraordinary setting, the costumes

    而在這誇張的佈景中,那些服裝

  • were like actors and actresses, or living sculptures.

    有如演員或是活生生的雕像一般

  • It could have been a train wreck.

    這一切都有可能是悲劇收場

  • It could have looked like shop windows on Fifth Avenue

    可能看起來像聖誕節 第五大道的展示窗一樣

  • at Christmas, but because of the way that Andrew

    但由於Andrew和麥昆的團隊

  • connected with the McQueen team, he was channeling

    關係密切。他有辦法汲取呈現

  • the rawness and the brilliance of McQueen,

    麥昆野蠻並令人驚奇的設計風格

  • and the show was quite transcendant,

    結果展出超越所有期望

  • and it became a phenomenon in its own right.

    不只是展出的時裝 而是展覽本身吸引大批群眾

  • By the end of the show, we had people queuing

    到了最後展覽接近尾聲時

  • for four or five hours to get into the show,

    有些民眾排隊四、五小時才得進場

  • but no one really complained.

    但沒有人抱怨

  • I heard over and over again, "Wow, that was worth it.

    我一再聽見 "哇!這真是值得"

  • It was a such a visceral, emotive experience."

    "這真是個扣人心弦的經驗"

  • Now, I've described two very immersive exhibitions,

    現在 我講了兩個令人身臨其境的展覽

  • but I also believe that collections, individual objects,

    但我也相信收藏和個別的展示品

  • can also have that same power.

    也能有相同的效果

  • The Met was set up not as a museum of American art,

    大都會美術館的成立宗旨 並不只是為了收藏美國藝術

  • but of an encyclopedic museum,

    而是要成為一個包羅萬象的博物館

  • and today, 140 years later, that vision

    而140年後的今日

  • is as prescient as ever,

    那個願景的先見之明 一如過往

  • because, of course, we live in a world of crisis,

    這是因為 我們生活在一個充滿危機的世界

  • of challenge, and we're exposed to it

    處處有著挑戰 而且經由二十四小時的新聞頻道

  • through the 24/7 newsreels.

    時時刻刻地接觸這些危機

  • It's in our galleries that we can unpack the civilizations,

    唯有於展廳之內 我們才有辦法解開文明的奧妙

  • the cultures, that we're seeing the current manifestation of.

    認識日常所見的新文化

  • Whether it's Libya, Egypt, Syria,

    無論是利比亞、埃及、敘利亞

  • it's in our galleries that we can explain

    在我們的展廳之中都能予以解讀

  • and give greater understanding.

    並帶來更完整的認識

  • I mean, our new Islamic galleries are a case in point,

    我是說 我們的伊斯蘭展廳就是個好例子

  • opened 10 years, almost to the week, after 9/11.

    它於9/11事件十周年時開放

  • I think for most Americans, knowledge of the Islamic world

    我想對於多數美國人 對於伊斯蘭世界的認識

  • was pretty slight before 9/11, and then it was thrust upon us

    在9/11之前是極淺的 然後這課題卻在

  • in one of America's darkest hours,

    美國史上最黑暗的時刻 猛然於我們肩上扛下

  • and the perception was through the polarization

    大家對於伊斯蘭文化的觀感

  • of that terrible event.

    透過那悲慘的事件而兩極化

  • Now, in our galleries, we show 14 centuries

    現在,在我們的展廳之中

  • of the development of different Islamic cultures

    我們展示伊斯蘭文化 十四個世紀以來的演變

  • across a vast geographic spread,

    並涵蓋廣泛的地理範圍

  • and, again, hundreds of thousands of people have come

    再一次的 已有數十萬的民眾前來參觀

  • to see these galleries since they opened last October.

    這些去年十月開放的展覽廳

  • I'm often asked, "Is digital media replacing the museum?"

    常有人問我: "數位媒體會取代美術館嗎?"

  • and I think those numbers are a resounding rejection

    我認為這些參展數據堅決否定此說

  • of that notion. I mean, don't get me wrong,

    我是說,不要誤會我的意思

  • I'm a huge advocate of the Web.

    我很倡導網際網路

  • It gives us a way of reaching out to audiences

    它使我們有辦法接觸全世界的觀眾

  • around the globe, but nothing replaces the authenticity

    但沒有任何東西能夠取代

  • of the object presented with passionate scholarship.

    經熱誠的學問呈現的物品的真實性

  • Bringing people face to face with our objects

    當人們和展品面對面接觸時

  • is a way of bringing them face to face with people

    就像是和其他人面對面接觸

  • across time, across space, whose lives may have been

    超越時空 接觸這些生命與我們截然不同

  • very different to our own, but who, like us,

    卻和我們所有人一樣

  • had hopes and dreams, frustrations and achievements

    擁有希望和夢想 挫折與成就的人生

  • in their lives. And I think this is a process

    我認為這個過程

  • that helps us better understand ourselves,

    能使我們更加了解自己

  • helps us make better decisions about where we're going.

    並幫助我們在未來 做出更好的決策

  • The Great Hall at the Met is one of the great portals of the world,

    大都會美術館的大廳 是個舉世無雙的通道

  • awe-inspiring, like a medieval cathedral.

    凜然如中古世紀的大教堂

  • From there, you can walk in any direction

    從這裡, 你可以往任何一個方向前進

  • to almost any culture.

    邁向任何一種文化

  • I frequently go out into the hall and the galleries

    我時常到大廳和展示廳裡

  • and I watch our visitors coming in.

    看著我們的訪客進出

  • Some of them are comfortable. They feel at home.

    有些人看起來自在 就像在自家一般

  • They know what they're looking for.

    他們知道自己所追尋的昰什麼

  • Others are very uneasy. It's an intimidating place.

    其他人看起來不太自在 這是個令人卻步的地方

  • They feel that the institution is elitist.

    他們感到這個機構是只屬於菁英文化

  • I'm working to try and break down that sense of that elitism.

    我正努力的破除這個概念

  • I want to put people in a contemplative frame of mind,

    我想要讓觀眾陷入沉思的心境

  • where they're prepared to be a little bit lost, to explore,

    讓他們願意迷路、願意探索

  • to see the unfamiliar in the familiar,

    在熟悉中看見新穎之處